Doctor of Architecture, corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Architecture
The continuous growth of material and cultural needs of the Soviet people makes all areas of architecture every year more and more demanding.
Before the industrial construction in the Soviet Union since the early days of Soviet power were set the task, it is fundamentally different from the objectives pursued by capitalist enterprises.
The very nature of capitalism, which exists only at the expense of surplus value, objectively pushes the owner of the plant as much as possible to reduce the wages of the worker, and the construction costs of factory buildings. It is clear that the construction of low-cost building-box machines capitalists no need to involve the architect. As a result of factory buildings in the capitalist countries are often built without architectural projects architecture obezobrazhivaya cities.
Although the construction of modern enterprises in the United States and involved in a number of cases, the architects, but pursued by factory owners at the same time advertising the goal has nothing to do with the high humane goals that puts our state the designers plants. Along with the appreciation of the process conditions it requires a deep and comprehensive care of the work, on the accomplishment and beauty of the factory buildings. That is why the Soviet Union for the first time in the history of industrial construction there is a requirement that the architect is required to take part in the design of industrial enterprises. And, indeed, built during the Soviet era Soviet industrial enterprises are not only technical perfection, abundance of light and air, in the shops, they are spacious and comfortable layout, and in some cases, and beautiful architecture.
Tens and hundreds of specialized design institutes released along with technological and architectural and construction drawings. Construction project, Gipromez, Giprolegprom, Gipromyasomolprom, Gidroproekt, Teploelektroproskt and other institutions have established over many years of work and reasonable new comfortable types of Soviet enterprises, which provide the successful implementation of economic plans and along with it have a positive architectural qualities.
Achieved these new and comprehensively improved the quality of industrial construction because of the collective work of designers: architects, engineers, builders, plumbers and other professionals.
Among the many thousands of enterprises constructed many beautiful industrial buildings were built before 1941, many have built after the war. However, these achievements the Soviet people can not be satisfied now that the requirements for all areas of production and culture have risen unprecedentedly high. These increased demands and to industrial architecture.
In the light of the requirements of the basic economic law of socialism much of what we considered an achievement in the past, now, in the course of rapid cultural growth of the country, we can not meet. You must not only keep pace with the increased needs of the people.
but to be in the forefront of these requirements to be able to predict them.
Essential new feature of the present stage of industrial development of our country is the steep rise in production of consumer goods, along with the continued construction of heavy industry. Thousands of new plants light and food industry should enter into operation in the next two years.
We must not forget that the light and food industries have their own specifics, very different from the heavy industry such as the nature of production and the types of structures. In this regard, the designers got some serious creative problems. One of the key here is the question of the location of enterprises in relation to the city and its residential areas.
Unlike city planner main interest of food and light industry on the other it is that the production of food, clothing, shoes, furniture and other household needs is accompanied by a hazard to a lesser extent than in other industries. This implies that the company removed much of this kind of housing, as is the case in heavy industry and the chemical industry, it is not necessary.
The exception is meat processing plants with skotobazami, woodworking enterprises, glass and leather factories and similar enterprises that provided removed from the homes of sanitary and fire-prevention requirements. But in this case we are not talking about them.
Footwear, knitted, sewing, confectionery, dairy, cheese-making, dairy plants and similar enterprises of light and food industry therefore legally built and are being built in the city in a relatively close proximity to residential areas.
This, of course, does not mean that such «friendly» production should be allowed into the central areas of the city, even if the company does without rail input. However, in the peripheral areas of the city in the case where such a company is given a separate quarter, besides the streets surrounded by greenery, it is quite possible accommodation. This is proved, in particular, the construction of the printing plant in Moscow, «Pravda» in the vicinity of circumferential rings, watch factories, Electric Machinery, number of refrigerators, confectioneries and other harmless by nature of food production, instrument-making and printing companies.
Placed on the streets of the city factory housing such businesses inevitably become a significant part of the urban organism. Hence, and architectural challenges in the construction of much more responsible than those faced by designers in heavy industry. Naturally, in the first case and increased demands on the architecture of factory buildings, the factory to the improvement of the territory allocated to the fight against the current, and so now hazard. D.
In connection with this stand also novyu organizational and economic issues of construction. As you know, the majority of enterprises producing consumer goods, much smaller plants of heavy industry. Therefore, for a better organization of their construction, operation, better use of boiler-houses, warehouses, and similar support structures necessary to fully cooperate the production.
Great opportunities for co-operation in construction creates ordering for the city. But, unfortunately, the process of developing co-productions, we are still very weak, slow.
Take for example a bakery or confectionary. When nekooperirovannom construction are usually placed among residential development in areas up to 0.5 ha. This practice wedging small businesses in residential areas is flawed, since it creates inconvenience to residents, neighborhoods polluted by garbage and debris, and a kind of building fences disfigure and warehouses. Meanwhile, this practice is highly developed and still.
