Problematic BEGINNING AND END OF DRAMA DEVELOPMENT launch vehicle H1

Out of the total complex of works on creation of scientific, technological and industrial base should be made rocket results of work on the above topics.

Theme H61 was designed an experimental missile R63A, became the latest in a series of missiles, designed in the Soviet Union on the basis of A64. By modernizing and speeding up the construction of the engine thrust to 44 ton managed to secure the calculated flight range R6ZA to 1200 km, which created the opportunity to put a missile attack on the majority of NATO bases located both along the borders of the USSR, and in the depths of Europe. This fact was the basis for government decision-making to develop on the basis of the experimental rocket R63A militant rocket P65, all the more so by the time the Soviet Union became the owner of the atomic bomb, the appearance of which has radically changed the political situation in the world. For the conversion of a nuclear warhead into a strategic weapon he needed a vehicle, and that the first carrier in the Soviet Union became a nuclear warhead missile R65M (R65 version of the missile increased reliability). In 1956, a missile with a nuclear warhead R65M was put into service.

Main work relating N62 was to determine the scope of propellants containing liquid oxidant as oxygen or nitric acid. Conducted in OKB61 under the leadership of VP Mishin’s calculations show that nitric acid fuel suitable for use in missiles with a range of 3500 … 4000 km, for longer-range should be used only liquid oxygen. The calculation results of other researchers, including NII638 and NII64 MO, showed the ability to create intercontinental ballistic missiles with a high boiling point and fuel. This concept is supported by MK Yangel, which in 1950-1954 gg. NII638 worked, and in July 1954 was appointed to head the newly created rocket OKB6586 in Dnepropetrovsk. During operation, the chief designer of OKB Yangel created a scientific school ttehnicheskuyu development of ballistic missiles and medium-range to high-boiling dolgohranimom fuel. At the same time it should be noted that taking into account the constant demands of military, OKB61 developed rocket P61 1 flight range of 270 km, running on high-boiling fuel nitric acid and kerosene with the engine, developed under the direction of AM Isayev. The missile used for land-based, and in the embodiment R611FM for launches from submarines. It was the first rocket in the series of sea-based missiles. They all have a high boiling point fuel, since rocket with liquid oxygen to be placed on submarines unsuitable. Creating a family of missiles R611 was the only case of using OKB61 led by Korolev, high boiling point fuel.

Meeting the challenges outlined in the topic N63, our developers to target long-range missiles to create a missile capable of delivering a nuclear warhead to US territory. For the European theater of operations located meant more time in the development of rocket P63. These first encouraging results of the work on N63 allows you to put more specific objectives set out in the Decree of the USSR from 02.13.53 city

In fact the purpose specified in the Resolution of research was to develop a conceptual design (EP) intercontinental ballistic missile (IBRD). During the work on this topic in October 1953, the government issued a decision to increase the mass of the head portion from 3.0 tons to 5.5 tons.

To implement such a change technical specifications needed to make adjustments in the drafting of the slave chum, especially engines were subjected to serious changes. After working in OKB6456 Glushko in January 1954 at a meeting of chief designers suggested that instead of the previous single-chamber engines are planned to be used Four-chamber that will not only reduce the vertical size and weight of the engine, use the available technological equipment, but also to apply a more experimental development of mobile programs to improve traction and, especially, the specific impulse. The proposal was accepted, and the engines have been granted, now known all over the world.

Created during the work on N63 technological advance has allowed fast enough to work on the theme of T61 and by February 1954 had been defined and agreed with the direct participants in the key stages of work mining the future ICBM, which served as the basis for issuance of the Decree 05/20/54 the development of long-range missiles, designated P67. Detailing the decision on the development of P67, the Resolution of 06.26.54 "On the plan of research on specific products", Which sets out the content of the order and timing of works on creation of rocket P67.

Completed works potemeT61 in July 1954 were presented in the form of preliminary design (EP) and presented to the defense. The expert commission headed by Academician MV Keldysh reviewed the EPO has issued a number of observations and subject to removal recommended it for approval. November 20, 1954 the preliminary design of rocket P67 was approved by the USSR.

Draft project involved the implementation of a large amount of work. Mindful of the bitter experience of the method "dashing cavalry attack" when it is trying to develop a rocket P63, this time working with built "offensive on a broad front" planned in addition to the already available results of the various studies theoretical and experimental work on 27 scientific and technical areas, which involved more than a hundred scientific organizations and industrial enterprises. Provision was also made on the basis of production of the slave chum R65M two experimental rockets: P6 D5RD for testing various missile systems and R65R test radio system. All calculated and experimental research, including experimental launches of rockets, were to be completed before the start of flight tests of P67.

