Plastic anatomy. Human skeleton.

Plastic anatomy. Human skeleton.

The artist must know the proportions of human, caused by features of the skeleton, which is a solid basis for the body. Conventionally, a human skeleton can be divided into the following parts: the trunk, neck, head, paired upper and lower limbs.

Plastic center of the figure is on the pubic bone and most coincides with the geometric center. The distance from the top of the head to the pubic bone will be half of the figure, and the distance from the pubic bone to the heel bone, too, corresponds to half of the figure. Deviations from this rule are small — in the range of 3-4 cm by 170 cm in height, but they immediately affect the appearance of the person — we say «short-legged» or «long-legged». It is important to know one more proportional law — the distance from the plinth (floor) to the upper edge of the patella is the distance from the top of the kneecap to the crest of the ilium.

We can assume that the shoulder still forearm. Hands is in the position to reach mid-thigh. The width of the skull keeps the shoulder belt three times. Artists to discover nature in general proportional to the laws established canons in which the unit of measure (module) at different times were different parts of the human figure: the height of the head, the length of the brush, the length of the spinal column. Finally, it came to the standard unit — head. It is believed that human growth it fits eight times. Such proportional to the ratio of the most typical, but quite a few deviations. So, can meet people in growth which runs out is not 8, and 7.5 or 6 goals. But if the figure is placed only 5 goals, then such a man, we say that it is with ugly proportions. Maybe the opposite: growth contains 9 goals; if 10, then it is an exception. A man with such proportions for us in curiosity.

Some artists believe that adherence to the practical work of the canons connects creativity, impoverish creativity. This view is erroneous. The thing is, how to use the canons. If the artist is needed to determine the canon of the general laws of nature, to determine its individual features, such treatment will enrich the vision Distinguishing canon in nature, and hence creativity. It is bad when a canon elevated to the unshakable dogma.

The largest volume in the human body — the body. It is not only in a vertical position, but can be tilted forwards, backwards, sideways, producing twisting motion. The body is divided into two parts — the spine and chest.

Consider the side of the spine. You can see in his general line of two bends forward and two — ago. Thanks to them, all the properties are increased with springs torso. First bends are called lordosis, second — kyphosis. Each vertebra is connected with the adjacent intervertebral disc. The intervertebral discs are composed of a gelatinous mass — intervertebral cartilage, which also reduces the shocks when walking, running, jumping.

The body of the spinal column consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 fused together sacral and 4 coccygeal.

Of great importance in the form of the body has a skeleton of the chest. The rib cage is formed by attaching 12 pairs of ribs to the vertebrae and consists of the sternum and the costal arch. Attached to the sternum 7 pairs of ribs are called true, the other false 5. The chest has a barrel, slightly conical shape. Shape of the chest depends on the age characteristics, it is often affected by occupational factors.

An important role in the human body plays plastic bones of the upper and lower extremities. The bones of hands, shoulder blades and collarbone form the so-called shoulder girdle. Leg bones, pelvis belong to the pelvic girdle.

An essential element of the shoulder girdle are the blades on the back of the rib cage on the left and right sides. These muscles are attached to the vertebral column and the thorax.

The blade resembles a triangle with the bottom, inner and outer corners. It is necessary to pay attention to its important image of the form — the axis of the blade and humerus process — akramion. When moving your hands to the side, back, forward blade due akramionu has great mobility.

On the front surface of the chest is located on top of the long curved bones — the collarbone. It resembles the shape of the Latin letter S and is generally horizontal. Although there are people who collarbone slightly raised or lowered slightly. One end of it is attached to the sternum, the other articulated with the shoulder girdle.

The general form of the skeleton of the upper limb can be divided into three sections — the shoulder, forearm and wrist. Skeleton shoulder forms a humerus — tubular, elongated. In its upper part is a round shaped head between her body and the neck of the humerus are located and two tubercles — large and small. At the bottom of the humerus is the inner and outer epicondyles, it is still below the unit and capitate eminence.

The forearm consists of two bones — the radius and ulna. Their outward forms are very different. The upper arm of the ulna is called the olecranon, it is ahead of his coronary process. The two processes of semilunar notch is going on with the joint block radius.

At the bottom of the ulna is its head. On the part of the little finger is a styloid process.

The radius of a size and weight significantly less elbow. The thinner part of her top. The upper part is crowned radius cylindrical head. Below the cylindrical head — the neck of the radius. In the bottom part — a small styloid process.

Skeleton hand is anatomically divided into three sections: the wrist, metacarpals and phalanges. A simpler — the brush comprises two parts: the hand and fingers.

Carpal bones are arranged in two rows, the eight small bones, each of them their name. Carpal array is somewhat reminiscent of an arcuate shape, concave front. Form metacarpals follows the movement of the wrist. Finger bones, except for the large, consist of three phalanges. The skeleton is formed by two thumb phalanges — basic and nail. Shape brush can be elongated or shorter. In the carpal joint of the hand is very mobile. In relation to the forearm, it can produce flexion, extension, and a circular motion.

As mentioned above, refer to the pelvic girdle pelvis and lower limb bones free. The pelvis consists mainly of four large bones — pelvic two (right and left), sacrum and coccyx. On the part of the sacrum, which is located between two of the ilium, the pressure necessary to the whole body. At the top of the hip bone is the iliac crest, at the bottom of the pelvis — the pubis and ischial tuberosity, formed by two semicircles.

Now on to the biggest bones of the human body — femoral having a curved surface and a tubular structure. The upper part is semi-spherical head on the outer side of the femur is greater trochanter. It is easy to identify in the standing figure, which leans on one leg. On the reverse side is the so-called lesser trochanter. From top to bottom it is located between the intertrochanteric crest. At the bottom of the femoral condyles are — inner and outer. The rough surface of them is called epicondyle. In front of the thigh to the lower part of the tibia adjacent triangle — a cup. It is easily detectable under the skin.

The drumstick consists of two adjacent bones — the tibia and fibula. Tibia takes the internal situation and the fibula — the outer. The more you stupa at the top of the tibia called internal parts, and from the outside — external condyles. Above are epicondyles femur.

The lower part of the tibia locking lugs, which is visible under the skin. This ankle.

On fibula falls outside of the ankle. Well traced under the skin all over her thigh bone crest.

Shin bones articulate with the foot and lower limb development short. Extremely important for the entire human skeleton is a form of the foot. The foot is also divided into three parts — tarsus, metatarsus and phalanges. Its structure is different number of vaults or arches, the longitudinal and transverse. This arrangement contributes to the best of their spring properties of the body. The biggest bone of the tarsus — heel. All tarsus consists of seven bones, each of which has its own name. Like a hand, a foot consists of three phalanges, except the thumb. But the phalanx of the toes is much smaller.

These are the main parts of the skeleton of a human figure. Knowledge of its structure will help you in the image of man.

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