Candidate of architecture Zhukov
The massive construction of large-block houses in Leningrad is a progressive, genuinely progressive phenomenon whose significance extends beyond just this type of construction.
Ogradno that large-block construction in Leningrad, not frozen in one place, and expanding and gradually improved.
It should be noted mass and complexity of large-block construction, which is carried out in compact blocks avenue named Stalin, in the immediate vicinity of the plant of large blocks.
A positive feature is the pursuit of Leningrad builders to use typed assortment of large blocks combined with individual sculpted blocks. These and other measures helped to reduce the cost of large-block buildings compared with those of brick buildings on average by 10%.
It is instructive, and the fact that large-block construction in Leningrad, is not opposed to Large as it is, unfortunately, was the case, for example, in Moscow, where large-block construction. due to improper attitude towards him from the building of the Moscow City Council, in fact, it has been suspended.
The current practice of large-block construction in Leningrad, where large numbers are used prefabricated foundations, large building blocks, height 1 floor, concrete floor panels span of 6.40 m, prefabricated staircases, sanitary blocks, and so on. E., Convincingly shows that the two are related branches Buildings as large-block and large-panel actually merge into one.
Naturally, the large-block construction in our country went through the same basic stages through which passed all Soviet architecture.
For example, a building constructed of cinder blocks neofakturennyh indzhenerami D. Al’perovich Trofimkinym and I. In 1931-1932, characterized by sketchy and simplistic, traits that can be often seen in other buildings of those years.
That has been the building of ofakturennyh cinder blocks, built after the 1934 — 1935 period. Clearly felt the desire to go to the active authors of the development of the classical heritage. Plastic building became richer interior is characterized by a high quality. These structures include houses, built by the architect I. Chaika, Vasilkovskaja S., B. Zhuravlev
B. Sersbrovskogo, D. Krichevsky and others.
It should be noted, however, that the buildings constructed in the last few years, characterized, unfortunately, the excessive complexity of the architecture, a congestion decorative attachments or auxiliary parts. For the fourth quarter of N2 housing 20 on the avenue named after Stalin unnecessarily «decorated» with a colonnaded pergola (architects A. and B. Vasilkovsky Gegello), complicated architectural forms and details of hull number 20, number 13 in the quarter (architects B. Zhuravlev A. Katz. V. Vasilkovsky).
In any kind of construction is a testament to an external embellishment is inorganic architectural and artistic means. Moreover, it should be alien to prefabricated industrial building, is the largest laboratory, which can and should be found new means of architectural composition, the forefront of our architectural front, where a new fight with the old, with all that it was in discrepancy with the modern technology and current capacity building, must manifest itself with particular force. If we consider that the construction of large-block (as well as large-panel), and could have a serious impact on the progressive development of our architecture, it is easy to understand how important for us every success in this part of the architectural and construction activity, and how annoyed every mistake.
The issue of architectural precast stroitelstve- orientation is a matter of great and principled. You can not, for example, to agree with the «direction», when the architect, building houses of large blocks, all the while enjoying the same palette unchanged means that during the construction of the brick. Ego is not conducive to the development of architecture, industrialization slows construction.
Similarly, we must oppose attempts to tear precast construction of houses from existing housing architecture in our progressive traditions and techniques of the genre features that must be characterized by residential home regardless of whether it is made of bricks or blocks of panels.
Although the specifics of the construction of large blocks, and the architect is not only the right, but must operate by means such as partitioning curtain walls, window frames, balconies, bay windows, t. E. All of those elements that are inherent in the body of a multistory apartment house. Meanwhile, there are already some attempts in the collection (in particular in large-panel) construction to devise new methods of design and construction of residential houses, which deprive the house of his typical signs or impoverish its architecture.
In light of the issues raised great interest Leningrad practice large-block construction. It can be argued that the Leningrad architects are on the right track, trying to organically use prefabrication of typical architectural elements and details of the integral organism of a house. But no matter how significant their work is carried out, there are some fundamental flaws, which I would like to talk about.
Separate Leningrad large-block houses built in recent times, overwhelmed with unnecessary, unjustified use of decorative elements. For example, in dormitories composition number blocks 15 and 21 is entirely built upon application hinged parts. It is impossible to recognize the successful arrangement of buildings currently under construction in the district number 20, the main facades are overwhelmed near Extra pilasters, obscure to the same second-floor window.
It seems that the desire to weight large-block wall, saturate it such form and detail as the massive columns, intricate moldings, traction, strong rusty, heavy keystones, can not be considered valid. These forms and details developed in the stone building, based on laying postelistoy not organically for large-block walls, and do not correspond to industrial methods of erection of large-block houses. It is appropriate to recall that Moscow architects ns able to achieve satisfactory architectural and artistic compositions in those cases when they used in the large building to the severe forms of stone masonry postelistoy. In some works the negative impact of Leningrad forms inherent in the thick stone wall, there is even more clearly.
Characteristically, in the most practical large-block construction (if we talk about the work of the builders and factories serving this building) there is a persistent tendency to completely abandon postelistoy horizontal masonry. It is difficult to agree with those architects who are still trying to keep this inherent masonry and architectural forms, somehow reconcile them with the requirements of precast industrial building. Apparently, this affects the force of inertia, habit, timidity in the search for new architectural forms of the structure of a relatively thin large-block walls, its specificity.