The most lengthy and time-consuming of all the missile systems to develop engines that have received designation RD6107 (first stage, traction on the ground 83 ton) and RD6108 (the second step, the thrust in a vacuum of 96 ton), began as early as 1953, long before the adoption of EP. Experience of creation of such engines was not, it was the first domestic design engines for long-range missiles, and it included both design solutions developed by our experts in the 306s 6406s respectively, and borrowed from the rocket motor A64. Testing was conducted in a sequential execution of steps "from simple to complex"Starting with the design of autonomous development of separate units, followed by verification of their functioning and performance as part of engines. In developing the engines on the main mode, the coarse canvas huts had to work hard to ensure stable characteristics of stability. It should be noted that the oxygen-kerosene fuel is highly prone to unstable combustion, especially at high pressures and large transverse dimensions of the chamber LRE. In this regard, working out stable combustion required for numerous fire tests, and individual instances of the engines have been repeatedly tested. But it was not working out the procedure, in order to save the amount of materiel used experimental, some engines have successfully passed the test after a visual inspection of their condition and replacement of disposable items, re-directed to the test on a modified program start.

In those years did not use the determination of the reliability of missile systems and missiles in the whole figure, operated percentages of successful launches. Citing statistics engine test bench, we stressed the number of engines, have successfully passed numerous launches. It should be emphasized that the exceptionally high as the actual and the calculated reliability of RD6107 and RD6108 engines in service Bob Lee 55 years and who brought in a space of about 1,800 copies of missiles

The engine of the first stage RD-107 type P67, has been laid, and ensure thorough ground testing at their bench tests and self-contained as a part of the rocket stages. These tests began the final stage of ground tests. First it was held "cold" Test odinochnyhh side and central rocket units, which was worked out during refueling and replenishment tanks of liquid oxygen, determine the temperature in the tanks, fuel lines to refine the engine start sequence diagrams in the composition stage. Next was followed by a fire test bench of single units and the whole rocket as a whole in order to verify the joint work in the nominal mode and start the main engines and steering chambers, determining vibration loads on the elements of design, efficiency, onboard equipment engine management. In the period from August to December 1956 at the bench base near Zagorsk (now Sergiev Posad) have been tested as part of the side stages 5 and from December 1956 to January 1957 3 central motor blocks. Successful completion of allowing them to go to the intended program of ground tests carrying posters of all fire tests "package" motor of five blocks. These tests are potentially more dangerous due to the presence on the stand of the large amount of propellant. Such tests anywhere and never carried out. There was a special meeting of the chief designers, to discuss the results of working out all the missile systems taking into account the conducted flight tests of missiles: R65R three launches in 1956 and ten missile launches R65RD in the period from February to August 1956 at the meeting, it was decided to allow start-ups "package" and they have passed on February 20 and March 30, 1957 The path to the top of the official flight test rocket P67 was open. In my repose it was then, following the results of the whole complex of ground tests at the Glushko formed a concept that I heard from him, and wrote in a notebook in the middle of the 60s: "In rocketry everything can be worked out on the ground ".

In conclusion of this part of the presentation mining engines should be noted that for the control of correct assembly and hit exception of parts with undetected control of the production of defects priёmo6: datochnaya procedure provided prior to delivery of each motor in goods holding fire control and technical testing (LPS), followed by replacement of elements disposable. Suitability Party engines checked and confirmed carrying out the endurance test (KWI).

Start of flight-design working out rocket P67 was laid carrying 10 April 1957 the first meeting of the State Commission for conducting flight tests led by the chairman of the MIC VM Ryabchikov (the commission approved the USSR August 31, 1956). Technical Director of the State Commission joint venture. Korolev reported results of mining missile systems during ground tests and autonomous bench during the experimental launches of rockets and R65R R65RD. Particular attention Rapporteur drew positive results of bench tests of fire as a single unit, and the rocket as a whole. The report also sets out the goals and objectives of the forthcoming Flight mining missiles. According to the results of the report and speeches Korolev Chief Designer of rocket systems, the State Commission has decided to proceed with the conduct of flight tests.

P67 missile flight tests began in May 1957 launch of the first rocket took place on May 15 and ended with an emergency shutdown of one of the side blocks because of a fire on de 98si seconds of flight in the tail compartment due to leakage at the junction of highways one fuel. Although formally launch was an emergency, but it is allowed to verify the correct functioning of all ground and airborne systems, confirmed the normal operation of the engine at start-up and nominal mode. Korolev optimists cally evaluated the results of the first launch of a new missile: "From the start it went fine. The rocket will fly!".

The second launch, scheduled for 1 June 1 did not take place because of the identified already at the initial construction of a manufacturing defect in the engine of the central unit.

The third start was made 12 ■ ^ ■ And in July, on 336Y second flight outage occurs hut loss of control of the rocket.

Launched on August 21 the fourth rocket P67 Flight successfully completed the task reached the target area fall in Kamchatka, but the head of the collapsed when entering the atmosphere. This result is considered for the technical detail, the main 6 flight took place. This event August 27, 1957 was made sufficiently detailed official TASS, published in all major newspapers of the USSR.

