The problem of the complicated dialogue of the child; presents the author’s classification of communicative difficulties card (basic, content, tools, reflective); psychocorrectional skazkoterapii identified potentials; It presents the results of empirical studies confirming the efficiency skazkoterapii in overcoming communication difficulties younger students.
To the question «What is the difficulty in communication?» Seven year old girl said: «It is bad when a person first, sadly, he did not want to, then have lots of work to anyone not to quarrel. And that my heart was fine and wanted to talk again …. » Judging by the response, which reflects the subjective experience of the child, a girl has experience difficulty communicating.
Currently, communication is an important natural condition of social development, it is often a traumatic factor causing children stress, intrapersonal experiences, low self-esteem, destructive and protective forms of communicative behavior (according to our data, more than 70% of modern younger schoolchildren and adolescents testify to this fact ).
To date, social psychology has accumulated rich material, which discusses the issue of communication hindered adult person; identifies the classification of communicative difficulties, the criteria and the structure of the complicated communication (EV Tsukanov, AA Bodalev, GA Kovalev, V. Kunitsyn, VA Labunskaya, Yu Mendzheritsky, EG . Somov, and others.). However, not hindered studied the phenomenology of communication and types of communication difficulties individuals who begin to form in the early stages of ontogeny.
In developmental psychology extensively discusses the ontogenesis of child communication (MI Lisin, LF Obukhov, RM Granovskaya, IN Nicholas, Kon, YB Gippenreiter, KN Polivanova, TA Repin et al.), but the problem is not enough dezontogeneza communicative development of children; conditions, methods to overcome and prevent communication problems.
Studying more than fifteen years the specifics of dialogue of preschool children, school children and younger adolescents, we came to the conclusion that the child’s difficulty in communication — is the process of disturbed interaction between people, which prevents the effective solution of problems of communication; coupled with the emergence of subjective experiences of its participants; incomprehension of partners of each other; adverse changes in interpersonal relationships; actualization of destructive interference patterns.
Essential criteria difficulty of communication is the appearance of its participants communication difficulties — different in strength and degree of objective and subjective obstacles experienced communications that violate the internal balance of the subject (subjects) of communication requiring partners of efforts to overcome them.
In a situation of difficulty communicating communication difficulties may arise in the communication of all participants, or one of the partners. On this basis, we distinguish between three spheres of communication hindered the spread:
1. Subjective hindered communication space («hard for me») -Various kinds of negative internal feelings of the subject of communication arising in the course of or as a result of communication (the frustration of needs, the feeling of incompetence, inferiority, resentment, anger, motivational, cognitive, emotional dissonance, intrapersonal conflicts and etc.). The higher the degree of awareness of the difficulties of communication, the more differentiated are the inner experiences of the child;
2. Objective space hindered communication («another difficult») — apparently Apparent failure of the communicative process of the child, expressed in inappropriate situations communicative behavior; in destructive ways to influence a partner. Internal negative experiences in the present case, the child does not feel, and does not perceive itself as a source of difficulty for the communication partners; he is not aware, and does not accept its communicative failure, and, respectively, and do not perceive the situation as difficulties;
3. The subjective-objective space hindered communication («hard all») — inadequate communicative behavior, destructive effect on the partner, the impossibility of self-realization and self-expression in the communicative situation of the child concerned and cause negative feelings, intrapersonal conflict, frustration, self-perception as a «difficult partner «. Or, on the contrary, the traumatic experience of domestic actualize destructive-protective forms of communicative behavior, making it difficult for partners.
Attempts to create a classification of communicative difficulties repeatedly been made in the domestic social psychology. So, BD Parigin, for example, are two types of socio-psychological barriers: the internal barriers of personality associated with such entities as norms, attitudes, values and personal characteristics such as rigidity, conformity, weakness, etc .; barriers, the cause of which is the individual: a lack of understanding on the part of another person, lack of information, etc.
EV Zalyubovskiy in a pilot study has identified the operational motivation and individually-psychological and socio-psychological barriers that have varying degrees of representation in mind. We are talking about the barriers associated with personality, the basic characteristics of the subject of communication; and barriers that arise in the tool level, i.e. in the immediate communicative contact.
