IN CONTEMPORARY horticulture define two types of crops — non-grafted and grafted. Graft has made great progress in horticulture and main tree fruit rightfully occupies a leading position. Along with this production, and own-rooted interest plantations.
In contrast to the grafted non-grafted plants are genetically homogeneous, have a high physiological integrity. With aging or winter damage aboveground parts are better restored, which makes them more durable. With high rates of own-rooted vegetative propagation is removed taking care of seeds, rootstocks, grafting process is eliminated. All of this greatly simplifies the cultivation of seedlings.
However, own-rooted culture still has not found a proper place in the production, although many generations of gardeners have spent a lot of effort on it. This is no accident. Most of the wood of fruit is not adapted to the own-rooted vegetative propagation as berry.
Among pome crops have species, varieties, types and even varieties of apple, pear and quince, have a high capacity for own-rooted vegetative reproduction. They can be used to create a special assortment.
Some stone fruit trees due to the biological characteristics have a high natural capacity for own-rooted vegetative reproduction, especially undergrowth. On this basis, in our country, own-rooted culture defined plums, cherries, and even cherries.
We examined the state of own-rooted plants in Moscow, Ukraine, Moldova, the Volga region and other regions. The collected materials, as well as data from other researchers show that it is interesting from a biological point of view of the type of own-rooted culture, which were intensified on a national scale can acquire great economic importance.
Turning to the facts of production experience. In Moldova, own-rooted trees plum, despite the most primitive conditions of farming, live long and produce a good crop. For example, in the kolkhoz Kotovsky, Tiraspol district, some varieties of trees Goldan gray at the age of 70 years were given up to 300 kilograms of fruit. And next, the farm named after Frunze, on the same soil and relief, but with a high level of farming to 24 years of age remained only 29% of Western European varieties of plum trees (grafted on cherry plum). Moreover, they are highly exposed to burns, dieback. In own-rooted plantings farm «Co-punk», located in the same area on the other side of the Dniester, plum grows well, it gives high yield.
In Moldova, own-rooted cherry interesting in an area. Truseni near Chisinau (Fig. 1). Seventy-year own-rooted trees are healthy, their height and crown width reaches 20 meters, diameter of the trunk-up to a meter (Fig. 2). According VY Maslow, one cherry gives up to 700 kilograms of fruit. Importantly, among the cherry trushenskoy found form, fruit quality that is superior to the quality of the fruit varieties of the world’s famous assortment.
In Poltava known Oposhnyanskaya plum plantations which examined FI Filatov and Ivan D. Kolesnik (described GA heels). Characteristically, it is in the own-rooted culture of the XII century and has not lost its importance to the present.
Valuable varieties of plums, propagated shoots, known in other regions of Ukraine. This vengerok varieties which are known as «ugorki». In Kharkiv and Sumy regions Cherkusha popular variety, in Vinnytsia — Ugorka common in Cherkasy — Ugorka Kanevskaya. Fiftieth trees Ugorki Kaniv in 1953 gave the highest yield. During this period, the aboveground part of their 3-4 refreshed by root shoots.
The first harvest was celebrated in the undergrowth on the third year, and the fifth anniversary of the industrial age began fruiting. According to information received from the farmers, the approximate yield of the average over five years (1949-1953) was 60-80 kg fruit from the tree, and in 1950-1951 it reached 130-150. Plums Ugorki Kanev good taste, transportable and valuable for the technical processing. Plantings of the class surveyed on a variety of reliefs and soils — on the upper terrace of dense clay and loam in the middle terraces on steep slopes and rugged ravines on sandy alluvial soils in the flood plain of the Dnieper, where trees are regularly flooded by 10-15 days or more during the flood
Own-rooted plantings Vladimir cherry growing in the suburbs, where the culture of cherries limited unfavorable combination of climatic conditions. These plantings were examined in 1952. These consist of trees, one of the best forms of Vladimir cherry — Roditeleva varieties, planted in 1909 by horticulturist J. K. Berzin Korobkovsky in the former garden. At 43-year-old cherry aerial part during this time was replaced 3 times, it still continued to bear fruit. In 1927/28, 1939/40 and 1941/42 years were very harsh winters, the aerial part is completely perished, but in 2-3 years to recover from the shoots and fruiting continued.
Own-rooted cherry and plum, thistle found in the Volga region, Belarus, the Baltic States and other regions, are revealed valuable local varieties.
Thus, own-rooted plantings stone coppice origin characterized by high ecological adaptation to a rather complex mix of media.
What explains such a high viability and ecological fitness of own-rooted plants? The fact that in this second growth the culture method used reproduction in which the aboveground part and roots are formed from the cells and tissues of the root system. Such vegetative structures physiologically young, they produce plants with characteristics and properties of youthful (juvenile) stage of development. The features and characteristics of this stage are described in detail I. Michurin.
Production experience in the own-rooted culture of stone fruit plantations coppice origin gives reason to conclude that they have important biological characteristics.
But one should not conclude that this type of culture to become universal. Depending on the environmental conditions and production requirements it can successfully be combined with grafted onto clonal rootstocks and seyantsevyh. Vegetative reproduction of non-grafted plants, apparently, can be especially valuable in the development of steep slopes, sandy plains and other lands maloudobnyh. Durable and high-yielding, they have Agromeliorative value in areas where erosion control grows in great economic problem. With proper selection of varieties and streamlining culture methods such plantations — a reserve of cheap and valuable products used for juice, cider, dried fruits and other products of technical processing.
It should be noted that the possibility of non-grafted type of culture are not limited plantings were grown by root breeding, providing features and properties of the phasic youth.
New methods of vegetative propagation enable reproduction and improve root seedlings grown more sophisticated way — rooted cuttings taken in the area of fruiting. Such own-rooted plant their biological characteristics, as there are fixed features and properties of the adult stage. They represent the industrial interests.
To extend the own-rooted culture, especially stone fruit species, it is necessary to carry out activities of national importance. In the areas of distribution of own-rooted plants should be organized by a single method of biological testing. At the same time reveal valuable varieties and clones, test and highlight areas and individual plants in the mother state fund.
For the most promising with regard to own-rooted culture areas should be developed (using the valuable local varieties), and to organize a special assortment of state testing varieties of cherries and plums in the two types of culture — own-rooted and grafted.
These measures should lead the State Commission for Variety Testing of fruit crops under the Ministry of Agriculture of the USSR and bring research institutions. Along with this country to specialize in nurseries for growing own rooted seedlings on an industrial scale.
It should strengthen the identification and development of methods of own-rooted vegetative propagation, to include in the plan of research institutions to develop the theme types of plantations and methods of intensification of their culture.
We think there is a need to coordinate the research work of this great and important problem, having created one of the institutions of higher education or research institutions problematic laboratory for the development of methods and own-rooted culture of vegetative propagation of fruit plants. The implementation of these measures at the appropriate institutional level will require time, effort and money, but it will be fully justified.