It so happened that the message of the outstanding scientific and technical achievements of the USSR did not receive publicity. Broad layers of the population little understood importance of this event. But political circles in the United States, for whom the primary and the message was intended, at first treated him with suspicion. We considered that this is another political trick Khrushchev, and even more because it is very do not want them to report untrue and "Councils" acquiring nuclear weapons of intercontinental range. In this case, it was the second, even more significant impact on strategy "Cold War" 6 In 1949, the United States lost their monopoly on the possession of a nuclear bomb, and now, with the advent of intercontinental missiles, the US ever lost its geographic invulnerability.

The next launch of P67 in the same place the design performance of September 7, 1957 Result of a complete startup repetition of the previous one: the two-stage rocket worked without comment, with a mock warhead nuclear warhead was destroyed again in the dense layers of the atmosphere. The manifestation of the same defect on two consecutive tests carried out could not be classified as random. Although the emergency is rarely perceived as a positive result in this case was the result of a control test warhead design performance in natural conditions, which simulate the ground when working out is not possible. Actually, for this purpose and conducted flight tests of missile systems.

After the fourth start flight tests it has been temporarily interrupted. The results require a decision to change the structure of the head to ensure it reaches the earth’s surface. This required, first, time, and secondly, again, time, time to develop a new, more reliable design, manufacture modified head and subsequent verification of its performance during flight tests. This seemingly ordinary pause in the program Flight mining combat missiles has become a landmark milestone in the development of world cosmonautics.

The current situation is characterized by good folk CSBM Height: "A blessing in disguise". In this case "good" steel polob tive results of both stages of the rocket. In slozhivsheyb Xia situation Korolev suggested not to wait passively izgotovleb of new warheads, and use this time to run the ISF artificial Earth satellites. During the same required for izgotovb tion of new warheads, industry fill withdrawn from military missile program, which will conduct further flight tests in accordance with the timetable actually corrected after two unsuccessful launches P67 hut destruction golovb GOVERNMENTAL parts. Such efficient use of forced break in conducting flight tests considerably closer terms vyveb Denia in the near-Earth space manmade sputb nickname Earth and is guaranteed to give the opportunity to overtake exploding into space "Americana" (a favorite word Korolev).

This proposal was not born in a vacuum, it predshestb Vova long and thorough preparatory work. Sub exists a general consensus that "Americans know how to count money". As for us at that time in the post-war vosstanovleb of the destroyed national economy of space flight enthusiasts to realize their secret plans to consider all byb lo nothing. However, the state program of creating combat long-range missiles has created the opportunity to use these missiles and scientific purposes.

After becoming chief designer of the first Soviet long-range missiles, the joint venture. Korolev could not ignore the possibility of the creation on its base of geophysical rocket to launch scientific instruments into the upper atmosphere. Along with the growth range of flight and uvelib cheniem weight of the head of the military missiles respectively uvelichib valas height and weight pelted geophysical rocket payloads. So with the advent of the first military rockets dalb his actions he found practical application of the principle of the conversion of military technology, although at the time the term was not used.

Each type of combat missile, developed under the leadership of Korolev, first in the department number 3 SCR NII638 and then OKB61, nauchnobgehnichesky had its counterpart. Work on the launch of geophysical missile coordinated by a special commission under the chairmanship of the President of the USSR Academy of Sciences SI. Vavilov.

In accordance with Postanovlenib eat the USSR on December 30, 1949 at the base of the rocket P61 were razrabotab us geophysical rocket R61A, R616, R61V, R61D and R61E. These missiles nahob dilis in operation from May 1950 to June 1956, and used to study the parameters of the upper atmosphere, as well as to run the UE dopytnyh animals. So, for the first time on 7/22/51 R61V rocket was successfully flight to return to earth in a special airtight container 6 dezik two dogs and Roma.

Geophysical rocket R62A provide lift to a height of 210 km container with scientific equipment weighing more than 260 kg. In the period from 1957 to 1960. was put 13 missile R62A, 11 launches were successful. The launches of these missiles were carried out in accordance with the program of scientific research in the interests of the USSR.

Create geophysical rockets based combat was prodolb Genot and after the development of the rocket P65. Such missiles have been three versions: R65A, and R5B R65V. During launches of the missiles were carried UE research in the atmosphere near the earth okolob space. At start-up of one of the rockets R65A, which took place on 2/21/58, at a world record was set vysob you lift for single missile bdostignuta height of 473 km with a payload of 1520 kg, with 1350 kg were returned to earth. Selected recovery system load on the parachute vposledb tion was widely used in the domestic space technology.

