Review of achievements and problem analysis
MORE THAN 375 THOUSAND invention, a Soviet inventor for the tenth five-year plan. OF THEM IN THE NATIONAL ECONOMY uses about 100 thousand. INVENTORS save for the five countries, more than eight billion rubles.
What results have completed tenth five-year Soviet inventors?
Several figures. Since 1976 in the Soviet Union there are more than 312 000 inventions. that is 98 thousand more «than the previous five-year period (preliminary figures). In VNIIGPE received 729,000 applications; It flies in comparison with the five-year period — 21 percent. Invention recognizes 53 per cent of applications; in the previous Pyatiletke- 35 percent.
Inventions become the measure of the level and effectiveness of the new technology. They largely determine the face of the economy, dictate the pace of development of industries, let you enter the world-class products to exceed it.
In the tenth five-year plan came into operation thousands of high-performance systems, machines, which embodies the latest achievements of the inventive idea. Introduced into production units for continuous production of thin-walled shells made of steel and aluminum, instead of deficit lead to long-distance communication cables. The performance of these units at eight — ten times higher than that of similar foreign machines. Large units for the production of ammonia in the four to five-fold increase in productivity and a half times reduced investment and production costs. Thanks to a new method of «invented in the USSR, from ores began to extract up to 97 percent copper and precious metals, and the investment and energy costs have decreased by half.
Just last five-year plan was introduced about 100 thousand inventions. This is almost twice more than in 1971-1975 years. The economic effect from the use of inventions exceeded eight billion rubles.
«The main directions of development of the national economy of the USSR for 1976-1980» was provided to expand the sale and purchase of licenses and other technical documentation. Compared with the five-year period was planned to increase the volume of foreign exchange earnings for the licenses sold. In fact, foreign exchange earnings have increased significantly. If the five-year period was signed 339 agreements for the sale of Soviet licenses in the tenth five-year agreements concluded in these two and a half times more. The largest license deals include «method of growing crystals» Phianits «(developer of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR),» Plugging flooded mountain fractured rock «(Ministry of Coal Industry of the USSR),» Technology resistance welding «(Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in cooperation with Minneftegazstroy USSR),» Technology KIVTSET » (Mintsvetmet USSR).
Has expanded the geography of export of Soviet litsenziy- Now our partners are companies from 51 countries. The sale of licenses for the five-year plan involved 66 ministries and agencies, whereas in the previous five-year period — 54 ministries and departments, the first steps in the field of license sales did Minges Soviet Union, the USSR Ministry of Water Resources, the Ministry of Railways.
Now, about the unresolved issues.
In general, the flow of applications is still prohibitively high proportion of minor inventions. Only about seven percent of the inventions provide savings of more than 100 thousand rubles.
A significant part of the inventions created in the economy is not in use.
Some ministries do not take * appropriate measures to improve the efficiency of the innovation process. Gak. Minhimmasha enterprises in recent years, many used the invention provide a very low economic impact. In 1979 I Leningrad production association «Banner of Labour» introduced six inventions save from … 3 to 21 rubles. Who needs such inventions! Who needs such an introduction? It may give the impression that the enterprise of the total weight of the inventions specifically look for to implement those that will affect the least. A number of factories — Kamsky Machine, Krupininsky rebar and other — in some years have not implemented any of the invention. Not surprisingly, in 1979, the economic effect from the use of inventions in the industry has decreased in comparison with the previous year by 38 percent. At the time, the USSR State Committee proposed to include in the plan Minhimmashu Tenth Five 52 theme containing 101 invention. According to experts, their implementation would give the industry more than 60 million rubles. However, the Ministry has taken only seven so — and here’s the result.