It is necessary to abandon this departmental approach and boldly take up the co-operative enterprises, how to identify the many advantages of the consolidation of related industries in the same area.
In practice, there are already examples of building cooperation lrgkoy companies and food industry. So, in Gomel cooperating on a common territory of shoe and clothing factories, a large number of cities in recent cooperate mineral water factory and breweries.
In order to improve the living conditions of most of the post of co-operative enterprises need, in our view, closer to the periphery of the city for the following reasons. Firstly, the activities of a more or less large-scale enterprises of light and food industry is always accompanied by industrial noise, release of fumes, odors, and so on. N. Secondly, in the area of activity of the enterprises increased movement of freight transport, and sometimes appear even railway lines, complicating transportation system of the city. And finally, in a residential area of the modern city is almost no vacant quarters.
USSR Academy of Architecture developed exemplary types of associations of small food enterprises with a total of cooperative boiler, common refrigerator, warehouse and auxiliary facilities. All these facilities are located in the area of 4-5 hectares, is equal to the typical city block.
The proposals on co-operation of the food industry developed in HIPRO-food industry, but unfortunately, the designers do not put this important issue to his full height before the ministries and the State Planning Committee. Meanwhile, construction of the «bush» of food and light industry will give significant savings of public funds as a result of cuts in the cost of the support parallel to the economy, energy and transport devices.
It is interesting that all these activities benefits not only the economy, but also the architecture and urban planning, since the group of companies is excluded the possibility of a system of urban organism dwarf companies with warehouses, boiler-houses, fences dull and unimproved land.
Another important issue facing the construction of light and food industry, — the use of new types of buildings — multistory and more industrial construction.
Heavy industry is naturally based on the type of single-storey buildings in connection with the powerful crane equipment and other technological features of production. However, the transfer of expensive single-storey construction in light industry, in many cases, are not caused by technological requirements.
In areas of high seismic and insolation, such as in Central Asia, one-storey building is fully justified. But the fascination with one-story buildings in the types of light industry irrespective of geographical location, understandable in the early years of industrialization of our country a deficit of cement and metal, no longer be justified. In addition to the inconvenience of operation during winter, the high cost of construction and repair of «light» roof in our climate, with single-type construction of the wasteful use urban area.
Especially pronounced advantages of multi-storey buildings in the eastern parts of the country, such as in Barnaul, where a large part of the winter one-storey building of the «Shed» (sawtooth roof) are covered with snow cover, because of what will inevitably have to provide artificial lighting for the round days.
The USSR Academy of Architecture and design organizations in a number of food and light industry, at the suggestion of Doctor of Technical Sciences V. Burgmana, now is the development of new types of multi-storey buildings with a broad industrial application of efficient industrial prefabricated structures.
And here, as noted earlier, the economy keeps pace with architectural requirements. From the standpoint of urban development high-rise building more desirable. Multi-storey factory building, being located in the city without any fences on the lines of the streets contribute to the artistic qualities of buildings.
Together with the problem of the construction of multi-storey buildings in the light and food industries there is a very important issue for the unification of types of buildings. It is known that a standard design in the construction industry so far, the situation is precarious. The dominant here is the tendency of individual design. The question is about something which businesses and to what extent can be typed.
If large enterprises in heavy industry usually have an individual production program and its technological profile, in the food industry — the production of butter, cheese, ice cream, beer and so on. E., One project you can build the same plants in different places. Therefore no doubt that the massive construction enterprises of consumer goods as widely as possible on standard projects.
Note that in the light and in particular in the food industry to deal with a situation typical projects safely than in other industries construction.
However, the exhibition of projects of the food industry, organized this spring in the Central house of the architect, showed the extreme diversity in the types of projects, lack of coordination of technical solutions, lack of uniform systems in the planning and architecture.
In a typical project, a bakery (Gipropische-prom) can count up to ten separate systems and types of structures with its bays, height of the room, and so on. D. Typical projects even homogeneous productions are often conglomerates mechanically connected shops and warehouses, without significant unifying system even for small size buildings, The discord in the spans, the height of the premises leads to inconsistency in some parts of the buildings, their volumes, roofs, window frames, and so on. d. If one such typical building can be observed multiplicity of solutions, it is clear how difficult it is several of these buildings to create a work of art, and even constructive unity.
Various column grid, crushing volumes of buildings, abundance of small free-standing facilities are a serious defect model projects for the food industry, caused by the departmental approach to the construction of industrial facilities. The consequence of this approach is a vicious low industriality constructive solutions.
The use of industrial methods of construction, precast floors, large panels easily possible where large buildings are built, where constructions are unified. Combining small enterprises it is expedient because it is easier to unify the large building. It creates the opportunity to bring to the parameters of a single span, height, width, system designs.
Only those settings where there is a massive place and uniform application of the same parts, can now count on the industrial implementation.
Of course, along with large enterprises and cooperating small and there will always be individual small businesses. Especially great demand for them there in the industry for the processing of agricultural products in rural areas. This includes plants for the production of butter, cheese, facilities for drying and storage of vegetables, berries, mushrooms and so on.