It does not unimportant to note that during the launch of geophysical rocket in parallel with research otrabatyvolas design of individual fragments of various missile systems in terms of their further use in space nosib telyah and devices. But it was more distant approaches to the creation of both the space rocket and artificial satellite Zięba know, at the beginning of unmanned and manned then, with the return of astronauts to the ground. This practical part of the work vypolnyab familiarize led joint venture. Korolev with a number of the main designers of missile systems.

Decision of the theoretical issues of space flight in the years engaged in a number of enthusiasts of space technology, the greatest contribution to the solution of questions of creation and nauchnobtrakticheskih UE flight of Sputnik introduced MK Tikhonravov, so focus on his work. He first years otechestb venous industrial rocket engaged proektnosgeob ical justification for the possibility of using already imeyuschub Yusya rocketry for flight in outer space. At the end of 1945 Tikhonravov with a group of scientists NII61 (former employees RNII 6NII63) proposes to use a German rocket to launch A64 2skh vysob man on the 200 km. The project received the name VR61 90. razrabotb ki real technical project group of the authors of this idea in the Island with Tikhonravov glab in 1946 was transferred from NII61 in NII64 artillery Academy of Sciences (AAS). However, this project does not fulfill udab elk, and Tikhonravov in 1947, became interested in the idea of ​​creating composite slave kW. Working in this direction, it generates the idea of ​​creating a sample project "ligaments" missiles, known in the history of Russian missile technology under the name "Missile paketTihonravova". Vtehnib cal respect "rocket pack" It was an arrangement of several identical liquid propellant missiles already in service. The package missiles are arranged parallel to each other and have the mechanical and hydraulic connections. At the start of all engines package rockets are launched at the same time, their food topb Liiv made from tanks ODB tion missiles. In flight, after izrasb moneys fuel this rocket otbb rasyvaetsya aside, OSB experimental rocket engines continue to receive fuel from the second tank missiles. And so on, until there is one missile, which will deliver the goods to the clearing point.

Given the place of work Tihonb ravova 6NII64 AAN and temab cally focus on the creation of the institute of missile weapons, the idea of ​​the project "raketnob of package" Tihonrab gal was presented in February 1948 at the NTS NII64 in a report entitled "Ways of increasing the marginal dalb of firing a long-range ballistic missiles with liquid fuel". STC members is very skeptical about the idea of ​​a package caused serious doubts possibility of technical implementation of hydraulic connection of several missiles. However, the chief of General AI NII64 Nesterenko urged President AAN academician AA Blagonb ravova Tikhonravov include a report on the agenda of the regular session of the academy.

The session AAN held in July 1948 Tikhonravov sdeb Lal report on the application of rocket pack somewhat changing Perben initially name: "The implementation of long range shooting rockets". The dominant feature of the report was the assertion that the proposed scheme of arrangement for a packet of rockets allows already now to achieve almost any flight range. The session was attended by AAN, mainly samples occupational gunners, whose content and conclusions dokb fret not aroused great interest, which is not about uchastb sponding in the session, members of the Academy of Artillery Sciences

SL. Korolev and YA Pobedonostsev. After the session, Kobe rolёv learn more about the results of the research group Tikhonravov and in 1949 sent a NII64 technical task to perform contract work "CEB study opportunities and expediency of creating the type of long-range missiles "package". Pub parallel to Korolev signed a contract to perform works issledovab neurial "Ballistic missile capabilities composite" with the Institute of Mathematics. VA Steklov. Implementation of this work at the Institute was entrusted to a group of employees headed by MV akademib com Keldysh.

The first research results obtained in the course of the contractual vypolneb NII64 work were outlined in the report "Raketb nye bags and prospects"It made Tikhonravov in March 1950 at the conference NII64 nauchnobtehnicheskoy. Dates of the conference coincided with the work of the Ministry of Defence Commission inspection, checking nauchnobgehnicheskuyu NII64 activities. Commission headed by General PP Chechulin in its composition vhob Dili SL. Korolev and VP Mishin The report Tikhonravov sledovab lo, that the use of packet scheme using already imeyub ing Soviet military missiles provided not only mezhkontib nentalnaya flight range, and excretion into Earth orbit Cosby nomic man-made earth satellite, including pilotirub emy option.

Unexpectedly, the authors report the findings have come under criticism from some members of the NTS NII64. Their performances nosib whether sarcastic nature directly expressed distrust Tib honravova and members of his group called naive prozhektёrami and their activities bnenauchnoy fiction. There were also more "strong" epithets. The general tone critical of the group Tib honravova chairman of the audit committee asked the General Cheb chulin. The main object of his criticism were research oblasb minute launch an artificial satellite of the Earth as not only nesvoevreb mennye but also unnecessary, since distract from the slave bot on the main topics of NII64 6 create a long-range missile. It was not just the personal opinion of ODB tion rights, in the speech of General Chechulina position was voiced most nachalstvub guide the composition of the Armed Forces. So praktichesb ki at an early stage of development of missile manifested a philosophical law of unity and struggle of opposites.

