The last half-century designers, technicians and people working on the creation of artificial intelligence, saying that embody the three laws of robotics, bred writer Isaac Asimov, is almost impossible — you need to be a genius to apply them in practice. It is necessary to set these rules and make a mathematical algorithm so that robots understand the essence of the right. But even if all three laws together — a utopia that does not mean that we can not look at least echoes of Asimov’s rules. Thus, we begin the countdown.
«Stop the robot. He did fly. Stop «- says quietly to two graduate students Alex G. Leskov, d. T. N., Professor of» Special Robotics and Mechatronics «and director of Dmitrov Branch of MSTU. Bauman.
Alexei G. stares as two trehsotkilogrammovye mechanized robot arm Kawasaki, designed for assembly and welding of Toyota cars in the factories, in the synchronous slow movement straighten up — holding nothing clamped, iron unbent joint by joint. Reprogrammed graduate students and students Baumanki robotic arms at the moment are in full confidence that they are in free fall and pull a weight of five tons farther into space. In general shift arm yourself from a place you can not, but in the mode of weightlessness it was enough to push — and then have to stop, you can only control panel. Professor Leskov turned back from the robot stopped and continued to talk to Albert Yefimov, head of IT sector «Skolkovo», who had come to test the waters for possible cooperation on the Dmitrov branch.
Teaching experimental unit of one of the major technical universities in the country is located in the village of work shall be carried in the Moscow region, and on the 70 hectares during training come Bauman have practice and conduct research projects. Among the other buildings in the complex there is a building of the Faculty with a training rocket class size of three school gymnasiums, brim clogged models ever built in Russia missiles. One slate walls and desks, behind towering monstrous nozzle rocket «Soyuz», laid flat on the whole room. In the laboratory of robotics students programmed two avtostroitelnye robot Oruk and come up with their new tasks. Leskov explains that nowadays pointless to build robots themselves: all the ground under it, ready to fly, and to dig in their brains. So hand Kawasaki, who did not initially paired, were connected into one system, a joystick got the prefix as a remote control received additional brush with artificial skin and vision system. Basically hands programmed for solving space problems: move cargo dock station gateways, to show how to behave technique is Earth’s gravity.
Albert Yefimov loves robots and can talk about them for hours. Generally, Efimov says, everything in the world there are three kinds of robotics: military robots, industrial and personal. The military traditionally developed more than the others, the industry has become intensely developed in the 60s, and a sharp jump in personal made four years ago.
According Efimova, Russia’s highly developed military robotics, but it just does not say, and there is a serious need for industrial robots — a huge country, the population is aging, many remote regions, there is an intensive mining, heavy climate. «We have in the cluster there is a company that supplies a robotic navigation system — without the driver controls the dump trucks, receives satellite signals with an accuracy of centimeters,» — said Efimov. If suddenly wanted to know what it looks like an ideal world Albert Efimov, here is this: the whole life take on the robots — preparing breakfast, vacuum cleaner, looking after the sick, they rule the machines and so on. But most of all Efimov want to find yourself a robot double, to send him his place in the meeting.
«What do you think about the personal robot?» — Asks Professor Efimov Leskov. «Good thinking — is responsible professor. — And you’d better let us show the technical vision? «
Vision Systems is a Terminator look at the world around us — on the screen ran the numbers, the picture box, which looks into the camera robotic hand covered with colorful blue outline and white circles. The system scans the image, gives each subject circuit and trying to find the subject of a given parameter, and when it finds something similar, said his red circles, rebuilding geometry relations and remembers the location relative to the camera. It seems to be the Terminator is not so fun — the world turns into a digital noise and a set of parameters.
Efimov says, a delegation from the «Skolkovo» recently went in Imperial
College of London, and there they were shown dancing robot that repeats for a man of action, not only true, but still: «He is stupid, he’s a machine, he can not understand.» To solve this problem, the researchers programmed the robot so that it looked at a certain place where the information is to be read. Powered Robot by Kinect, the system was initially set up for a game console Hoh that reads human action, splits them into the matrix and realizes that for the movement of people and how it is doing. That is roughly the same as the machine vision robotic arm. However, the second part of the action of the robot dancer, the very repetition, is a serious problem that the world decide differently. Bauman repeated until the robot can not do anything, but graduate students promise that someday it will teach yourself to find the desired object, gently take it and move to the desired location. Or learn to twist the bulb — it just is tridactyl paw with artificial skin. Lapu can touch, see how the monitor circuit brush covered with red squares — red where there hardest pressed. Lapu, which is worth more than the two robot arms is not put on the arm — are afraid to break.
