Late in the Arctic summer comes. Even in June, often it breaks wet snow, and the cold biting wind permeates to the bone. But the most capricious weather northern spring and autumn. It gives a lot of trouble forecasters Murmansk Territorial Administration for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Control. But without accurate prediction of today do not do any one enterprise, not to mention the pilots and fishermen. Weather service on the Kola Peninsula has a wide network. Dozens of hydro-meteorological stations are scattered throughout the area. There were reports on the state of the weather and upper-air stations and research vessels, and meteorological satellites. Every three hours of computer communications center of Murmansk automatically gathers information from all the meteorological facilities in the area. Forecasters decode it to comprehend and predict the weather. For a short message about the weather forecast for tomorrow is hard work people who are often separated from each other by hundreds and thousands of kilometers.
More than 50 years ago in a remote area by the river Toulon was delivered to a small group of sleigh. Settled down, built artless METEOROLOGICAL, called the station «Padun.» Now much has changed here: increased multi-storey houses, built an underground reservoir and hydroelectric power. Changed conditions of life and work of meteorologists, but, as before, every three hours on duty take readings from the instruments, process them and transmit to Murmansk.
I was looking for a weather station «Padun» the traditional weather vane. It is an ancient device used even at the very beginning Weather Service, it was at the station, but they are now used only in exceptional situations. In place of obedient wind came flazhochku device called directional anemometer. With it, except in the direction determined by the average and maximum wind speed. And all this quickly, without leaving the premises. In the meteorological installed a sensor of this device — a kind of automatic weathervane.
It will greatly facilitate the work of the meteorologist on duty and another device — «Willow». Previously, to measure the height of clouds — a very important parameter — it was necessary to run the pilot balloon and watch it with a stopwatch in hand — and this in any weather.
…When I looked into the room, Tamara Kravtsov — a meteorologist on duty sat at the instrument, clinging to the dark eyes of the short tube.
— And three days ago it was the «storm» — as we call fog and low clouds — explained on duty. — At the moment for retreat aviaadresam «storm» and show our economy.
— Two outdoor units that are visible from the windows, — says T. Kravtsov — a light pulse transmitter and a receiver which detects the signal reflected from the clouds and sends it to an oscilloscope. All other weather instrument located in a special area. This gauges, thermometers and soil, and recorders that record the air temperature and humidity, and a device for determining air pollution. We spent as at every station, every ten days snow surveys to determine the content of water reserves in the snow. Every year we take snow samples for contamination. And for good reason. Even away from the industry sometimes found in the snow «surprises.» There were, for example, when it proves that the metal contained in the snow, into the atmosphere from factories of Germany.
Many businesses have a small group station. It serves the entire area of Toulon reservoir, which runs more than a hundred rivers. Reservoir and the main rivers in the winter and in the summer there are 15 posts — one permanent, the other expedition. In winter they get to the helicopter, by boat in the summer. Every three months, were sampled for chemical analysis, and once in ten days is determined by water temperature. Every hour recorders on posts fixed water level in the reservoir.
Similar problems are and to employees hydrometeorological «Fog» — one of the best in the Murmansk Hydrometeorological Service. It caters to a cascade of hydropower plants on the river Serebryansky crow. Every day, here comes information about water flow to determine the total inflow to the reservoir Serebryanskoye. Nine water stations measuring water flow in seven gauging stations. He supervises a team of veteran hydrometeorological station engineer hydrologist A. Rosenberg. For perfect longstanding work he was awarded the title of «Excellent hydro metsluzhby the USSR.»
The work of meteorologists and hydrologists, especially in remote stations is not easy. Podezhurit a minute for twelve hours meteonablyudatelskoy, run several times per shift at the meteorological site, take the readings from instruments, process them, and pass encode for other purposes. For added physical stress and nervous. Meteorology is primarily a hard time frame, it instruments and apparatus which, without proper care may be damaged, it is the element: the storm winds and the sea knows no peace, rain and cold …
In addition to remote management of the Murmansk there is also a difficult plant, those that are in the uninhabited parts of the coast of the Barents Sea and the islands. Such as «Vajda-Guba», «Upper Lotta», «Kanozero» and others. To provide all the necessary station groups — not an easy task. Helicopters or boat are delivered here special new instruments, machinery, building materials, clothing, food. Who is inaccessible stations not surprise anyone refrigerator, washing machine or a TV. Significantly improved working conditions and wintering.
There in the Murmansk administration and such a service — marine forecasters. Do not do without them fishermen. Especially when there is Putin. Together with the sailors «to fish» out the synoptic group Murmansk weather bureau. Typically, in the north of the Barents Sea is accumulated a lot of fishing boats. Work in this area is difficult, since the permanent meteorological stations here a little, and a lot depends on the weather. Besides the usual weather forecasters warn mariners of impending storms and recommend to fishers, which move during strong winds.
More than two years are sailing ship science «Otto Schmidt.» Fourteen laboratories housed aboard him, oceanographic, meteorological, hydrochemical, so-called cold to work with samples of ice … The research results are processed promptly, immediately, on an icebreaker in the data center.
In the Arctic weather speak not only to maintain a «secular» conversation. When on the radio bulletin for tomorrow — all fall silent conversations. This lively account of general interest and, of course, not accidental. The pilots, fishermen, people of other professions whose work is successful depends on the vagaries of the weather, how accurate the forecast, listen carefully. And they know the lines stingy transmission can be trusted …