Those present at the conference as members of the committee Korolev and Mishin silent. In the context of the general criticism of the report kosmib cal Korolev did not find it possible to intervene in the internal affairs of the Institute from other ministries and Mishin, as it turned out, was an opponent of the work of the NIJ sozdab Sputnik.

Criticism of the results of the group had Tikhonravov serb ёznye consequences. Further work on iskusstvenbnomu satellite Earth NII64 was banned Tikhonravov smesb reflux with deputy chief of the institute, and appointed a consultant, after a while the chief of General AI NII64 Nesterenko was transferred to another duty station, nachalnib whom the institute was appointed General PP Chechulina.

However, work under contract with NII64 OKB61 lasted from structurally complex circuit flight with a hydraulic connection refused "ligament" missiles with a mechanical connection is called "Simple Package". The same type of arrangement missiles came and a group led by Keldysh Institute matematib ki. Gradually, the idea of "ligaments" existing missiles went to research the creation of multi-stage missile with a longitudinal (Tib PA "package") Or transverse (tandem) separation stages. Nesmotb convent to ban members of the former group Tikhonravov on its own initiative, without the inclusion of the official plan and inform their immediate superiors, continued to work on the issue of launching an artificial satellite.

In 1953 Tikhonravov conducted a comparative analysis of vozmozhb launch artificial satellites in the Soviet Union and the United States. Results of the analysis for presentation issued in the form of two albob atoms, which clearly showed that the two competing countries in the years to have the opportunity to make this space operations. Be the first to whether the Soviet Union bzavisit intenb intensity of work in this direction. These albums Tikhonravov Deb onstrate heads of various state strukb tour and command of the Armed Forces of the USSR. As a result of visual propaganda bosses NII64 (generals AI Sokolov GA Tyulin) at the beginning of 1956 decided to include in the plan tematib cal research institute number 72 "Studies on cos Denmark Sputnik". Head appointed Tikhonravov. During execution threads opreb planned to share and explore the challenges in creating the satellite and map out solutions. The works were completed on the issue "Predlob tions about the possibility and the need to create an artificial earth satellite", Which examined and approved the Korolev. At his suggestion Tikhonravov prepared a memo "On the artificial Earth satellites" to represent it in Pravib ment of the USSR.

A memo after matching its content OKB61 and consideration by the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences in May 1954 was directed Korolev in the defense department of the Party Central Committee and Minister of Defense Industry DF Ustinov. Support from the party and government structures Korolev not received, considered that the work on the creation of the satellite is not timely, since would detract from the value problem solving glavb bsozdaniya combat intercontinental missile.

Assessing the failure as a lack of understanding of international importance priority Sputnik, Korolev 16 June 1955 submit to the same address of the new memorandum, in which, among a number of add wires in favor of the need to accelerate work related to satellite com zapusb results as follows: "Creating artificial satellite will be of great political significance as the svidetelb GUSTs high level of development of our technology". And again "nedoponib manie".

For Korolev was typical to seek adoption "probivab emogo" its decisions by "assault". Since in this case all it seems to be well-reasoned attempts prevrab tit centuries-old dream come true breeding space rukotb Worn machine broke on disbelief in the possibility of such soversheb "Miracle" in the next 263 years, Korolev decided to change their tactics and move to "Siege". Believing that his proposals are not taken seriously, not only izbza misunderstanding of their significance, but izbza lack of authority in the higher party circles and gosudab rstvennyh offering, ie of Korolev (recall that by the middle of 1955, the Soviet Army had developed Korolev rocket P61 and P62, which is estimated to have changed little military relations battle potentsiab la the USSR Armed Forces and NATO troops opposing them. And the Gold Star of Hero of Socialist Labor creating strategic rakeb you R65M Korolev was later huts Laga events April 20, 1956). The lack of his personal authority Korolev decided to strengthen the authority of the USSR. At approx zyv Korolev Academy members to connect to the development progb grammes of research with the help of an artificial Earth satellite (AES), the first to respond MV Keldysh, the familiar Box Levu to work on "Rocket Service".

Appeal to academics Korolev and Keldysh response sygrab whether a crucial role in the development of subsequent events. Keldysh spelled Korolev shares the position of the need to accelerate the slave bot to launch satellites and supported his proposal to connect Acab-pandemic science to the solution of this problem. He is well orientib Rowan in the academic world, and that helped him during the period from Deb December 1955 to March 1956 through personal meetings, of soveb ings, and presentations at conferences of interest to study GOVERNMENTAL prominent in conducting space research. Keldysh was able ubedib enforcement show how the possibility of expanding the scientific investigations in the derivation of the ISF devices and equipment into space, beyond Earth’s atmosphere. Active support of prominent academics launching satellites has become one of the decisive factors positively UE.

