In December last year, held in Uzhgorod second economic-cybernetic conference organized by the Scientific Council on Cybernetics and the Central Economics and Mathematics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the USSR. She was devoted to the economic and mathematical methods of the regional forecasting and modeling regional economies.
As part of the conference are 11 specialized sections on different aspects of the great economic problems.
In the sections were made reports and presentations on the problems of urban simulation and prediction of their development (section 5); Spatial modeling of demographic forecasting and analysis of the distribution of population and labor force (section 6); modeling of regional forecasting consumption and optimal placement of objects of trade, consumer services, utilities and social and cultural institutions of the first purpose (section 9).
The most extensive coverage of the issues of urban planning and related socio-economic and methodological problems of modeling and forecasting of urban development took place in the fifth section. During operation of this section were presented 19 reports and communications general theoretical and local character, of great interest for the development of this new scientific direction in urban planning and architecture.
Total approved members section it was suggested to the organizers of the meeting in connection with the inclusion of a special section on architecture and town planning as an important link in solving the problems of forecasting and the development of regional economies
Among the reports on general theoretical problems of urban modeling and forecasting their development, considerable interest was the report Evreinov Yu and Mr. Lavrik, «On the cybernetic approach to architecture» and «simulation study of architecture»; V. Bykov, «On the possibility of the application of cybernetic principles and mathematical methods in urban planning,» L. Avdotyino «The systems approach to solving the pressing issues of urban planning,» V. Nudelman, «On the question of predicting the extent of urban development», M. and S. Matlina Zavelsky «The system models the optimal regional planning», Wanda L. «Models of housing accommodation, I forecast of resettlement in cities and territories alno’promyshlennyh complexes.»
Interesting reports and presentations on architecture and urban planning were presented B. Bondarenko — «Methods of optimal control housing cities in composition and type of apartment residential houses», I. and G. Platonovym- Muravyova «Experience in developing the structure of housing construction with economic and Mathematical methods (for example, Leningrad), «Dmitry Yablonsky and N. Volga -» Determination of the required types of apartments based on an analysis of the demographic structure of the city, «I. Minakova -» Summary of techniques layout schemes of general plans of cities Promrayon (prom. sites) to ‘use of computers «and others.
The panel was made brief reports on mathematical formalization of functional, structural, economic and aesthetic qualities of architecture; regional differences in the optimization of the design parameters of residential buildings; Passport information system construction of urban Ukrainian SSR and others.
Reports Evreinov Yu and Mr. Lavrik were discussed general theoretical position on the application of the principles of cybernetics and systematic approach to architecture. It has been criticized in the prevailing architectural science intuitive and empirical methods of studying the phenomena of architecture and some of its facilities, based on the limited information sources and the inductive approach to their analysis. According to the authors needed a cybernetic approach to architecture, which requires its understanding and consideration as a complex system, rather than a simple set of elements and factors. Cybernetics gives architects the knowledge and methods of regulating such a complex system, which is the architecture.
In the second part of the report devoted to the study of architecture modeling techniques, the authors focused on theoretical assumptions postulating modeling system «architecture», considering its components (subsystems) and their interactions. The authors believe that the postulation of architecture as the system opens up wide possibilities of study and analysis of its objects deductive method with the help of mathematical models, which must precede the development of design models and the construction of facilities.
The immediate task of architectural science authors consider the identification of the areas of architecture, which are amenable to mathematical formalization, establishment of quantitative relationships in areas where it is still dominated by empiricism and intuition, the introduction of mathematical methods to assess the aesthetic qualities of architecture.
Report V. Bykov was largely devoted to the problem of modeling the city as a system. According to the author, the study of the city as a complex and large cybernetic system allows you to set the objective laws of its formation and development, and to predict its functional structure obemnoplanirovochnuyu in time to create real prerequisites for conscious regulation of urban development and urban design automation.
The report dealt with principles of a hypothetical model of the «city», its basic components and their interaction, expressed in direct and inverse svyaeah. It analyzed the ratio of the major factors of both functional and structural environmental factors and their influence on the formation of the city and its three-dimensional composition.
It was illustrated by the possibility of using cybernetic principles and mathematical methods in urban planning at the system considering the city and when considering the application of sociological aspects of this problem. Modelling of these aspects will allow to obtain exact data needed for long-term planning of city development, the development of its service network. In addition, the simulation will determine the most appropriate types of residential and public buildings in connection with the development of the social and economic foundations of our society, changes in the demographic structure of the population, the evolution of the family and so on. D.
L. Avdotyino report was devoted to a complex set of theoretical and technical problems associated with the study and consideration of the city as a system, a question was raised about the need to develop common scientific methods of urban planning.
The report examines issues related to the hierarchical structure of the city and its differentiation analytical procedures, with the establishment of the main signs of systematization and the main stages of the structural analysis of the city. The author also highlighted the detail design and technical aspects associated with the prospects of the use of automated systems and urban design issues of mathematical and technical maintenance of such systems.
The report considers the possibility V. Nudelman principles and mathematical methods of forecasting the development of cities. Author criticized and pointed out the weaknesses of the current method used for forecasting the development of cities, based on an analysis of «the balance of labor.» In Giprograd (SSR) developed a method for predicting the development of cities, based on the analysis and comprehensive assessment of urban conditions, ie. E. The specific characteristics of each city, town or conducive to the growth-limiting.
