The development of means of signaling and communication (1838-1938 gg.).

The period in which the alarm can be regarded as the end of the 30s, 40s and early 50s of the last century. It was the construction of the first railways in Russia — Tsarskoye Selo, St. Petersburg-Moscow. Tsarskoye Selo road was opened to traffic in 1838 Researches and construction of St. Petersburg-Moscow road lasted from 1842 to 1851

Measures to ensure traffic safety on the road Tsarskoye Selo were very primitive. A certain K., published in the magazine «Weekly new time» N2 for 83 in 1880 his memoirs, he wrote: «As the locomotive whistles were the terror of the public, the authorities ordered them to replace the music. To do this in front of the chimney of the locomotive were set specifically for this prescription orgёny overseas. «

The main foundation of safety at the time was strict adherence to timetables on the clock. Trains were moving with the delineation of time. This method of organization of the movement could be used because the trains ran only during the day, with a speed limit. The straightness of the path provides good visibility. All the trainsets conductors had to bring their copies of train schedules and precise watches, which were identical to the clock in offices. The clock in the offices wound up on a weekly basis and the keys kept them under lock and key. In addition, the stations were installed clock tower.

With increasing traffic there was a need for alarm, began to appear the first rule. In 1852 it was issued «Regulations on the signals on

St. Petersburg-Moscow railway, «and in 1853 -» Regulation on trains

St. Petersburg-Moscow railroad. «

One of the points of «Rules that determine the use and control signal boards», read: «Two signal shield will be placed at the ends of each of the stations throughout the line.

The first panel, placed at a distance of 250 yards (about 535 meters) from the first shooter, going green, he is immobile and requires a reduction in stroke.

The second panel placed against the first shooter, arranged on the path will be red and agile. Red shield posed parallel to the road, it indicates that the station is open and entrance is free. Shield posed perpendicular to the road and face-to-train shows that the station is locked. «

Also in 1859 he was introduced and the «signals, bursting with a bang», ie. E. Firecrackers. Firecrackers were used to guard the train stopped on the way; In addition, they were supplemented by constant optical signals during fog. The explosion of firecrackers demanded from the driver to reduce speed to the speed of a person, so that if necessary you can immediately stop the train.

At that time, introduced the so-called regulatory signals: signal actuation of the hand brake — three short whistle, the signal «release the brakes» — two lingering whistle, signal the departure of the train, fed mainly conductor pocket whistle, and the response signal the driver of the locomotive whistles.

This shows that the sixties of the last century were laid down many of the basic principles of signaling, kept up to date.

In 1857 it was founded Main Company of Russian Railways, in 1859 he was transferred to St. Petersburg-Warsaw road, and in 1868 — the St. Petersburg-Moscow (at that time she had already called Nikolaev). Looks boards railways for signaling have been very different.

Inconsistency in alarm at the increase in the construction of new roads and an increase in the size of trains has led to the intervention of the Ministry. For the purpose of uniformity alarm circular of the Department of Railways on June 11, 1870 it was invited on all roads set the input turning red wheels and in front of them still green discs.

In 1873, the Ministry of Railways has been published the first «Regulations on the signals» binding on all Russian railways. This provision authorized the use of red and green discs. At the same time allowed and semaphores as the first design with wooden or metal masts.

Especially it is necessary to note the use of the railways Electrical -kolokolnoy alarm. In 1867, the bell alarm was equipped with a bridge across the Western Dvina in the Petersburg-Warsaw road.

It changes the electrical alarm bell up to the 20s of this century. It was established to alert the guards near the train track one or the other direction; to signal the way to the station of the damage path or expulsion of auxiliary locomotive requirements; as train signaling.

Elektrokolokola installed near dwellings road masters and guard booths 1.5-2 mile (about 1600-2100 m).

In 1870, at the urging of an engineer JF Koenig on the Nikolaev road, owned at the time the Main Company of Russian Railways, the first devices were introduced centralization. In this connection, the stations of the road there were «long» and two bilateral chetyrehkrylye semaphores. However, the centralization of the device for the first 10 years were introduced slowly. Although the introduction of centralization of switches and signals at the Nikolaev road not only improve safety, but also resulting in savings on staff. Centralization was also built at the stations Ryazhsk,

St. Petersburg-Baltic, Brest and others. Everywhere used manual transmission with rigid centralization.

