Our farm specializes in the production of fruit. Gardens occupy 1050 hectares, or about one-seventh of all agricultural land. The area under them is growing by 140-150 hectares.
Expanding gardens, we set a goal — to get as much product per hectare. In its decision, we have a loyal ally — the science. On the territory of the farm is located Michurinsky gossortoispytatelny portion of fruit and berry crops. In the paper, we strive to use his experience. No less close relationship maintained with the Research Institute of Horticulture name Michurin. Its staff are often in our economy, give advice on organization, mechanization of farming and horticulture, selection of breeds and varieties.
The farm is dominated by young gardens. Only plantations over an area of 100 hectares are more than 30 years. Up to 1953 apple trees were planted 10 × 10, 8X8, 8X7, 8X6 meters. Then, on the recommendation of scientists began to be planted at a distance of 8X4 meters and aisles of young plants to use for planting annual crops. The gardens, laid down by the schemes adopted earlier, began to condense.
Ten years ago, on 70 acres of apple fruiting garden in rows between the trees, planted an additional one young apple tree. This did not prevent the aisles to handle in two directions.
Podsazhennye trees in four years began to bear fruit, and 7-8 years of age were given 30 kilograms of fruit. When compacting garden with the same area received 30-35% of apples more than before. So, in 1953, with each of the 70 hectares have collected 42 quintals of fruit in 1959, when they began to bear fruit trees, seals, — 63 and 1963 — 88 quintals. Now sealed gardens occupy 251 hectares.
With such a number of planting trees per hectare is increased compared with the planting scheme 8X6 meters by one-third, and the scheme 8X8 m — 2 times. Due to the cost of seedlings, stakes and additional labor costs increase by 12-15%. But in subsequent years, these costs are reimbursed more quickly yield and to accelerate the entry into bearing trees. In 1963, in the gardens, where trees planted 8X8 meters, we have received 43 quintals per hectare, 8X7 — 55; 7X7 — 59; 8X6 — 63; 10×5 — 88; 5X5 — 102; 8X4 (gardens come into fruition) — 67 quintals. Thus, increasing the number of trees per hectare collecting fruits increases. In addition, condensed plantings begin to bear fruit earlier.
In 1963, the average yield fruit in the gardens of unconsolidated was 57 quintals per hectare in the thickened — 68, and in some areas — up to 76.
Experience shows that the sealing fit economically advantageous. In 1963 as a whole on the farm per hectare apples implemented by 2300 rubles, and compacted landings — at 3050 rubles.
Now we plant gardens only scheme 8X4 m. They take us more than 400 hectares. Such plantations produce more output and income.
Some experts have expressed concern that the viscosified placing fruit trees will oppress each other, and this has a negative impact on their growth, development and ultimately on productivity. It is possible that this will happen if you do not manage the development of the plant, not to create the necessary conditions for the normal distribution of the branches of the crown.
Applying trimming, adjusting the height and direction of the main branches in the direction between the rows, avoiding condensation crown in the ranks, you can provide good lighting trees. The tree must have a height of not more than 4-4.5 meters and have the same diameter of the crown. As a result, facilitated by works such as pruning, pest and disease control, especially cleaning fruit.
Gardening in our economy — one of the high-value and profitable industries. In 1953, the proportion of fruit and berry production in commercial products was 75%. In the years following enlargement of the farm and increase land with 1177.5 to 7373 hectares (1959), the share of horticultural products decreased slightly, but the actual proportion of it was significantly higher than the planned: in 1959 — 56% (36.3 Plan %), in 1960 — 51.5% (41.8% plan) in 1963 -58.7% (40.5% of the plan). In the future, with the entry of young gardens fruiting share of the leading industry — horticulture — will increase dramatically.
To obtain high yields of fruits and berries, the farm and in a timely manner to carry out all benign farming practices. We tried to introduce advanced techniques, advances in science. Our sadodovody enthusiasts are finding new ways of growing fruit trees.
Now the pits for the trees we dig in the garden planting. And to plow the soil plowed plantage divide neighborhoods and set planting stakes. Then one worker from the northern side of the marker stake digs a hole depth of up to 30 and widths up to 40 centimeters, the other — sets and free seedling root system places it in the pit.
Work, dig a hole, crosses it, and the other shaking a sapling and seals around the earth. After leveling and compacting the first business does well, the other at this time preparing a hole for planting the next tree.
With this method (compared with earth borer) soil environment is a more uniform, favorable conditions for tree growth, making the work easier, increases its productivity by 35-40%, decrease the cost of planting by 8-10%. In spite of the low temperatures in winter 1962/63 year, the seedlings are well accustomed and have gains.
In recent years, in the economy, along with the revision of cropping patterns and improving farming standards sought opportunities to improve land use. As a rule, perennials allocated the best land and fruit trees in the first years after planting, it is not fully used. Therefore, since 1953, in between rows of young garden we plant potatoes year earlier, sow vetch-oat mixture of hay, phacelia and green manure. Due to these crops increased gross yield of forage crops.
With proper selection and good care of row crops negative impact on the growth and development of fruit trees do not have.
Earth — our main wealth and its rational use is the main source of increasing agricultural productivity.