Portrait of Avicenna

Portrait of Avicenna

Many centuries have learned HEALTH PROFESSIONALS IN THE WORLD OF MIDDLE books are great physician, philosopher and thinker Ibn Sina (Avicenna). However, over the thousands of years that have passed since his birth, it has not saved any Scola any reliable IMAGE scientists. Not exactly restore FACE Ibn Sina and the famous anthropologist Professor M. Gerasimov. Most recently, his mistakes to correct Researchers from Andijan.

In 1954, by the decision of the World Peace Council, in Hamadan (Iran), where he died in 1037 Avicenna, it was built a new mausoleum. The ashes of the old burial had to be moved to the new, at a distance of only 300 meters. But the Muslim clergy has put forward a requirement that makes this task extremely difficult. According to the law of Islam it is forbidden to raise the ashes of the dead above the ground.

In Iran, religious laws are not considered impossible. And here between the old and the new, the mausoleum had to dig a trench of sufficient depth and width.

Solemnly, with honors, started in an open coffin to carry the ashes of Avicenna.

At this point, the Iranian academician Said Nefezi literally risking their lives, I managed to take a picture of the skull of Avicenna in profile and with a slight turn to the right. Before he could take off and one the size of the skull. But when going extinct front, furious fanatic academician hit, knocking the camera out of his hands. With barely managed to save the camera and get the most.

These photographs and a one-size skulls were transferred to a well-known Soviet scientist, anthropologist and sculptor Professor MM Gerasimov, who was able to restore the appearance of the people in their skull. But around the skull, not a photograph of one of its projection. Therefore, MM Gerasimov could not, as usual, to perform sculpture Avicenna, and made a drawing. In this figure, he reproduced the profile of the scientist, but made two minor errors — placed eyes slightly below its true place, and put it on Ibn Sina women bandage instead of a turban, in addition, another era.

The rector of Andijan Medical Institute Professor Yu Atabay, associate professor at the same institute S. X. Khamidullin and sculptor E. Sokolov tried to find a method of restoring human image of the volume, that is, to produce a sculptural portrait photograph of a projection of his skull (the second with a small projection turning to the right has played almost no role). But one single measurement of the skull (the farthest point from the occiput to the outermost point of the frontal bone), which managed to make Academician Nefezi proved an indispensable tool.

What is the difficulty in restoring the skull on the picture? The fact that it does not give the true form parts of the skull — the cheekbones, eye sockets, and so on. D., And their projection on the plane, which distorts the greater the larger the «angle of view» on the part of the normal. If these angles are known, the case would only be reduced to the necessary calculations. Study the photos gives forty-five true size, but this is not enough to reconstruct the three-dimensional shape. The task complicated by the fact that it was necessary to reconstruct the skull of a life-size, and then create one model for one and a half-scale construction of the monument. It is known that on a pedestal height of two to two and a half meters in full size bust looks fine. Method M. Gerasimov allows you to restore the human form in his skull just in physical scale.

Researchers have produced pictures of the skull in full size (here and handy size of the frontal to the occipital bone, which made an academician Nefezi). Measure the distance from the junction of the jaw to the skull to the chin protuberance at two photographs. Found cosine of the angle of rotation of the skull image in photos and were able to find the projection of the line «full-face». Doing the same calculation with respect to other points, we got a view of the front of the skull. According to the projections of the three largest anthropologists — Academician VN Ternovskiy and Professor Mikhail Gerasimov was given independently of one another similar descriptions of which are very important to the following two statements: «Skull Ibn Sina in the form closest to fergano- Pamir type Caucasians «and» biological age is close to 50 years «(Avicenna died at the age of 56 years).

After this operation was repeated, multiplying all the «control» dimensions taken from the reconstructed volume of the skull, one and five tenths. Furthermore, necessary adjustments have been made to «angle» — when viewed from below the human face having a projection distortion sizes vertical dimensions as it is compressed, and the horizontal remains unchanged.

Then, according to the laws of plastic anatomy, to a certain extent using the methods of M. Gerasimov, the authors reconstructed the skull of the soft tissue covering the «calculated» form frontal eminence, brow, the soft part of the nose, lips and chin. Eyeballs installed in orbit models of the skull, eyes fixed slots in accordance with the obtained front projection of the skull. And put a scientist in the turban of time and appropriate to his rank. Now we have a believable image of Avicenna. This technique can be useful to forensic scientists, sculptors, anthropologists …

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