It should be noted that the interest of the academic naub ki in launching several satellites to shift the focus of arguments in predlozheb tions Korolev. If it is to focus the country’s leaders in the international demonstration of the achievements of the Soviet nab USP and technology, contributing to the creation of a space rocket, and ensuring that the country priority access to space and promises further development of astronautics, without leading spar cheniya with the specific military, scientific and economic divib Lend in the near future, the academics shows what the unique results of scientific studies that can not be on Earth, can be obtained from devices made in space and how it will advance fundamental science soveb tskuyu. Such arguments used vydab-Contracting Soviet scientists could not be overlooked.

January 30, 1956 was made a government Postanovb tion number 149 638, which provides for the creation of 19576 1958. and excretion into orbit satellite (object D) Maßbach soi 1000 … 1400 kg with equipment for research Maßbach soi 200 … 300 kg. In the Decision have been identified and otvetstvenb sible for its implementation: scientific management and provision of APB paratus 6AN Soviet Union, the solution of all technical issues bsootb corresponding industrial ministries of the USSR, conducting launches bMinoborony USSR.

Keldysh leading role in promoting the decision to launch the satellite received appropriate assessment, he was appointed rukovodib Telem Nauchnobgehnicheskogo Council to coordinate research institutes and design to create the first artificial satellite. Keldysh gained fame and prestige in academic circles and in the higher partiynobosudarstvennyh structures and in 1960 he was elected president vitseb, and in 1961, after the flight of Yuri Gagarin bPrezidenb that of the USSR.

Having been in January 1956, the long-awaited pravitelstvenb tion solution OKB61 started to develop conceptual design "Object D" and by the end of 1956 successfully completed the job. In senb tember 1956 preliminary draft was reviewed by the Special Committee at the Council of Ministers of the USSR. But not all participants in the work of the Resolution of January 30, 1956 to work as actively and successfully. By the end of the GPG but it became clear that the appointed terms of development and manufacturing of equipment nauchnobyusledovatelskoy break and date specified in the order prior to the Geophysical Year in July 1957 6 to launch a satellite with scientific equipment will fail.

His concern about the breakdown of schedule launch satellites and the need for additional measures for the successful launch of Korolev outlined in a memo, napravb Universe at the beginning of 1957 the government of the USSR: "Proposals Perben O launches of satellites before Mezhdunab native Geophysical Year".

d.

However, the US conducted intensive preparations for the launch of an artificial satellite.

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Further, the memorandum were requested to instruct sampling dustrial ministries with participation of USSR Academy of Sciences to prepare two missiles suitable for satellite launch, organize avtoritetb tion Coordinating interdepartmental commission for rukovodb ARISING all the works to launch satellites in the Soviet Union, hold neobb sary measures to create in the USSR system monitor the flights of artificial satellites.

Taking into account the objective circumstances delayed izgotovleb of instruments, the government was forced to establish a new term start "Object D" baprel 1958 postponement allowed to establish the necessary scientific equipment and manufacture "D facility"But at the same time create opportunities for some of our competitors amerikab the first in human history to bring to Cosby nomic man-made earth satellite orbit or, as it was coupled nab 6satellit Americans. With this situation Box lion could not agree and it has made a proposal in place zapazdyb lished on terms of izgotovleb "Object D" in an emergency operation to create a simple satellite designs imeb yuschy on board only korotkob-wave radio transmitter and its power unit. In this case, a simple sputb nickname (received later the name PS) can be made and its launch osuschesb tvlёn as planned earlier srob ki baprel 1957 APPENDIX predlob It was approved, and 15 fevb ary 1957 came Postanovb tion "On measures for maintaining the samples of the International Year of physical geob"Which activates "Substation" after two successful launches P67.

The political leader of the Strub us, namely to it eventually got an offer Cob rolёva, at that time not ponibmal historical significance and priority satellite launch indifeb rental reacted to the proposal to speed up the start of this. Good thing not refuse! NS Khrushchev objected against holding "castling" two rockets, but their agreement stipulated spar cheniem consent of the military. The military, though a negative attitude to "whims" Korolev, Keldysh and other major designers and scientists, but in this situation, not having received firm assurances chop sew schedule of flight tests, did not object. Thus, in complete indifference voennobtoliticheskoy top of the country to work in the field of space technology, there has been a historic event, divide the history of human society into two chasb BDO minute after launch man-made earth satellite, the day 4 oktyabb convent in 1957 became a milestone for the reference point Space era in the life of mankind.

This historic event world community of La uznab "TASS report about the launch of the first artificial Earth sputnib ka"’on October 5, 1957 Text "TASS report …" filled with numerous technical information about the design sputnib on, the parameters of the trajectory of its flight, as well as many other nauchnobgehnicheskoy information. One feels that the drafting of the text to a hand and experts OKB61 NII638. But not in the same ideb cal department of the Central Committee be such a document, even though it was not without the participation of specialists of this department. Since "Sob communication Tass …" quite voluminous, we give of it to neskolb fragments containing historical information for shirob swath of the population: "For a number of years in the Soviet Union vedutb smiling nauchnobkeledovatelskie and development&onstruktorskie work on creating an artificial Earth satellite. As already reported in the peb dia, the first launches of satellites in the Soviet Union were scheduled to osuschestvleb NIJ according to the program of research Mezhdunab native Geophysical Year.

