I.VANYUSHIN Mytischi, Moscow Region.
— According to my theory, every individual repeats in its development history of all his ancestors.
— Well, you know, this theory has several fantastic.
— Well, I will not insist on it.
«Empty House» A.K.Doyl
My Bulgarian colleagues on hobby D. Penev has an extensive home library for aquarium containing magazines and books in several European languages. When he learned that I was able to dissolve odnopolosogo petsilobrikona, then reluctantly he said that any one publication is not met the description of the spawning fish, they say, first hand. Mentions her pretty regularly, but always only in very general terms or provide a link to a close resemblance to a well-known conventional petsilobrikonom (Poecilobrycon eques).
Fish from the fans — a rarity. I found only one detailed description of the breeding Poecilobrycon unifasciatus in the journal «Fish farming and fishing» №6 in 1975. The article was written by well-known aquarist L.Kuskovym on the integrity and accuracy of the information which could be relied upon, but this description and a photograph of the fish clearly showed his mistake: J1.Kuskov actually bred Nannostomus harrisoni.
I suppose that is to blame for this unfortunate mistake, Mr. Sterba, author of the book «Aquariumfische», which in the seventies our aquarists used as a basic indisputable reference. There’s a good color photography (edition Leipzig, 1972) was depicted Nannostomus harrisoni, a caption that is Poecilobrycon unifasciatus.
Today, photos Poecilobrycon unifasciatus (Steindachner, 1876), is in any more or less explanatory publication.
You can meet with other names of this fish: Poecilobrycon ocellatus, Nannobrycon unifasciatus, and Nannostomus unifasciatus, Nannostomus ocellatus and even Nannobrycon unifasciatus ocellatus and Nannobrycon unifasciatus unifasciatus, which some authors ichthyologists believe subspecies, and the first of them -Nuocellatus — was Eigenmann described in 1909.
The appearance of the fish is so original and unique that met her in absentia, «photo», and then met her in a living form, you do not doubt in the species of fish.
Slender, elongated body with respect to the length of 6.5-7.0 cm long, gently contoured fins, sharp snout, large eyes and tilted position of the body at 30-40 degrees commercials head up. From the lips and to the base of the caudal fin extends a clear black bar, which occupies 3/5 of the width of the lower half of the body, leaving for a matte-white belly. The back of uncertain light olive color.
Fins are not painted; with the exception of a gray spot with a whitish Bypassed on a round the anal fin of the male and uncertain shaped black and whitish spots on the lower lobe of the tail (both individuals they look the same). There, in the bottom of the blade, in the dark it appears dark red «night» spot in addition to the two cross-rich black spots on the body under the dorsal and anal fin in the area (and there is only one — the first one).
Abdomen greatly elongated fish, the anal fin is located close to the tail, and the entire intestine also has an elongated configuration.
The eyes are large black pupil with a thin golden iris. Fat fins may not be. If you compare the tails of normal petsilobrikona and odnopolosogo, it is easy to see that the lower lobe of the first asymmetrically over the top, while the blades of the tail odnopolosogo have almost the same size. In P.unifasciatus on the body there are no additional patches or strips, the abundance of which we see in normal petsilobrikona.
Some might say that the usual petsilobrikon looks elegant, but it’s really a matter of taste. The clear, even austere, painting odnopolosogo, sure, too, will find its admirers. I, for example, keep them at home for over a year and did not think to rid your aquarium species from their presence. In general, fish quite spectacular and not get bored.
Nearly triangular shape of the anal fins of the female — in fact, the only visible sign of sex. Caviar fills the belly of the fish in front of him, as if part of the chest.
According to the schooling behavior odnopolosy petsilobrikon much like Poecilobrycon eques, distinguished by frequent water in a horizontal plane and the lack of visible difficulty in collecting food from the bottom: the fish can even get your head down and be picked among the stones of the soil.
My experience of sharing content of conventional and odnopolosyh petsilobrikonov revealed their complete indifference to each other. Courtship attempts and the more mating with other species has not been seen. I must, however, note that I did not provoke such incest, being sure that «improve the breed,» there can not be — both types are good in their own way, can only disserve.