Am I allowed to steer the robot — a joystick and give instructions. If you lower the arms down, and someone will push them in the opposite direction, you feel resistance (the joystick vibrates). You can quickly move the hands of the robot, you can take a load of up to 20 kilograms. Many things can be, just do not have to twist the robot arm and elbow arch — activated security system: the robot stops working and gets «in focus.» «He was sick — seriously say postgraduates. — When do we have here are excursions with students, they always ask why the robot has stopped working, and we offer them with the hand to make the same thing, and they all immediately becomes clear. » The third rule of robotics in action.
Albert Efimov and Alexei Leskov go into a private room to discuss a joint bright future robotic and graduate students show me how to communicate with the modern technology. These include voice control mode and start to issue commands.
— Movement «up».
— Sailing down — computer voice without accents and pauses responded robot arm.
— Movement «speed of fifty.»
— Sets the speed of sliding the fifty millimeters per second.
— Wrong, I’m not stupid. I’m just still learning — unemotional machine responds.
— Well done.
— Thank you. I am trying.
DOMAIN ROBOT obey all orders, which gives a person, except in cases where these conflict with the First ORDERS LAW.
«This is not Skynet. This is the reality, «- cheerfully tells me CEO of Mail.Ru Group, millionaire Dmitry Grishin, featuring videos on your iPhone 5.
In the video, filmed Grishin at the University of Zurich, three quadrocopters fly between them stretched grid. Quadrocopters floating peacefully, then abruptly flock, then just as abruptly scatter in different directions, the grid fires the ball, the ball flies, quadrocopters instantly flock to again pull on the net and caught the ball. And so over and over again — no matter where the ball flew, no matter how high he might take off, no matter how far he or thrown, it quadrocopters intersect, exchange information, and still trying to catch him. Grishina eerie sight, it seems just as frightening.
Grishin was always interested in robotics, but rather in an extremely pragmatic way — by automating the usual processes to facilitate a person’s life. «We have sent Gagarin into space, invented the rovers, and go out, and you in the heart of garbage lying around. And automatic robot could come for a long time and remove all «, — says Mr. rishin. He graduated with honors from the Faculty of robotics and complex automation Bauman, engaged in internet, did Mail.ru portal one of the main services you’ll ever need. His office is completely empty and featureless, though it operates the robot. Last summer, the company has created Grishin Grishin Robotics, which invests in start-ups in the field of robotics (in her personal Grishin put $ 25 million). Has already signed a pair of contracts, one of which is the company that makes the robot telepresence (iPad RV), and the developer of the App Store for the kind of robots — some wanted the new skill or ability to own hardware, software downloaded and installed. With Russian companies Grishin contracts not yet signed, although offers and requests him to come all the time. Grishin created a foundation, because he believes in the theory that the revolution in any technical field only occurs when a massive user can feel the novelty: «If we did not have smartphones, and we just told that they are at war, it’s nothing would not have changed — he explains. —
But did the computer, put on the table, saw that it exists — and there was a massive breakthrough. » Recent 1015 components to create a robot quickly became cheaper, primarily due to the mass production of smart phones and computers: before, say, the robot had to buy an expensive battery, you can now buy a battery for a smartphone and enjoy. Sensors, motors, cameras — all key components fell so that the robot can be assembled for a thousand dollars. The second important factor — the emergence ZBprinterov at which you can print prototypes of robots that, in general has always been expensive.
So now began to appear startups that before in this area was impossible to imagine, and it is from them Grishin waiting for a breakthrough. However, depreciation of production has led to a lot of companies that do develop in the spirit of the famous comic book about a scientist who boasts of a colleague: «Look, I have created a robot that endlessly screaming.» — «Cool. What for?»
«There is a cool technology, but what to do with it, people do not understand — said Grishin. — In the middle of these practical niches I see my mission. » He cites as an example the story of the American developers have collected a robot that can swim in shallow water. They did just so, and then the swimmer to have been used — to run in the steel pipe, which he swims and spends usually expensive expertise of materials for cracks and damage. Water, sewage, oil and gas pipelines — the buyer technology immediately found. In the case of quadrocopters that Grishin shows on your phone, you can solve the problem of insuring construction projects and workers are in the woods and ravines to catch them if they fall. «The real magic happens when a good crosses and technology problem,» — concludes Grishin.
