Traditionally, the southern culture of grapes is now widely grown in northern regions, in Siberia, in the Urals.
One of the first to seriously address the «osevereniem» grapes near Orenburg, in the strongholds of viticulture, created in 1963 (now — the Experimental Station of Horticulture and Viticulture). Much credit for this belongs to the vineyard-breeder Fyodor Ilyich Shatilov, who this year would have turned 95 years old.
In all the years of the station tested more than a thousand varieties. Himself Shatilov displayed about 170 hybrid forms (GF). Experimental Station of the achievements I want to note the variety and Memory Dombkovskoy Aleshenkin gift, which has a national patent. Officially recognized varieties of the Orenburg region Delight, Murom, Agate Don, Koh dryanka. Most of the work done by Shatila Amur grape domestication as the most winter-hardy species.
Fedor Ilyich often quoted the words of his mentor Professor
A.M.Negrulya: «Quality is the father of viticulture and the earth — his mother.» Of course, the selection of varieties is crucial in the northern regions. And the fastest way to enter into the culture of grapes — is a method of introduction. Which of the imported varieties, according Schatiloff, were the best for the Orenburg? This, of course, acquired in 1966 from P.E.Tsehmistrenko grade Aleshenkin, Delight, Rusven, Premier of NILU them. Ya.I.Potapenko (Novocherkassk), Ukrainka, Dawn of NILU them.
V.E.Tairova (Odessa), Crimean Pearl, Novoukrainsky earliest NILU «Magarach» (Yalta), Codreanca, Moldova jewel of NILU (Chisinau), Muscat of Yerevan Armenian NIIViP, Romulus from Romania, Pleven stable (Augustine), Yulski beads of Bulgarian NILU, Grochanka with the Experimental Station «Radmilovats» (Yugoslavia). These varieties over the last several decades, give high yields, relatively resistant to disease and fruit and vine ripen in our conditions.
It should be said about the Global Fund itself F.I.Shatilova that have passed the test of time. On the territory of the rural Church of the Intercession of the Virgin (in the Orenburg region.) I have collected and continue to learn 35 GF Schatiloff, all hardy and reliable for our climate. Listed here are just a few of them. Muscat superearly number 1 is characterized by very early ripening berries (July 13-15), a form of 2-2-8 (Codreanca’s Amur number 6) -moschnoroslaya with bunches weighing up to 1 kg, overwinter under the snow cover alone. Its characteristics are similar to those of the varieties Codreanca, but the shape of 2-2-8 ripens two weeks earlier. At Homeland GF-2 — large black berries, which absorbed all the flavors of the blossoming spring steppe. Form 1.3.40 gives up to 4 bunches to escape («suicide» pohlesche Rusbola), it is very early ripening vines. Gorgeous GF 2-1-5 with large pink berries nutmeg. Hybrid forms of interspecies breeding Amur grape 1-9-2, 1-9-5, 1-9-8 withstand temperatures down to 40 °. GF 2-7-2 — another product of interspecies breeding Amur grape berries but she, unlike most «amurtsev», white, with a wonderful aroma.
I regret to note that today many gardeners too much attention to the cultivation of southern varieties (with shelter) selection E.G.Pavlovskogo, V.I.Kraynova, V.V.Zagorulko, V.U.Kapelyushnogo and began to forget about winter-hardy varieties Shatilovskaya. And if you cease to grow these varieties, then over time we ozhem just lose them. Of course, at the southern varieties of berries are large, beautiful, delicious, but because most of the above frost forms only minus 21 -23 °. In the context of the Orenburg region are unreliable. How, by the way, and today is widely advertised GF Amur grape selection A.I.Potapenko — in terms of the Orenburg region, they often freeze.
We can not lose sight of the fact that over time the variety can vary, wrote about it himself A.I.Potapenko: «Every experienced breeder noticed that a lot have passed through his hands first grades are encouraging, but some time later disappoint. Now, admittedly, that cloning does not eliminate the variability generations. Grades can be reborn, but not under the influence of external conditions, as a result of bud mutation. » You can also refer to a senior researcher NILU them. Ya.I.Potapenko Svetlana Ivanovna Krasohinu. It is in all of its publications is not tired of repeating that the basis of the vineyards must be proven for decades and GF grades.
V2012, the amount of active temperatures (CAT) in the Orenburg region was 3600 ° (in the Krasnodar region as well). Helio-thermal index Branagh is 5 (for comparison — in Rostov-on-Don 5.4), bioclimatic index Constantinescu is 10-12 (in Rostov-on-Don 10.5). By all accounts it was time to put here Moldova Biruintsa Tayfi and pink. Is it so? Not at all! In December, we, sometimes, weeks of snow cover is completely absent. Frosts at night reach 27 °. Fingered in mind the characteristics of different grape varieties and more clearly understand — in such circumstances the only hope for Schatiloff form. Oh, they do not disappoint.