A very unpleasant feature odnopolosyh petsilobrikonov is their agility and amazing ability to jump out of the aquarium. If this happens when you — trouble is not, the fish is usually not broken. And if not … It is better to take for a non-transferable duty reliably cover all the cracks. The reason for the jump may be frightened or tight fit. At night, the «flip» as accurate and effective, as well as in the afternoon. Jumping fish starts with the signs of adult coloration. I had to take it a rule to the transplant petsilobrikonov pour the water so that the rim was at least 10 centimeters. From the aquarium fish fly a bullet, and without a running start. It is not excluded that in the further domestication they will behave calmly, but while I was «working» with the savages and their children first, we have to be alert.
How is it that well and for a long time (since 1876) known, attractive appearance of the fish has not been universally accepted as a normal petsilobrikon? My experience says only one thing: the traditional diet of feeding and maintenance, developed in our Russian tanks, little suited to female odnopolosogo petsilobrikona. They barely gaining caviar. And re-spawning can never wait. I formed the opinion that the maturation of sexual products the most high-calorie diet promotes living plankton pond: Cyclops, Daphnia diaptomusom. However, the fish live well in aquariums, active behavior, chasing each other and so on, without showing signs of a depression, and a normal diet: bloodworm, koretra, tubifex, Artemia, frozen and dry food. They eat everything, but do not overeat. The fins do not break other fish, plants are not biting.
For the first time odnopolosyh petsilobrikonov I received in 1999 from the «catch» *, who arrived with a party of Brazilian karnsgielly (Carnegiella strigata). Painting of a pair of fins of fish was not significantly different from those which I have at your disposal in the future: the anal fin is colorless and the lower lobe of caudal presence of small reddish area. In addition, the «firstborn» was pronounced fat plavnichok. Six months later, it became clear that individuals of different sexes, but the success in breeding, I did not reach it because the female has not won ikru.- first and most successful spawning P. unifas-ciatus happened in summer 2000. Manufacturers came to me from the specially commissioned well-known Moscow aquarist S.Gontarem batch of fish from Germany. For the first spawning brood petsilobrikonov turned out quite weighty: Transfer monthly fry in a spacious aquarium, I counted about 70 pieces. But my joy was premature — the failure began.
Whether with food from the pond, or when transferring from another aquarium plant has brought me some fleeting fungal disease. At that time, I have been quarantined fish imported from Southeast Asia, and it is no secret that with the fish coming from there new, unusual for Russian fans of diseases that can quickly destroy the population of the aquarium. We always say that «mold» — disease secondary, that is, it develops on fish weakened by some preceding defeat. But in my case it was something else, as the centers of the «mold» appeared in the previously healthy inhabitants and killed small fish for 2-3 days, while familiar to most aquarists saprolegnia can torment affected individual long enough.
The first mold spots often appear at the base of the dorsal fin (usually behind it) and on the stem of the tail and then spread rapidly to the housing. Stop the disease I was able to frequent water change and removal of infected fish. In the water, I also always add antifungal drugs imported and our universal aquarium medicine FMC (a mixture of formalin and two aniline dyes), but if we touch on the back of some fish appeared — end it was inevitable. I was unable to cure any. Here’s a plague and killed 2/3 of the first brood.
After some time, for some reason lost spawning female, while the other four had no eggs. Experience, seemingly enough to share it with fans tetras (or rather, «lebiasinidae»). But then slipped one more trouble — in «hovering» computer killing all blogs, but just to show off that I de lo spread odnopolosyh petsilobrikonov, considered indecent, especially since this is the only spawning can be described as random, and litter to the same I did not save.
We had to wait almost a year until the surviving juveniles grew up and began to prepare for spawning. In the fall of 2001, I made several consecutive spawn, but they were either very scarce or completely dying eggs in the early stages. For those who are lucky enough to buy odnopolosyh petsilobrikonov and ask to get their offspring, I inform the details of breeding and rearing of fry.
My producers spawned a 15-gallon tank of cubic form. Equipment spawning normal: at the bottom of a safety net, heater, poor aeration. Necessarily the presence of a sufficient number of plants as petsilobrikony as nannostomusy spawn among them. The total hardness of 2-4 ° dH, carbonate — not more than 0,5 ° dH, pH = 6,2-6,8, T = 27-28 ° C. That is, as you see, conditions are fairly standard for myagkovodnyh fish.
Fish is better to plant in the evening. Spawning occurs in the second or third day. It should be borne in mind that the first day of spawning can be delayed not all caviar, so it’s best to hold the fish in spawning another day, from deferred until the eggs hatch the larvae do not — maybe the producers to add more. At least I came across such a phenomenon.