Currently, this method is used to predict the prospects of development of a network of cities of the USSR at the 1980 Its use is based on determining the extent of the desired growth of the city, based on its position in all of the regional aggregate of populated areas; modeling capabilities (based on the economic tasks for this period) growth levels city-base towns, executed by a computer; drawing up tentative balance calculations for certain types of resources; compiling the results of balance calculations to the needs of different levels of city-base growth of cities; the identification of activities to raise that level; determining the value of these activities and the «critical capacity» of the city.
According to the author, there is a fundamental possibility of applying this method to predict the extent of urban development for the year 2000.
Interesting proposals for the system of models of optimal regional planning contained in the report of M. and J. Matlina Zavelsky. The main objective of regional planning is a study of the economic objects in city-forming industry. In the planning area must be created as system settlements and town-forming industries. Thus, the entire system must be composed of at least two models model the location of industrial centers and settlements network model. If the object of regional planning are also agricultural complexes, the system can be supplemented with a model of optimal distribution of agricultural production. In this case, the model resolved the location of industrial centers and agricultural complexes, and then the solution of these two models linked to the solution of the model placement settlements.
For geographically-cell production is planned, one or more options for development, each of which involved the combination of economically and technologically related industries. Each version of the localization industry is characterized by a set of basic parameters.
The report lists the main indicators, and formulated the task of placing the industrial centers of the district as a model of linear programming with the criterion of profit maximization under restrictions. These models are speakers in the mathematical expression. The report pointed to the practical application of this method. So, now for one of the regions of the country laboratory territorial planning and management of the USSR Academy of Sciences in cooperation with Giprograd settle in the system models.
An important problem of modeling the placement of residential construction in urban and territorial-industrial complexes was devoted to the E. Wand. It provides a mathematical model for determining the location and volume of housing in urban and territorial-industrial complexes; planning period was calculated with the 5-10 years. The solution of the problem was obtained by a number of options from which to choose the best.
For comparative evaluation of options for each of them gives the following data: a place built-up areas (from the potentially possible); Recommended type series of residential buildings; the number of houses of different types in the series (for each area); the number of people who are well-provided living space, with the differentiation of families by categories; construction costs, including capital (for each area); the volume of demolition and reconstruction (for each area).
The problem was solved by the author according to the algorithm of parametric linear programming. The main criterion — the maximum number of people, which may be provided by well-appointed apartment.
The second part of the report was devoted to the question of optimal settlement. According to the speaker, the problem can be solved by the «Monte Carlo», it is a schematic diagram for solving the problem on a computer and its economic efficiency.
Among the reports and messages on local issues of architecture and urban planning, the two most interesting — Muravyova I. and G. Platonov (Leningrad), BA Bondarenko (Kyiv), were devoted to the same problem: the methods of regulation of housing construction in urban areas and the choice of optimal variants of its structure and composition of apartments types of houses. In both reports, the authors come from the same provisions and comparative criteria optimization solutions using methods of mathematical modeling and forecasting.
The formulation of the structure of housing on two conditions: the comfort of living of the population and the minimum cost of funds for construction.
The authors of the research is the problem of determining the optimal set of apartments for resettlement of all demographic groups, the distribution of the identified types of apartments on the nomenclature of houses, reconstructive options analysis activities. To solve this problem required special development of baseline information at the time of calculation and in the future (demographic indicators; requirements of families to the type of dwelling, the existing housing stock; types of apartments and houses in the future, technical and economic parameters, and so on. D.).
Models to determine the rational parameters of new housing construction and reconstruction of the old fund created on the principles of linear programming with the use of computers. To solve these problems in Giprograd developed a more accurate two-stage model in which the first stage was carried out by the approach of the criterion of minimizing the sum of the absolute values of the residuals, t. E. Actually reaches the maximum level of compliance of types of apartments demographics. In the second phase, due to a possible ambiguity decision was made to select the most cost-effective option when reached the maximum level of compliance criteria. An example was given by model calculations for a specific residential area in the city of Khmelnitsky.
Experimental verification of the quality of the various tasks of a simple model with constraints in the form of inequalities showed that deviations of compliance achieved by the highest possible level, on average 2-3%. Simulation of optimal choice made by the authors in a mathematical form.
Questions addressed by the report B. Volga, were associated with important and interesting problem of optimization of architectural design through the use of computers and the ability to automate some of its stages. In his communication, the author considers the process of designing architectural objects as a sequence of actions a system amenable to determination.
From the reports of the other sections related to architecture and urban planning, and in particular, to the construction of networks of cultural and community service cities and prediction of their development, should indicate the number of reports and communications made to section 9 — «Models of regional forecasting consumption and optimal placement of objects trade, consumer services, public utilities and institutions of social and cultural destination. «
In its decisions, the participants recognized the need sections of periodic conferences with a special section on architecture and urban planning. The decisions of the section contains a proposal for the establishment at one of the institutes of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR non-departmental research center for the development and implementation of the architecture and urban planning cybernetic principles and mathematical methods as part of a large complex problem of resettlement, total and regional forecasting and modeling of territorial economic systems of our country.
Revision assumes for 1969 published in the Journal selected the most interesting reports and presentations made on the section of Architecture and Urban Planning at the second conference of economic and cyber USSR.