[…] The successful launch of the first man created sputnib ka Earth making a major contribution to world naub and Cultural Organization. Scientific experiment, carried out at such a high altitude, is of great importance for understanding the properties of space and the study of the Earth as a planet in our solar system.

These subsequent satellites will be uvelib tained dimensions and weight, and they will be carried out extensive research programb mA.

Artificial earth satellites will pave the way for mezhplanetb nym travel and pobzidimomu, our contemporaries are destined to be seen how liberated and conscious labor Telegram dei new socialist society, making a reality sub mye daring dream of mankind".

Dry businesslike tone "TASS report …" best harakteb acterizes first response leadership at this epochal sob being. And they themselves the creators of space rockets and satellites "Substation" in the first hours after the launch of surging among them feelings domib nated feeling of satisfaction for the successful conclusion of the long-awaited event. And only followed the "Soobscheb of Tass …" a barrage of rave reviews in the international press pozvob lil heroes of the occasion to recognize the enormity of the historical nauchnobgehnicheskogo svershёnnogo feat. It is not possible to quote the enthusiastic comments, but two of them go vsёbgaki neobb lead. Chairman of the US National Committee cob for the International Geophysical Year, George. Kaplan responded since the launch of the first satellite: "I’m amazed that they were able to do in such a short period as they imeb whether at their disposal, which does no more life, had at our disposal". Not without "spoon dёgb cha". Some media, unfriendly nastroenb nye to the Soviet Union and tried to downplay the significance of the success of Soviet science and technology played "German motif": Soviet kosmib cal rocket created by German specialists, exported in the Soviet Union at the end of 1946 level of rocketry in the USSR greatly exceeded the level achieved in Germany during the war. Russian now go their separate ways".

There was yet another reaction to the launch of the satellite, which, although not widely known UE ceived, but no mention of it would be neprab correctly. There is a view of American reaction voennobtoliticheskih laps on the signals coming from space "bipbbipbbip …". They ODB uniquely confirmed that August TASS about CSS successfully launched an intercontinental ballistic missile UE lytic not a bluff, but a reality. And using political termib nology Soviet media of the time, the US "podzhigateb lam war" and "Pentagon hawks" in their war plans will have to reckon with the Soviet "weapon of retaliation".

The sudden collapse of the enthusiastic response to the launch of the spacecraft made sputnib NA. Khrushchev and other leaders of the state huts replace their attitude to the development of space technology. The politician and business manager of occupied positions in the state, Khrushchev mob Jette have never understood the whole nauchnobgehnicheskoy sozdab importance of and launch a satellite to orbit the Earth, but in this event, he saw an opportunity to promote the Soviet state system and socialist form of farming. It obstoyab ment situation spun 180 degrees: October 10, 1957 now Khrushchev offered Korolev urgently prepare the launch of the second satellite, and in conjunction with the anniversary celebration 40by OKB October Revolution as a holiday gift to the Soviet people. Since established tradition to do "labor gifts" It penetrated to the public holidays and raketostroitelnuyu MPS domain that then repeatedly caused undue haste and sozdab shaft emergencies.

The stunning success of the launch of the first satellites raised the bar high for future satellite launches. Now every sputb nickname from the second, had to decide kakuyubnibud new scientific or technical problem.

Given the short time to prepare for the flight of the second satellite, we decided to use the existing experience zapusb ka animals (dogs) at vertical flights of missiles in the P61, and the like.

Since November 3, 1957 was zapub Shchen "biological" satellite, in which the coat of arms arithmeticity container nab hodilas, received after this flight worldwide fame sob tank Laika. Next, was the third satellite launched May 15, 1958 "D facility" mass of 1327 kg, which was to be the first satellite, but delayed his start pushed izgob tovleniya more than six months.

Starts satellites were the first step in space exploration, but for vyhob beyond near-Earth kosmib cal space needed to achieve escape velocity 6 11.2 km / s. To do this, it was on a two-stage rocket in form P67 "Sputnik" CSS Tanova third booster stage.

March 20, 1958, the government issued Decree on the development of the third stage (block E). Released preliminary design provided for a rocket engine thrust kislorodnobserosinovogo 5 ton, with its development was conducted in co-operation: OKB6154 (glavb ny Designer Kosberg SA) develops TNA and units of automation and OKB61 (Tel rukovodib engine compartment Melnikov MV) 6 camera combustion. Ground testing of the unit E was carried out in record time and two three-stage rocket launch took senb ber 23 and October 12, 1958 both ended with hints avab izbza occurrence longitudinal nizkochasb-frequency pressure fluctuations in the mains supply of fuel in the engines of the first and second stage. To ‘eliminate this defect the first time in world practice raketostrob eniya in the fuel line installed hydraulic damper longitudinal pressure oscillations.