For a long time Minstznkopromom USSR mastered the USSR State Committee recommended special tube bending machines Model AGT-16, developed in 1974. Its technical characteristics are significantly superior to both domestic and foreign models. More than ten years ago on the basis of highly inventions it was created automatic rotary assembly line model, the A-525 for the mass production of mass products from thermoplastics. One such line, mastered the electrical industry, freed 16 workers, and saved over the year more than 100 thousand rubles. The national economy requires more than 300 such lines. Gosplan instructed in 1976 Minstankopromu ensure the production of these lines, however, the ministry has planned to release the first production batch only for the current year. and that in a number of three units.
Institute of Ukrainian Academy of Sciences casting in 1965 developed magnetodynamic installation for casting and automatic dosing of liquid metal. The economic effect of a single installation — up to 40 thousand rubles a year. Development Institute awarded gold medals and diplomas of international exhibitions, patented in the USA, Germany! France and Japan. The Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the Ukrainian Republican Council of VOIR has repeatedly raised the issue of mass production facilities, but they are still not available.
Many ministries do not show proper persistence to update the range of products. Large share of industrial products. mastered over ten years ago. So. in 1979 by the USSR Minstankopromu proportion of products developed for the first time, was only 5 percent, and mastered over a decade ago — 22 percent; by Minhimmashu respectively — 5 and 20 percent.
What are the ways of invention in the eleventh five-year period? What are the main problems should be solved in the coming years?
Important economic and social challenge — the creation and widespread use of high-performance machines, devices and processes, based on the progressive inventions.
06 This is stated in the «Guidelines for the Economic and Social Development of the USSR for 1981-1985 and for the peri- od up to 1990». Ministries and departments should make maximum use of the planned leverage to effectively manage the process of creating objects of new technology
In this case, it deserves widespread experience of the Ministry of electrical industry. Here, since 1973, used a clear management system, aimed at the development and production at the level of inventions. The enterprises and organizations of the Ministry are bound together by creating inventions and of the immediate use of new techniques and technologies. Inventive work was controlled and planned process at all stages of the cycle «research — development — implementation» This development receives a positive evaluation only if it is used at least one invention, regardless of whether «own» it, or «alien» was created there developers topic or borrowed them from information sources. Reports that do not contain inventions approved by the Scientific and Technical Council only after a reasoned decision on the subject can not be met at the level of invention.
As a result, in 1979 compared to 1979. The number of completed protectable fact increased in the Ministry and in half of the individual parent organizations — up to 95- 98 per cent. Annual savings from the introduction of inventions has increased in the industry for five years, from 13 to 95 million rubles.
Experience electricians assure is that in the ensuing five-year period similar inventive process control system should be established in all sectors. It is also necessary to put the plan to the invention and its components have become an integral part.
Of course it would be a mistake to assume that the widespread use of inventions and discoveries will solve all the problems of technological progress. But the inventive activity in modern conditions should be seen as a radical means of achieving a high level of industrial production, as a powerful and permanent reserve for increasing the efficiency of social production.
State Committee believes that one of the most important tasks of the eleventh five-year plan to improve the quality of examination of applications. She is improving from year to year. So, in 1975, Control Board of Review for half the errors noted and comments in the decisions of the examination in comparison with 1975 year. They must be fully reduced and basically eliminated completely unjustified refusal to recognize innovative applications inventions. On the other hand, the barrier should be put technical solutions, make an application for the invention, which do not contribute anything substantial to the already known prior art, and are very close to the category of innovation proposals ..
Increased attention will be paid once the network opment patent collections in the Urals, Siberia and Kazakhstan
In the Eleventh Five-Year, as in the past will be improved regulations governing social relations in the field of invention. Who developed izobretelstve Act (conditional name) — which undoubtedly will emphasize the role of new technical solutions in the booming economy of the country and will directly contribute to accelerate the pace of scientific and technological progress.
In his address to the country’s innovators CPSU General Secretary Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, Comrade LI Brezhnev stated: «The results of creativity of inventors and innovators, coupled with the shock work of the Soviet people, discover new reserves of increase of efficiency of social production, increase productivity, improve product quality «.
Everything new that gives rise to creative thought innovators, should be put at the service of Soviet society.