Male seeking to attract a female, she behaves as a relative — the usual petsilobrikon. He swims and tries to stay on top of the female, her head touching the snout, or splayed fins swims in front of her across the vector of its movement. Showing impatience, he can hit the female nose in the side, but on the whole courtship odnopolosyh petsilobrikonov is relatively sluggish.
Delayed caviar falls through the grid on the bottom. Shaking the plant can be seen as falling to the bottom of the leaves stuck in large eggs. The number (of the aquarium literature) can reach up to 100 pieces. Hatching occurs after 24 hours. The following day, the larvae hang on the walls, sometimes changing the place of attachment. In the light, they almost do not react, reluctantly changing place only under the influence of a bright beam. Apparently, they are well suited moderate twilight lighting. The conversion to a free-floating and begins to eat the fry takes 5-6 days.
We must say at once that no special features in the cultivation of that young odnopolosogo petsilo-brikona there, except for one: the fry immediately floats straight up head, in fact — quite upright. Using only the rapid vibrating pectoral fins, it is moving forward and the stomach because of this food from the bottom not at first take.
If you dilute brackish rotifers (Brachionus plecatilis), this is an excellent starter feed must first «raspresnyat», ie put the jar with the captured portion of rotifers on a drip with fresh water so that the initial reduction in salinity is achieved by 2-3 times for 5-6 hours. Then rotifer kept in the water for over an hour and juveniles have time to eat it. I myself started feeding with home-ciliates shoes and pond dust, if any, under the arms. A week later, the fry are already eating well nauplii Artemia.
Favors the growth of young fish most frequent water changes. You just need to be careful when it supplements directly from the water and take the time to translate the tough teens’ daily «water.
The most interesting, in my view, are very peculiar sequence of transformations of the caudal fin and the «children» coloring fry. I once had occasion to mention such features, in fact, common to all nannostomusy Pec lobrikonam when talking about his observations of dwarf iannostomusom (Nannostomus marginatus) in the journal «Aquarium» №1 / 1998.
There is a theory which states that higher organisms at the earliest stages are held in a compressed and shortened form all stages of development of the species, since prehistoric times. If you believe this, then watching the larva-fry in the first two or three months, you can imagine how it looked ancestors.
I first noticed these strange when actively engaged in cultivation of conventional petsilobrikona in the early nineties. However, if I paid attention only to the unusual color of cruciform tail fry. What happens?
For a start it must be said that the larvae of fish nannostomusovyh about the third day of gain is quite noticeable color — a characteristic black longitudinal band. In some species it is brighter, others less pronounced. Notice of fry to test glass spawning quite simple. It’s time to count how many of them hung, although at the time of this «inventory» Some kids can hide in inaccessible places gaze.
This is the larva and our P.unifasciatus: a thin black stripe. The original shape of the tail fry at the beginning of his life. It reminds strongly elongated along the diagonal rhombus (or ilosky spear). The dark band running from the head almost to the end of the spear, crossed with the black stripe short diagonal to form diamond-shaped cross-shaped pattern here. On the body there are small whitish spots.
After about two weeks you will notice that the «tip of the spear» begins to curve upwards, the top of his blade disappears, and lower slowly grows into a rounded gray fin. For some time a general view of the caudal fin resembles the so-called tail heterocercal sturgeon (or some sharks). Same tails, judging from reproductions, were ancient fish fossils from the Devonian period.
By the end of the third week of dramatically changing color of the fry. The longitudinal strip is converted into seven broad cross with jagged outlines. The point of «spear» had already sticking out on top at the base of the caudal fin, as a short spike, and the blade continues to grow and becomes like a bull-tail round eleotrisa. This situation persists for a long time.
In the fifth week of the upper part of the caudal fin begins to «grow» a transparent blade. The transformation of fins into the adult form is completed in two months of age, can not be said about the color. Transverse banding in this period only begins to mutate. Between the bands for some time viewed golden sections and the bands themselves are shortened and gradually merge with each other, in front of the first, and later in the tail. In 2.5 months the fry grow to 3 centimeters. Only by the end of the third month of life fry teenager is transformed into the likeness of his parents.
External sex differences have P.unifasciatus appear very late, almost to the year. And before long you think and worry that in the litter turned one female.
The adult male is somewhat «thinner» and the female has a slightly rounded anal fin. He also, if you look good, a little brighter than the faint whitish border ventral and anal fins. Females odnopolosogo never been so rounded off the accumulated calves as their normal relatives petsilobrikona.