VN Kunitsyn reveals the difficulties of communication for various reasons: for meaningful and functional characteristics: «subjectively experienced by» and «objective»; of causation: primary and secondary difficulties difficulties. More detailed classification difficulties of communication for various reasons we find in the VA study Labunskiy, Y. Mendzheritsky and ED Breus, who in addition to objective and subjective, primary and secondary difficulties allocate conscious and unconscious; situational and sustainable; cross-cultural and cultural-specific; common age and gender; individual psychological, personal, social and psychological; cognitive-emotional, motivational, instrumental; social and perceptual, communicative, interactive; verbal and nonverbal.
YI Cousin believes that the subject is experiencing difficulty communicating deviations in all components of communicative activity: behavioral, affective, cognitive, value-semantic levels.
On the one hand, the distinction between communication difficulties on diverse grounds gives you the opportunity to present various relief characteristics and nuances of communication difficulties arising in communication; On the other hand, complicates the study of communication hindered because It requires a careful examination of all aspects of the personality of the child and of the communicative process.
Trying to integrate the existing classification of communicative difficulties and generalization of the results of years of research the specifics of children’s difficulty of communication has enabled us to establish a classification of communicative difficulties of the child, consisting of four groups: basic, meaningful, instrumental and reflexive difficulties.
For basic communicative difficulties of the child we refer difficulties making contact; the difficulty of empathy; difficulties associated with children’s egocentrism; with the absence of a positive attitude toward the other person; with inadequate self-esteem of the child; with increased emotional and personal dependence on partners in communication. For meaningful communicative difficulties of the child’s difficulties are related to the lack of communication of knowledge; the difficulty of forecasting; planning; self-control; communication adjustment program. Instrumental communication difficulties are manifested in the inability of the child to effectively put into practice the planned program of communicative action. This class challenges include verbal, non-verbal, prosodic, extralinguistic difficulties; the difficulty of building a dialogue. By reflexive communicative difficulties of the child’s difficulties are self-analysis, self-observation, self-expression, self-change.
Numerous hindered communication situation in which there are a variety of communication difficulties accumulate in the child negative communicative experience, distort his self-concept, actualize destructive, maladaptive strategies of interaction, ie, inhibit the development of the child as the subject of communication.
Proceeding from the postulate that the child has a communicative behavior evolving behavior, we consider the possibility of psychological support to overcome the current difficulties of communication of the child; Learning effective methods of self-control, self-expression and communicating; psychological assistance in discovering the communicative potential of the child. Our studies have shown the effectiveness of using skazkoterapii in solving communication problems younger students.
Psychocorrectional and psychotherapeutic potential tales marked by many foreign (Erich Fromm, E. Byrne, E. Gardner, A. Meneghetti et al.) And domestic scientists (AI Zakharov, TD-Zinkevich Evstigneeva, IV Vachkov, TY Kaloshina, ON Rudanova, MV Osorina, EI Sinitsyn, DJ Sokolov, TN Shcherbakov et al.).
According to ETC Zinkevich-Evstigneeva, skazkoterapiya — is the process of finding meaning, deciphering knowledge about the world and the system of relations within it. In fact, when you start to consider a story from different points of view on different levels, it appears that fairy stories provide information about the dynamics of life processes. In fairy tales, you can find a complete list of human problems and imaginative, divergent ways of solving them. Listening to the tale, a person accumulates in the unconscious of a symbolic «pot life situations.» This «bank» can be updated in real life, if necessary. Part of the appeal to this «bank» allows you to find the right solution in difficult situations life choices. Skazkoterapevticheskaya psychocorrection regarded by the author as a process of restoration of adequate child’s behavior through a variety of methods and means skazkoterapii.
Determine the value for a child skazkoterapii AA Osipov said that it is a method that uses the shape of a fairy-tale for the integration of the personality, creativity, consciousness expansion, improvement of interactions with the outside world. For the purpose of psychological correction of communicative difficulties of the child we use various forms of work with fairy tales: the use of fairy tales as a metaphor; drawing on the fairy tale; discussion of personal and communicative features of fairy tale characters; playing scenes tales (game-dramatization, dance dramatization, playing with toys or using a self-made dolls); creative work on the fairy tale (appending, rewriting, the introduction of new peronazhey fairy tale, fairy tale compilation of advertising, selection of Musicians to the tale, writing songs for the main character, and so on. d.).