In the early 70-ies on the initiative of M. Verkhovsky had the first waypoint on the site lock Petersburg — Oranienbaum, and in 1878 at the suggestion of JF Koenig lock was built at the Nikolayev railroad.

Here’s what he wrote talented engineer VM Verkhovsky, who made a lot for the development of domestic alarm: «Enhanced security for a large movement on the road, not only is an essential need for security, but by promoting the success of the movement, can very quickly pay and expenses to the device it spent. «

A new upsurge of railway construction in Russia took place in 1880-1890 gg. During this time the locomotive and rolling stock of railways more than doubled.

In 1883 it introduced new «Rules of traffic by rail.» These rules take into account the application of the block system. From 1895- 1896 biennium. became applicable interlocking electric token system.

A great contribution to the development of mechanical devices to centralize switches and signals made by Professor J. N. Gordienko. The first device of its systems were installed in 1885 at the station Sablino Nikolaev road and the station Koshedary St. Petersburg-Warsaw road.

Professor Gordienko system has been awarded at the National Exhibition of Nizhny Novgorod in 1896 and the Paris World Exhibition in 1900

YN Gordienko Russia’s first theoretically considered the conditions of the devices centralization. And in 1895, an engineer way SD Kareysha defended at the Institute of Communications thesis on «The central control unit switches and signals in the Russian railways». It was Russia’s first thesis on a topic related to the safety devices of trains.

In 1898 it was published «Rules of technical exploitation,» reflecting on the railways occurred changes in the organization of movement. Much worse was the case with the «Rules for alarm.» Not only is no single signaling system for the entire network, but often at a railway signal types and signal indications vary considerably.

In 1894, under the Ministry of Railways has set up a commission of eminent persons of that time, the project has developed a new «Rules of alarm,» but they were only published in 1909, already mentioned «technical operation» in 1898 contained very general guidelines. There, for example, in paragraph 51 it stated that «the way of relations in the way the train stopped at stations determined in necessary cases for each road specifically the Ministry of Railways.»

In one of the paragraphs of «rights» is mentioned zhezlovaya system received in the 1900-1917 biennium. exclusive development on the single-track lines.

In the early 1900s, installing electric token system was monopolized by the British company «Webb-Thompson.» Numerous developing Russian inventors and innovators in the field of zhezlovoy system suppressed, and sometimes were bought by this company in order to extend its exclusive equipment at inflated prices.

In the early XX century on the double-track railways used a semi-automatic lock AC. If electric token system was monopolized by the British firm «Webb-Thompson,» the lock was implemented mainly produced by German company «Siemens-Halske». Small widespread as domestic and system interlocks. The most common of these was the system of Professor J. N. Gordienko. In the 1900s he developed the original design of a centralized instrument for flexible transmission.

The first electric interlocking system of switches and signals has been built in our country in 1909 in the Vitebsk Station Riga-Orel road, and the next — in 1914 at the station of the Moscow-Petersburg Vindava-Rybinsk. Both of these settings have been made by the German company AEG.

Development of centralization, blocking and zhezlovoy systems went on the Russian roads is extremely slow. The First World War caused a reduction in the construction of a new signaling systems and virtually eliminated the current and capital repairs.

After the Civil War, it was decided first of all to introduce automatic lock that provides high bandwidth lines and safety. Low technical level of the industry are not permitted while on their own to develop an automatic lock system, and equipment for it. Research work done on transport whereas the first steps. The main efforts were then directed to the development of imported equipment purchased for two small areas.

The first samples of the national centralization of relay were put into mass production in 1937 were developed and put into mass production of the new machines zhezlovye inventor triggers that freed our country from its dependence on the company ‘Webb-Thompson. «

Older large plants with a large number of routes without the participation of foreign firms has been developed and implemented centralized design of the device with electric box without dependence. Electric interlocking steel building insulation receiving and departure tracks, which excludes the possibility of receiving trains on the busy road. It is no longer used wooden semaphore. Widely was introduced electric lighting semaphores.

Currently, the country’s rail network is equipped with modern devices, automation, remote control and communications. Further development of transport will inevitably lead to the emergence of new, more advanced systems.

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