In Khmelnytsky region fruit and berry plantations occupy 74,634 hectares, of which more than half have already come into fruition. Area collective gardens of 40234 hectares, including fruit-bearing — 16099. The development of horticulture in the region contribute to the favorable soil and climatic conditions, high level of security of employment and energy resources, the availability of a highly developed fruit processing industry, a well-developed network of railways and highways.
Gardening in a hem — high-value and highly profitable industry. Its cost-effectiveness is confirmed by long experience of collective and state farms specialized gardening.
Thus, in the kolkhoz XX Party Congress Kamenetz-Podolsk production management in 1963 income from crop production was 502.3 thousand rubles, including from the gardening 225.4 thousand rubles, income per hectare of arable land — 169 rubles per hectare fruiting garden — 1245 rubles; in kolkhoz Kotovsky respectively 591.5 thousand, 125.9 thousand, 185 and 1415 rubles.
In specialized farms «Red Partisan,» «Oslamovo» and «Kommunar» net income from horticulture per hectare fruit-bearing plants is 2000 rubles.
Specialized services, increasing the degree of intensification of horticulture through the widespread introduction of mechanization, chemicals, advanced technology greatly increased the productivity of plants and reduce production costs (see table).
But, despite the progress in the development of horticulture, production of fruits and berries in the area still lags behind the growing needs them. Collective and state farms should provide fresh fruits and berries not only the population of the region, but also to produce marketable products for export in the large cities and industrial centers of the country, as well as giving raw fruit processing companies in the region. Therefore, along with an increase in the production of grain, industrial crops, vegetables, potatoes, meat and milk is necessary to dramatically increase the rate of production of fruits and berries.
To do this, there is every possibility of Podolia.
The area of perennial plants can be significantly expanded. In the area of 25% of arable land located on slopes from 5 to 20s, about 35 thousand hectares of land unsuitable for cultivation of cereals and other crops, more than 9000 hectares of slopes, gullies and ravines are used as pastures. A large part of these lands can be mastered under the tab mnogospetsializirovannyh horticultural collective farms that will produce a significant portion of commercial products.
It is also necessary to follow the path of concentration and horticulture in specialized farms. Practice has shown that nizkotovarnymi unprofitable and are most often small, scattered gardens. And in more than half of the collective farms have an area less than 50 hectares of gardens. Bookmark the large plantations will provide an opportunity to apply the more progressive forms of work organization, advanced technology using the latest machines. Specialization and concentration of gardening will help to increase the intensity of the industry and of all agricultural production.
When expanding the areas to be improved varietal composition of rock-plantings. In the old gardens of berries have an insignificant share — 0.8%, cherries — 1.2%, pear — 6.7%. To strengthen the areas of raw fruit processing plants and improve supplies of fresh fruits and berries proportion of berries should be 5%, cherries — 7% and pears —
13-14%. A significant increase in the proportion of cherries.
Along with the expansion of areas of perennial plants need to dramatically improve the productivity of existing gardens. Yet there are some farms that are due to poor care of gardens each year receive less than 10 quintals per hectare of fruits and suffer losses. At the same time, the farms, where the leaders understand the economic importance of horticulture annually from the area of 50-100 hectares of fruit-bearing plants are paid 50-100 thousand rubles and more. The collective of our region with well-developed horticulture, as a rule, economically strong and have passed already guaranteed wage rates in money or provide higher cash payment workdays compared to other farms. Specialized horticultural farms annually receive high profits.
It is interesting to note that in all collective and state farms, where gardening has strong economic performance, industry qualified to lead this, people who know their business. Therefore, the question of the intensification of gardening depends on the frame.
Comrade Khrushchev in the Note «On some issues related to the implementation of the Party’s policy on the intensification of agriculture» in the CPSU Central Committee Presidium once again pointed to the importance of good training and recruitment for the collective and state farms. This also applies to gardening.