— Microphone is one of the basic elements of any acoustic path. Requirements that are presented to him, always define the demands that will be presented to the subsequent elements of the path. Noise and harmonic distortion, which contributes to the microphone path, fix some other elements, or virtually impossible, or rather difficult.
A. Shraibman to. T. N., Head. laboratory sector of electro NIKFI
Currently, requirements for professional microphones have increased dramatically, and prices — declined significantly. This is due to several reasons. The first is connected with the development of phonics: appear digital equipment, stereo audio in film, radio and television, and so on. N. The second reason — that’s progress in technology: there were computer methods of designing devices, the possibility of analysis and synthesis, as well as computer methods of installation . The third reason — is to attract the market of countries with low labor costs. The first is China, as well as Latin America and Eastern Europe .If this because of the low production culture is challenging the connection of the first two reasons to third. In addition, recently there was another interesting trend. At the moment the first time in recent years, the prices for professional microphones stopped substantially reduced, and in some cases even higher. However, while not much, just a few percent. But now we can say that such a trend was shown, and it will continue. This is due to the fact that the minimum price has already been selected, and now in those countries, where labor costs are low, there is a rise in price as the energy and increase self-awareness and the needs of workers. They do not want to work because wages.
The first large group are condenser microphones. This should include, and electret microphones are a special case of the capacitor (with an internal polarization). The main company that should be considered is the firm Sennheiser, Neumann, Beyerdynamic, Microtech Gefell and MTG (Germany), AKG (Austria), SONY (Japan), as well as many other smaller firms. This group should be divided into two subgroups. This condenser microphones with a small diaphragm condenser microphones and a large membrane, usually dvuhmembrannye. They differ in the capsules, design and service functions. To get an idea of the range of prices, we give prices for some of these microphones: AKG C1000 — 290 $ and Neumann KM184 — $ 900 (with a small membrane), and Sony C800G — $ 5800 (with a membrane)
New caps come here very often, as a rule, used only the new pre-amplifier and a new design. This is due to the fact that the company as a developer — electro come people who are engaged to date development of electronic circuits, or people who do not really imagine that such a development of a new acoustic transducer. One reason for this situation is the loss of continuity: the people who worked in these firms before, had gone or have become people of retirement age, and again came did not get out of their hands the information and invaluable experience that accumulate over the years. That’s why new people repeat old mistakes. This prevents the development of new professional microphone capsule with high quality indicators.
In order not to lose its position in the market, many companies have to go to a kind of publicity stunt: to give the microphones that differ only in design, supplementary services and new preamplifiers for new developments. It uses either the old caps, a renewed release of the old, well-established, microphones. Older caps can be considered branded microphones Neumann M147 and M149, which are made on the primer M7 40-ies, AKG C12 microphone issued in 50-60 years. An example of the restoration of an old microphone may serve microphones C12 and C12 VR AKG, U47 Neumann and similar in appearance to the release of 50-60 years microphone microphones firms BPM, RODE, Brauner and the like. Copied mostly well-known companies, primarily Neumann.
Microphones with low membrane retained modularity, ie. E. The situation where multiple heads are placed alternately on one preamplifier. This versatility is permitted. An example is the series of 100 Neumann, Sennheiser K6 series and the series MKH, AKG series Blue Line. The unusual shape you can note MTG M900 microphones, Neumann TLM50. MTG — is a microphone as a «nail», as TLM50 — capsule is placed in a sphere. In addition, such «advertising model» produce and other firms: Milab Embla, Pearl TL 44 — two separate amplifier for each half in the presence of the rectangular capsules.
If we consider the group of tube microphones, it should distinguish between the tube and mixed designs. Under mixed designs meant a structure in which the pre-amplifier has two independent channels of amplification — tube and a transistor, or one channel in which are present both a lamp, and a transistor. These microphones are microphones company AKG Tube (lamp), Solution (semiconductor chip and lamp), RODE Classic and the NT, Neumann M147. What about service, there is an overabundance of 5 — 9 patterns, 3 — 7 of the provisions of the correction of the frequency response in the high and low frequencies. The promotional added little windows so that was visible filament of the lamp, and so on. N. Very strange and unusual is the appearance. For example, the company Sony C800G the outside of the microphone located heatsink. The most expensive microphone in this group is the microphone from Bruel and Kjaer (B&K) type 4040. It costs about $ 12,000 and has two independent amplifier: a tube and transistor.
Universal love for digitally recording the sound did not pass and microphones. In this development there are many, but comes to the production of small part of them. For example, Beyerdynamic MCD100, Neumann Solution-D. All these microphones based on analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The advantage of such microphones is that the presence of the long line does not lead to an increase in noise. Lack — quantization error increases significantly when using silent springs. However, this is not completely digital microphones. Here there is actually only the digitization of the analogue signal is not in the amplifier, which is located far away from the capsule, and right next to the capsule.
Work on a fully digital microphone, t. E. A microphone, which shot to a digital signal directly from the capsule, being but finished models currently unavailable. It was not found even conversion principle source signal into a digital signal and accordingly have completed products.
This is a separate class within condenser microphones. The principle of operation is known — it is an internal polarization.
Recording methods is stereophony AB, X-Y and the MS. MS microphones have mono compatibility t. E. Since they can be converted into signals X and Y, r. E. In these microphones is used for a coding device.
Classics in this subgroup are C24 microphones AKG, SM 69 Neumann. Now there are new designs. For example, in the microphone Neumann RSM 191 stereo width adjustment takes place that is convenient to use when shooting in movies and on television (for synchronization with a viewing angle cameras).
Microphone CSS-5 (manufactured by Sanken, Japan).
S522 Microphone AKG — angle of rotation of the two cardioid change the sound field.
Microphone Beyerdynamic MC 742 structurally similar to C426B. Each cap has five patterns and rotated relative to each other.
Another microphone from Beyerdynamic — MS833. It differs by the presence of intricate mechanical adjustment.
The system of the 5 + 1 is solved in microphone Atmos ASM 5.1 SPL + Brauner — a «chandelier» of five microphones and processor.
In recent years, the quality of these microphones has increased substantially, while continuing to give the capacitor. What determines their use in the studio? This use of rare earth magnets, and new materials diaphragms and monomolecular copper winding coils.
The leading manufacturers of this Shure (USA), Electro-Voice, A.
Tri-Power Series allows to obtain high quality sound recording.
Model RE20 — an elite model, the price is extraordinary, quite high for this class microphones — $ 360.
Microphone 55SS-II uses a retro design. It combines heat transmission of low frequencies, a characteristic of presence and good dynamics at high frequencies. Model SSH-CM — miniature microphone.
In a class of highly directional microphones are most commonly used condenser and electret microphones.