Problems known: monotonous work; delivery of goods without human intervention and, most importantly, without the «Mail of Russia»; hazardous industries; hazardous activities such as resolving the crisis of Fukushima; security and so on.. But why make robots that will make human work if people are constantly complaining about unemployment? «Progress — is it good or bad? Fast forward to the America of the eighteenth century. What do you think, what percentage of the population was engaged in while in agriculture? Seventy five. What do you think, what percentage of busy right now? Three and a half. Do I have been to develop a fertilizer, machinery optimization? History shows that progress improves human life and increases its duration. «
Grishin generally believed that the philosophical questions it is too early to ask robotics: all that is required of it — follow the instructions of the person properly. «Philosophical problems appear when the intelligence of the robot reaches the highest level, will educate themselves when manufacturing robots other robots to reach a mass character.»
Finally Dmitry Grishin shows another video, not so terrible as to quadrocopters. Photographed in Pittsburgh, it reprogram industrial robotic arm, which itself picks up the ball on the ground, throws it in the basketball basket with the devil, heartless precision, the ball flies out of the nets, falls to the ground, the robot it picks up, wherever he fell, and He crosses again and again, and again.
A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human was harmed.
Rise of the Machines nobody noticed — one of a dozen sleeping R.Bot 100 robots suddenly woke up and made a muffled sound, something between a rustle, squeak and squeal. And then he stopped, although others did not before — employees R.Bot, sitting in the basement in the north-west of Moscow, dismantled pieces of paper and go about their business. R.Bot 100 oblong, resembles a vacuum cleaner at the same time, Eve from «WALL» and the droid R2D2 of «Star Wars»: half-meter barrel-shaped body on the sides of the wheel, on top of the neck and small head, spinning 270 degrees. This robot — the first real personal, created in Russia, and its fate may tell the world who created it, a lot. R.Bot suffered the fate of honors, graduated from the prestigious university with honors, knowledge of which is not particularly useful anywhere: he wanted to benefit society.
and I was forced to hand out advertisements in the metro.
Before its official launch in 2008, the company managed to make some noise R.Bot in Perm in 2007, where specialists of the future holding company set up a comprehensive surveillance system, which at the time was a rarity. Erbotovtsy hooked Perm and seven satellite cities in a network and as an experiment, and with the approval of the law enforcement agencies of the region’s own funds have developed a robot policeman (then were the police). The result was a two-meter metal chetyrehsotkilogrammovaya Mahina, something between a mobile unit and the traffic police a concrete mixer. This plump warhead on wheels with the Russian flag, the blue lights and the general inscription «Robopatrulnaya service.» The robot went around the city, guided it, shot on video, it can be connected to the officer, and watch what happens. Permian, not yet knowing that a year later they will conduct an experiment to inculcate the title cultural center of the world, looking at the robot like an idiot, I quarreled with him crashing on his bottle and otherwise bickered. However, Vyacheslav Kravtsov, director of robotic projects holding R.Bot, says that the experiment robot prophylaxis was received with enthusiasm by regional law enforcement officers where the robot, armed with cameras appeared, the number of crimes decreased: the offender preferred to withdraw deeper into the yard or in other areas . The project nevertheless turned — there were no more funds, financing was not the legislative framework, which would define the legal status of a robot with cameras was not. The project is ahead of his time, and the reaction of local residents also mattered. «Well, do you think what it could be if we even in the suburbs, when the robot goes to him suitable preteen and says:» The robot, you asshole, «- said Kravtsov. However, the development team did not put down robots and led by Alexei Knyazev, a graduate of the Faculty of Radio Electronics Bauman, has managed to grow from a self-made basement startup in operating business. Holding R. Bot does not only robots but also balloons, the leading video surveillance, security systems, as well as holding their own research and development centers proizvedstvenny. Knyazev found money for the development of robots, where he could — become a provider, developed printers engaged in business. Today R.Bot earns its robots, in order to optimize transfers production to China, where he received the support of local authorities in the United States opened a representative office.
By and large call R.Bot 100 full robot can not — he is not autonomous, they are controlled by the operator, or, as they call themselves the creators, «robodrayver.» Initially R.Bot 100 has been coined as a telepresence robot that could solve a lot of problems. Basically, he had to help disabled people and people with disabilities who can not leave the house: so that they can learn, work, communicate with people. Our employees like to tell the story of how with the help of a robot invalid Anton conducted tour of the Pushkin Museum: sitting at home, connected to the robot, driving it, talked to the children. Another application — schools where no one can go ill children or children with disabilities. You sit at home again, is connected to the robot, which stands in a class listening to the teacher, homework, answer questions. At the same time the robot can connect to many people. Another use of such robots — hospitals, infectious and resuscitation department, where visitors are not allowed, and I want to communicate with their relatives. Is connected to the robot, you look at the mother, he sees you through monitorchika talking.