In the large-block construction is now the most widespread system of two-row of masonry, consisting of three elements: partition, jumpers and sill. As we know, this system was used for the first time in Moscow in 1940 — 1941 years in the construction of a residential house number 25 on the Leningrad highway. In 1950 — 1951 years it has been processed by the Leningrad branch of the USSR Academy of Architecture (Head of this work prof. S. Vasilkovsky) and Len-project (B. Zhuravlev, A. Kats, N. Dyubov et al.).
This supports the work being done by Leningrad architects. But, using this system, they did not improve. Moreover, it may give the impression that the Leningrad architects are satisfied with this system and are not looking for new methods of cutting. Meanwhile, double-row (three-element) system as long as it was able to masonry used with satisfactory results only for the parts of the walls with window openings. The situation is different with the dead part of the walls. In any case, large-block building in Leningrad, unfortunately, almost impossible to find examples of satisfactory reception processing section of blank wall, in particular mechanical facades.
What has been done in this respect in the building blocks number 13 and 20 on the avenue named after Stalin, can not be considered acceptable. Vertical open seams on the smooth surfaces create unpleasant to the eye partitioning walls, deprived of its integrity. These joints also require special seal inside. Thus, the technique is not used to help obtain acceptable mechanical composition of the facade and was unsatisfactory (busy) in dealing with interior trim apartments. It can be argued that, for example, enjoy interesting ensemble number 13 in the quarter largely spoiled by an unsuccessful treatment of end facades.
A better reception seems krepovki blank walls of face facades, used by the architect I. Chayka for hostels in blocks number 15 and 21. It was also applied a two-row version of cutting, but Chaiko architect abandoned the idea of giving a deaf large-block wall accentuated monumentality and used in the processing ends krepovku kind, in which the vertical wall joints visually appeared justified.
About nedorabotannost two-row cutting system can be judged by the unfortunate decision of facade walls of stairwells, where the blocks just have not found a large-scale cutting.
stairs and walls in brick and large-block construction.
Use of the median longitudinal walls and ceilings such as decking lets loose enough to compose a plan of the building. However, one can not agree with a literal repetition of large-block houses in sections designed for brick walls, however good in themselves as these sections.
The use of standard sections, designed basically to brick walls, naturally leads to a number of shortcomings, not only the architecture of large-block buildings district, but also makes it difficult to design, manufacture and assembly units. Not surprisingly, some of the buildings (for example, a block number 13) observed a manual undue thrashing rhythm of blocks and blocks of type mismatch on the main and rear facades. This not only impairs the appearance of the building and the architecture of large-block complicates installation, but also increases the number of types of prefabricated elements.
The issue of the sections for large-block buildings is long overdue. Now Gorstroyproekt started to develop model units and a series of buildings in which there are separate special versions for large-block and brick of large walls. But now, as long as this work is not yet completed, it should not be used in the large-section construction of conventional types without sufficient processing.
We can not ignore the question of the quality of manufacturing units and their installation. Quality Leningrad large-block construction is now unfortunately declined. There is poor sound insulation, poor interior and exterior decoration. The decrease is due not only to the quality of imperfect equipment plant large blocks where the molding blocks are still often leads to inaccurate outdated wooden forms, and poor supervision, as well as a decrease in the quality requirements of the molding and assembly.
We must assume that these apparent disadvantages are eliminated. This is all the more easy to achieve that in Leningrad in the near future will build a new plant in large blocks with more advanced equipment. However, the design and construction of this plant is necessary, in our opinion, provide a technology and in particular a molding industry, which would provide a choice of several systems razrezok. It must be remembered that the system of cutting the large building blocks, inevitably affects the appearance of the buildings under construction. Practice Leningrad construction shows that it is impossible to achieve sufficient diversity of architecture large-block buildings, if there is one available to the architect, the severe restrictions to minimize type of cutting block sizes.
On the Leningrad plant forming units made up face layer, which under the terms of the technology requires further processing facade texture. This processing is performed by nakovki (buchardovki) front surface, whereby the surface becomes porous blocks. This invoice quickly becomes soiled, buildings noticeably darker and after a short period of operation is already in need of cleaning sandblasted. It seems that for the conditions of Leningrad more practical would be a smooth texture, the surface of which is less polluted by rain and smoke.
It should express surprise about the fact that the Leningrad builders almost never apply textures combined color decorative concrete, while in the climatic conditions of Leningrad active use of color is highly desirable. At this point we just examples of Russian classical architecture in the same Leningrad.
For large-block construction of a number of issues that need to be further developed, and the problem also relates supply raw materials and in particular the slag. This question arises in connection with the widespread use of slag in many sectors of the economy, as well as in connection with the improvement of the furnace at many enterprises, when, after combustion is not formed slag and fly ash.
Therefore there is a need to find new materials for the production and use of large blocks zoloshlakobetona, aerated concrete, expanded clay, and slag processing more efficient materials.
Some experience slag processing have already technologists Leningrad, where on a proposal from Eng. N. Maximovsky about two years cinder mass is obtained in a special installation, resulting in better quality blocks are made with less consumption of cement. Leningrad engineers in cooperation with Estonian are also developing ways to use the shale ashes for blocks.
It is necessary to scale up the work on beautification of the slag and the search for new raw materials in other cities and especially in Moscow, where the opportunities for the production of large blocks of no less than in Leningrad.