However, there would be an anachronism to focus on primitive grandfather construction equipment, forget about the advantages of industrialized construction methods. In this connection, it deserves attention experience in building oil plant in the Voronezh region, which used prefabricated concrete panels and even large wall panels.
The correct way of building small businesses certainly goes through the centralized industrial production of building structures, a prerequisite for which, again, it is a good sample project for a unified design, even in small buildings. No need to repeat that and to improve the quality of architectural structures is a prerequisite.
One of the serious problems of industrial construction, especially in the light and food industries, is also the issue of equipment household devices for workers. In the press and at various meetings have repeatedly pointed out that the production of sanitary equipment dramatically lags behind the cultural needs of the working people.
Good washbasin, shower facilities, toilets, along with unit cabins, lockers for clothes, not to mention equipment factory canteens and buffets — all of this is largely a welcome. Especially in dire need of a perfect sanitary equipment, food companies, as this largely depends on themselves and the culture of production of food products.
We must raise our facilities sanitary conditions of food production to the level of culture laboratories. This is all the more important that the production of some products such as vitamins and other health-pItatOlnYe prёparat !, feasible only when the plant is transformed by its sanitary regime in a large laboratory. For this to be fully resolved at the plant and the problem of consumer devices.
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From issues of industrial construction of light and food industry, and there is one of particular importance to the issue of the architecture of buildings lining the walls and interior decoration.
As in the public and residential buildings, the facades of urban industrial buildings have to be beautiful, good quality, although, of course, no frills. To replace the plaster and must come here facing brick, ceramic, concrete blocks ofakturennye.
However, this is still far behind, which is why the appearance of our industrial buildings still leaves tend to be poor. Deeply mistaken who thinks that industrial development has a narrowly utilitarian area where there is no place to artistic architectural creativity.
Underestimating the issues of creative mass housing with the underestimation of the value of industrial and collective farms — not a simple mistake of some of our architects and masters of architecture. It — erroneous architectural «outlook», which lies at the root of an incorrect view of the architecture as the only artistic activities, limited range of unique constructions carried out usually costs a lot of money.
This «world», examining equipment and industrial requirements of the economy just as an obstacle, or (at best) as a technical, passive for abstract art designs, we have repeatedly denounced as a formalism.
There would be no need to return to the condemnation of the phenomenon, if our practice does not suffer from these mistakes and if our government did not carry to the material damage caused by these wrong views on architectural creativity.
Get at least relevant to the industrial architecture at the Academy of Architecture of the USSR. How many times our press, including the newspaper «Pravda», our public indicated to ignore the issues of industrial architecture in the central architectural institution in the country.
Is the practice of many of the issues of industrial architecture could not be delivered in a timely manner and to a large extent resolved by the Academy of Architecture of the USSR, if it paid due attention to them! But this is no proof of what is really the fact that industrial architecture at the academy takes only 4 scientific officer at the general staff academy in 900 people, and to conduct scientific papers on industrial architecture stands less than 1% of the funds allocated to other subjects of the Academy. .
Largely because of this incorrect position of the governing bodies of architectural ignored questions of industrial architecture and in our universities. It is impossible to recognize normal, in particular, the fact that the largest architectural institute of our country — Moscow, administered by the USSR Academy of Architecture, in fact wiped out training of architects for the industry.
From year to year the number of graduates of the university, developing diplomas in subjects of industrial architecture, everything is reduced, decreased this year to an all-time low numbers — 11 people — out of 150 undergraduates. But that’s not all. Due to the irregular distribution system to work only one of the graduates went to work in the specialty (in Teploelectroproject). The remaining graduates distributed design organizations involved in civil architecture profile.
Should be condemned for lack of attention to the industrial architecture and the Union of Soviet architects, who for 20 years of existence, not a single plenum convened on industrial architecture.
Due to the neglect of the Union to the creative work of the industrial architect of his position in the design organizations leaves a lot to be desired. There is no copyright, not introduced supervision of construction.
It is no coincidence, therefore, that the architectural shots even in major design organizations, as a promotional Strojproect, Giprolegprom, Gipropischeprom, Gipromyaso-molproekt, not only replenish the youth, but every year decrease. Because of this architectural design in the industry as a whole is being under-qualified.
Such a situation at a time when the construction industry to face new challenges and completely unacceptable, especially since we have all the possibilities, all the conditions to become a leading industrial architecture industry architecture.
Among the urgent measures in the field of industrial architecture can be recommended to focus primarily on the issues of designing the model, which is currently turned architectural street. The State Committee of the Council of Ministers for Construction, which also is responsible for the backwardness of industrial architecture must quickly improve the situation in this important matter.
There is every reason to believe that the implementation of measures to improve the formulation of business architecture and construction in our country, especially in the preparations for the Second Congress of Soviet Architects, shortcomings in the field of industrial architecture will resolutely straightened.