In addition, the tale can be used as a diagnostic tool of communicative difficulties of the child. Here is an example of the author’s diagnostic tales aimed at identifying current child 6-10 years of basic communication difficulties.
Travel for rejuvenating apple
Once upon a time in a fairy-tale village of his grandfather lived. One day he fell ill and asked his son to bring him Ivanushka rejuvenating apple.
Ivan began to gather in the road, he turned in front of a map in advance to think over your way to the magical land where there are rejuvenating apples. And the way he was coming interesting and complicated!
To get to the wonderful garden, where there was a magic apple tree with apples, Ivanushka had:
-the first to say hello and make friends with all the inhabitants of the magic forest strangers encountered on his way;
-Share the latest patty with hungry nestlings;
-to understand why the Dragon which guards the wonderful apple tree, so angry and surly;
-interesting to tell you about myself and try to please the Lord of the Magic Forest;
-intercede before the Lord of the small tadpole ugly, over which the people are laughing all the magic forest.
Yes, difficult path was coming Ivanushka! And before you go to him, he asked for blessings and good fellow parting with your old friend — wise Liver !. Long blessed Ivan’s path-the path and gave him to a stone-mate. If you throw him to the ground with force, but to stamp three times — every problem solved! Here are just a magic stone can be used only once, when their power is not enough, when someone’s assistance necessarily need to cope with the difficulties! ..
Questions for the analysis of the fairy tale:
-What do you think Ivan is using a magic stone or pass unhindered all the way yourself?
-If Ivan uses a stone, under what circumstances, what kind of situation?
-How the stone to help cope with the difficulties, Ivan?
-Do you think it is possible to cope with this difficulty in life itself? How exactly? Who you can help with this?
-Think very end of the tale.
Based on conversations with the child psychologist captures actual communicative difficulties of the child: 1 situation — difficulties of coming into contact; 2 — the difficulties associated with children’s selfishness, greed; 3 -trudnosti empathy; 4 — the difficulties associated with inadequate self-esteem of the child, the fear of self-presentation; 5 — the difficulties associated with the absence of a positive attitude toward the other person. Similar tales can offer options for the diagnosis of communication difficulties meaningful, instrumental and reflexive species. In this case, it is only necessary to change the situation in which the hero of the tale falls.
All identified using diagnostic tales basic communicative difficulties of the child are positively correlated with the difficulties identified by the procedure of expert evaluation of the communicative development of the child (rlt 0.05), ie, the results are reliable.
In qualifying study NS Lebedeva (2008), conducted under our supervision, checked skazkoterapii efficiency as a means of communication difficulties psychocorrection younger students. Kostroma. The sample included 28 children aged 8-9 years, with various kinds of communication problems. As students of the experimental group were 2 «A» class — 14 people (7 girls and 7 boys) in the control group consisted of students 2 «B» class — 14 people (6 girls and 8 boys). For diagnostic purposes, used the author’s method of expert evaluation of the communicative development of the child, a test of school anxiety Phillips.
Were established characteristic of the younger schoolboy communication difficulties (for children of the experimental and control groups): Basic — lack of communication initiatives, the low level of contact, aggression, low empathy for the partner in communication, responsiveness; content — the difficulty of planning communication activities and the restructuring of communication programs; tool — the limited potential of the communicative impact; -trudnosti reflexive awareness and analysis of their own communicative action, fear to admit their own mistakes. Thus, for all least developed communicative development indicators in the experimental group there was a significant positive shift reliable (p lt; 0, 05), which certainly can be considered a positive effect of the implementation of the program psycho. In the control group there was a significant shift on such parameters as «self» and «ability to work» (p lt; 0, 05), which is explained by the laws of the age and the effect of training activities.
