The main objectives of that foreign military experts confer on mobile facilities maintenance and repair of vehicles are maintaining vehicles in constant readiness for use; recovery efficiency of cars damaged during the battle (operation); assisting drivers (crews) in the implementation of time-consuming and complex operations for maintenance and current repairs in the field.
In times of peace and in times of local wars in the armies of the capitalist countries provided use mobile workshops, designed and manufactured under special orders of the military departments and included in the respective states of repair. However, I believe that in the course of large-scale war is inevitable military use a significant amount of commercial mobile workshops used in peacetime for the repair and maintenance of motor vehicles, road construction and other firms. Currently .For abroad, intensive work on improving existing and developing new models of mobile means for the maintenance and repair of vehicles.
Available to supply the armies of a number of capitalist countries workshops on functional purpose conventionally divided into two main groups: universal, designed to perform complex maintenance and repair of vehicles, and specialized, are adapted only for certain types of work, such as lubricants, diagnostic, mechanical, welders, tire mounting.
Create advanced models of the workshops is usually carried out in parallel with the development of vehicles subject to maintenance and repair, and on the basis of their basic models. In this widely used by the most advanced technologically component parts (for example, chassis, vans, machining and testing equipment, measuring instruments and diagnostic tool), produced not only for themselves, but also in other countries.
One of the main features of the process of developing the workshops is a broad unification of commercial samples. This process is carried out, usually by the manufacturer and applies to all major parts of the workshops. Use single transport facilities, including the vehicle chassis and body-van and do not require significant improvements. In most of the changes are associated with a more elongated frames and installation of specialized vans with removable or folding walls.
Another characteristic trend is the use of vans that can be mounted on all types of vehicles — cars, semi-trailers and trailers. At the same time as the chassis it is not only the special wheel-drive cars, but commercial. It is believed that this allows a large extent reduce the material costs for the repair of equipment. A typical example of such design decisions can serve as a West German workshops for performing tire works and operations for refueling cars and other road-building machinery oil, grease, fuel, air and special fluids. As a chassis similar workshop can be used as a type of commercial truck, trailer and truck. Thus chassis of this type can not be practically workshops refinement compared to series production.
Along the perimeter of the floor of the loading platform chassis instead of a studio boards mounted metal frame designed to accommodate ukryvochnogo tent. On the cover sheet corrugated aluminum floor installed capacity (usually metal 200-liter drums) for fuel, fresh and waste motor and gear oils, connected by pipelines to drain the system of mechanized and dosed fuel and oil. Workshops of this type are also equipped with lifting devices with manual drive for loading and unloading containers. In addition, there are a small compressor and the electric power device.
LCV modern mobile workshops a number of capitalist countries, most of them have reclining side walls and are usually equipped with additional decks and sloping sidewalls that allows you to organize additional jobs or expand the existing area. For the same reason some types of vans run sliding.
For funds autotechnical software such as the Bundeswehr, increasingly are being applied Swap body special purpose. In addition, the vans of some universal studios equipped with devices allowing for a short time to install the supplied canopies of waterproof fabric to protect against precipitation professionals working outside the box body.
Outside vans usually covered by a profiled sheet aluminum, and in — reinforced polyester sheathing and insulating layer have a thickness up to 100 mm of rigid polyurethane. LCV of this design require no maintenance, can be easily removed from the chassis and, if necessary, can be replaced. For example, in West German shops are equipped with an efficient heating system is sufficient. The temperature regime in them is maintained automatically. It was reported that the insulation of vans and powerful heating system provides operational equipment workshops at ambient temperatures up to -60 ° C.
In recent years abroad for equipment and mobile facilities repair becoming more common autonomous body containers and containers. They are divided into universal, special, specialized in mobile and modular.
It is believed that the ‘bodies through the use of mobile containers is increased maneuverability of troops, significantly reduced the duration of the deployment of repair units, reduces the amount of engineering work. The size and weight of the containers are selected in accordance with the carrying capacity and dimensions of vehicles.
In the US, the largest producer of such containers and auxiliary equipment to them is a firm «Craig Systems.» For finishing the inner surfaces are applied monolithic lining material, the outer skin is made of aluminum coated with polyurethane. There is the possibility of a relevant change in the nomenclature of the equipment established on the basis of the same container of various purpose and possibilities of the workshops.
Japanese firms’ Magita «to create mobile workshops using standard rail or sea containers. This allows them to be used for transportation of a wide range of vehicles.
West German experts have developed a container with dimensions 6,1 X 2,5 X 2,4 m and a total weight of 8 tons. It is installed on the MAN 27365 VFAE and secured using standard fasteners. Between the cab and bodywork container lifting device is placed with a hydraulic or electric drive. Body container has a steel frame and sandwich side panels with a thickness of 50 mm. The roof is tilted during loading and unloading. The installation of the generator and air conditioning.
Created as a body-shop container total weight of 9 tons. The steel frame mounted three-layer side panels with a thickness of 40 mm. For the supply of electricity and compressed air provided diesel-electric generator.
Identify the right mix of equipment universal and specialized workshops, foreign experts do not seek to ensure that the total volume of works on maintenance and repair of vehicles, as this would require to implement complex workflows, and set out to restore the lost performance of those products, which is necessary to make a small amount of work .
With this in mind the universal workshops typically include diagnostics tools to assess the technical condition of piston group of engines, pneumatic-hydraulic systems, cooling systems and electrical equipment, mechanical transmissions. These tools are usually portable, have minor weight and dimensions and simple enough to use, has high reliability, adapted for use in a wide range of air temperatures.
The mobile workshop equipment are widely used for various types of lifting devices. But jib cranes with manual transmission and Monorails are mainly used for loading and unloading of remote equipment, storage tanks for oil and fuel, and in very rare cases, to replace the units repaired machines. Basically exchange units repaired vehicles manufactured by means of hydraulic cranes. It is believed that this allows you to reduce metal workshops and improve the reliability of their work. Driving workshop usually involves the use of a pump to drive the hydraulic lifting equipment and winches.
It is reported that the power of consumers workshops carried out both by its own electrical (motor-driven base unit or stand-alone), and the external power supply. However, the greatest use is made of autonomous power (electric units) of various capacities with drive from internal combustion engines. To drive the electric welding equipment, compressors and power tools used as standalone units. This allows, according to foreign experts, largely accelerate the creation of new workshops, to extend the range of their application, to simplify the replacement of chassis technology and save the resource base engine.
The structure of universal studios necessarily include equipment for gas and manual arc welding and cutting metals. The power supply when performing these operations using welding transformers or generators driven, usually by an internal combustion engine.
The equipment of all universal and most specialized workshops is composed of metal-cutting machines. So, in universal studios of West German firms «Mat-ha» and «RAU» compact set, mainly tokarnovintoreznye desktop machines with manual control, which can be made small-sized rollers, shafts, hardware, as well as for mechanical surface treatment of small parts. In addition, these workshops are equipped with desktop grinding machines, tripod, allows using fixed on these drills to drill holes with a diameter of 20 mm.
Specialized repair and mechanical workshops include in its membership the universal machine tools, as a rule, with more technological capabilities. For example, a mechanical-repair workshop of the company «Orenstein and Koppel» (Germany) has a screw-cutting lathe that allows for machining workpieces with a maximum diameter of 400 mm and a length of 1000 mm, a universal drilling and milling machine for planes, grooves in workpieces having significant dimensions, drilling holes in them, threading and grinding machines, designed for sharpening cutting tools.
Further improvement of the mobile workshop is on the way of their unification with the commercial samples, the widespread introduction of advanced technological equipment and technical diagnostics.