The first successful launch of a three-stage rocket took 2 cooking yanb 1959 to deliver spacecraft "Luna61" on the surface of the moon. But he did not get the moon, and became a companion Solnb CA izbza errors in calculating the trajectory of its flight. Subsequent launches have also been devoted to the study of the Moon: running 14 senb tember 1959 spacecraft "Luna62" Lub us reached the surface and the machine "LunabZ", Launched October 4, 1959, carried out photographing and transmitting images back to Earth, invisible from the ground, side of the moon.

Creating a three-stage rocket is ensured not only SEL move into deep space, but also increases the weight displayed on okolob Earth orbit payloads from 1400 to 4700 kg, and that was enough for practical solutions to human space flight. And this goal has been specified in the Decree of 22 May 1959 Cob torym instructed to develop a space korablbeputnik. This document has become fundamental in a number of subsequent Postanovb tions.

December 10, 1959, the government issued Decree "On the development of space exploration"In which to research organizations and industrial enterprises have been tasked to implement the manned Cosby nomic space. Followed by a decision of 4 June 1960 "On the plan of space exploration" predpisyb valos from May to December 1960 to conduct testing of the onboard APB paratus and life support systems korablyabsputnika. Somewhat ahead of the release of this Decree May 15, 1960, the first launch of korablyabsputnika. This global community has proinformirovab relevant reports Tass. Below privob ditsya a few fragments of this message: "In Tebe over several recent years, the Soviet Union conducted scientifically nab&ssledovatelskie and development&onstruktorskie servant bots on the preparation of human space flight.

[…] On the orbit of Sputnik May 5, 1960 in the Soviet Union Implemented launch a space korablyabsputnika. […] The launch is intended for testing and verification of the sisb korablyabsputnika ensuring its bezopasb ny flight and flight control, return on Zięba Liu and the necessary conditions for human flight. This is the beginning of a difficult start work on creating reliable spacecraft providing Bebe rity human space flight.

[…] Testing of the first data obtained korablyabsputnika showed that it is installed on the equipment operates normally. The ground stations are regular monitoring of the ship companion".

Under this program, to verify the reliability of descent from orbit in August 1960, were launched and successfully returned to Earth the dogs Belka and Strelka. During this period, were carried out and other triggers, not all of them were successful, however, October 11, 1960 issued a decree, which ordered to carry out the preparation and launching in December 1960 of the spacecraft "East" with a man on board. While acknowledging the importance of this start-up, in the Decision stated: "Read korablyabsputnika run with a man on board the task of special importance". However, that date had to be postponed to a later date because not all prior to the event missile launches were successful. In March 1961 the State Commission chaired by KN Rudnev decided on the possibility of human space flight to korablebsputnike "East", And on April 3 the Resolution "The launch of Space korablyabsputnika with astronaut on board".

April 12, 1961 was the second triumph of Soviet science and technology. A series of successful launches of Soviet and American satellites, and then gradually dulled the sharpness of perception of these events kakunikalnyh scientific and technological achievements. Launch into orbit flight in weightlessness around the globe and the subsequent safe return of astronaut Yuri Gagarin to Earth again delighted the human society. And if after the launch of the first satellites were trying to belittle the scientific and technical hurry Soviet Union, in the estimates of the Gagarin flight was observed. Moreover, in the address NA. Khrushchev sent his congratulations to many heads of state, including French President Charles de Gaulle, Prime Minister Harold Macmillan and US President John F. Kennedy. Praised the new achievement of the Soviet Union in space exploration and foreign media. Journal "Times" He wrote: "Kudos to Russian. They, like moreplavatelyambetkryb Vatel new lands of the XV century, awakened imagination. Now for the flight into space, no doubt, be followed by the study of this new world". A newspaper "Nyubsteytsmen" so to respond to the flight of Gagarin: "Successful implementation of the Russian orbital manned flight, and even more so the fact of his return to Earth, serves as a grim reminder that the entire Russian space technology pobtrezhnemu goes far ahead of the West. The only American missiles that could be compared with Russian rockets multistage "Saturn" It is still in the early experimental stage".

The above quotation refers to one side of the Island sopernichestb two superpowers of the time. United States, for many years is a recognized world leader nauchnobgehnicheskim received a severe blow to his authority in one of the most knowledge-intensive field of space technology. And to regain a commanding lead, the United States had to give an answer that would get indisputably high score in the history of space exploration.

And the answer was found. But before we set out on this sob being, it is advisable, as in the Soviet Union, to consider the history of astronautics razvib ment in the United States.

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