In addition, the initial diagnostic test for school anxiety Phillips in both groups had expressed anxiety at school children, with significant differences in the criteria and the Mann-Whitney test between the groups were found. The results showed that the high level of school anxiety gives rise to such communication difficulties as the difficulty of coming into contact, the difficulty of public speeches, defending his own position, expressing emotions, influence, and others. In the control as part of the experiment revealed statistically significant differences in terms of: «the experience of social stress» (I = 47.00 p = 0.02), «the fear of the situation knowledge test» (I = 46.00 p = 0.01), «fear not match the expectations of others» (n = 48, 00 at p = 0.02), «the fear of self-expression» (I = 52.00 p = 0.03). In children, the experimental group the severity of these parameters proved to be significantly lower, ie, children are more free to communicate, to overcome the fear of self-presentation and self-expression, showed a willingness to take contact to receive and support partners were not afraid to become an object of ridicule, to make mistakes in the process of interpersonal interaction.
The relationship with the level of school anxiety aggressiveness younger students (n = 80 people. At the age of 7-9 years) has been proven in study OA Mukhamedshina (2010), conducted under our guidance. It has been found that the high level of school anxiety (test of Phillips) is a predictor of aggressive communicative behavior (according to the test, «Hands» in the adaptation of MM Semago) (B = 0,45 p = 0.02), and therefore the aggressiveness of a protective function helps the child to cope with inner feelings, emotion in a situation of difficulty communicating, showing aggression youngest student feels more meaningful, successful, respected in communications. From the aggressiveness of these indicators are related school anxiety, as an experience of social stress (R = 0,78, p = 0.00); fear not match the expectations of others (11 = 0.71, p = 0.02); Frustration for success (11 = 0.67, p = 0.03); ie with aggressive behavior the child tries to adapt to the situation, hindered communication; to disguise his own fear; «Revenge» for the unmet needs for its own failure in the communicative process. The less communicative competence of the child is, the more he shows aggression toward partners (this proves the existence of a feedback level of communication with the aggressiveness: To"= -0.74, P = 0.01). Waiting aggression by the partners increases the communicative activity of younger schoolboys (11 = 0.65, p = 0.03), but this activity is chaotic, Unfocused, inefficient, often wears a protective and aggressive.
Develop and test authoring program psychocorrection communication difficulties younger students (n = 15 people.), Associated with high levels of anxiety and aggression, including methods of tale therapy, helped reduce school anxiety (t = 0.00, p = 0.00) , the manifestation of anxiety in communication (T = 2.00, p = 0.02); minimization of experiences of social stress (T = 1.50, p = 0.01); overcoming fear not match the expectations of others (t = 0.00, p = 0.01) and, consequently, reduce the overall level of aggressiveness (t = 1.00, p = 0.01). According to the teachers, the children have become more confident, they began to show the communicative initiative, creativity, communication, self-expression and the fear disappeared cooperation declined markedly aggressive reactions (occurred only in a situation of criticism and failure to reach their goals in the situation of communication).
The results of the projective technique «Metamorphoses» MM Semago also showed a tendency to decrease the level of anxiety and aggressiveness. On election-preferences of children instead of «disturbing» and «aggressive» response became urgent socio-approved and self-reinforcing trends of communicative behavior, which confirms the fact of overcoming child communication difficulties associated with anxiety and aggression and the appearance of the orientation to self-expression and self-improvement in the field of interpersonal communication (however, according to the election, rejection, fear of children retained a negative assessment by the environment, ie self-realization of the subject of communication is possible only in the communicative and safe, «host», «helping» the environment).
Children’s drawings nonexistent animal also showed a reduction in anxiety symptoms (less strong pressure pencil, reducing the size of the figure, the harmonization of colors, etc.) and aggressiveness (become less threatening animals, significantly decreased the number of critical parts, etc.). However, the figures are still gun attack — sharp horns, needles, nails, teeth, spines, tentacles, t. E. The probability is high that the newly emerging communication difficulties children once again will try to overcome with aggressive manifestations.
Research results presented show that the tale therapy is an effective means psychocorrection basic, meaningful, instrumental and reflexive communication difficulties younger students; helps to reveal the communicative potential of the child, a rich accumulation of communicative experience, expand the communicative tools; It optimizes and harmonizes the process of interpersonal communication.