It turned out differently: R.Bot market is known not only as the first company to create a personal robot, but as a company that makes a lot of money in the advertising market — their robots love to rent and buy for promotions, exhibitions and conferences. The achievement of scientific thought is pasted over the company’s logo on the chest fasten monitors a presentation on its side — Brochure. Here and now in the office is a few robots who logo Siemens, one Volkswagen, one of «Beeline».
I joke that R. Bot 100 lacks only a tray of champagne to the head of solder, how to take in the sixth episode of «Star Wars» to slavery droid R2D2, what manager Natalia speaks only darkly, «No, a tray of champagne is usually fasten side «. On promotions robots go with a team of operators robodrayverov. Operators are hiding in a separate room, and robots welcome visitors and attract attention, with all the talking, handing out pamphlets. «It’s a wow effect, all photographed with him, then lay out photos to the network. And the female model that would normally cost, — they do not even talk too much, do not hug, do not sfotografirueshsya «, — says Natalya. After a moment of shock from contact with the robot people start asking questions, always the same — Natalia even has its own top 5 most frequently asked phrases: how much will be 2×2, how old are you, what do you go to class, what’s your name, do your wife / husband / children. Hourly rentals robot costs about 20 thousand rubles, the robot itself in the basic version costs 250 rubles, and this is considered to be very, very cheap offer.
However, direct responsibility R.Bot 100 is also involved — the company bought a robotic five schools in Moscow, St. Petersburg, seven, one in the city of Ivanovo, worked as a tour guide at the Polytechnical Museum before it closed for renovation. Still, given the experience of the Permian, R.Bot 100 going to send to patrol the stations, but this idea was abandoned. «Who wants to be seen a mess? With no police that homeless people that steal, who cares? — Asks Vyacheslav Kravtsov. — When Medvedev unexpectedly arrived at the station, I remember what happened? Frames were police there, and then all was quiet again. The appearance of the robot there is nowhere rises dust and everything will be thrown to the surface. » In schools, the appearance of the robot also causes problems — there were cases that the teachers refused to conduct at their lessons, disconnected from the power supply of the robot, demanding higher wages. Kravtsov it relates to the fact that, when the school has students with disabilities, the teachers just go home and work part time, but with the advent of robots, they lose such earnings. In fairness Kravtsov says that the disabled will also be challenging coming home teachers often overestimate the assessment, and the team can not do this already, so you have to learn on an equal footing with the others. Despite the fact that society and the law to the appearance of the robots are not ready, Kravtsov sure that the widespread appearance of the robots is inevitable — tasks that they can be solved, unlimited. For example, the head of a large company goes and leaves everything to follow the robot, because it is known that the out performance management falls by half, and when everyone knows that they are constantly being watched, increased to 150%.
RBot again alive, buzzing and says: «Cook.» Then, after a pause, H adds: «Well. Here I’m». Robo-driver Sergey sits at his computer and talking through the microphone of the robot, but can simply type a word, and the robot will repeat everything. The monitor had a small window video cameras, the robot is controlled by buttons W, A, S, D, as in a computer game, you can change the speed, turn the head.
«Sergei, let’s synthesized voice anything,» — Natalia asks the robot. «And what can I say?» — Through the hiss responsible robodrayver. «Say,» Hi, how are you? «Pause. «Normalek» — responds R.Bot 100.
Communication between man and machine did not work out.
On the belly button is a huge robot shines — he is not charged, it glows bright blue light. When charging, the flashing blue and red. This emergency stop button, which guarantees the safety of a person if the machine suddenly starts to push it or go crazy, you should click on the button — and the robot stops moving, ride, turn my head until the operator unlocks it. «Our robot meets safety regulations, — said Kravtsov. — He streamlined corners, movement speed is artificially limited, you can not drop it, there is emergency stop button. The first law of robotics, we just decided that if all of a sudden uprising of machines, you will need to push the button. » Natalia, however, says that the PR campaign button has a disservice operators — someone will click on yes button: the lights.
Vyacheslav Kravtsov loves to tell that they came up with their robots before the release of the movie «Avatar» and «Surrogates» and that they are the first step towards this kind of robots. When I asked whether they dream of electric sheep R.Bot 100, Vyacheslav, before the sad, suddenly perked up: «Yes!
You know, we had a wonderful story recently — I at eight in the morning call from the Space Museum, and were told that our robot is that there is at point guard, five in the morning suddenly revived, began loudly to say something, and then just as suddenly turned off. Security terribly frightened. We still do not know what happened. Well, I instructed them how to disable the robot, all is well. What happened, I do not know, because the robot was not Nick who is connected. Maybe it’s the birth of artificial intelligence? «- Laughs Kravtsov.
Rise of the Machines, in general, has been suppressed. Yet.