DHCP (DYNAMIC HOST CONFIGURATION PROTOCOL)
A method by which routers dynamically assign IP addresses to computers on an internal network, allowing for simple, largely configuration-free set-up of client machines. In setting up our server, we opted out of DHCP to assign a static IP address, to prevent our server getting lost on our local network.
DOMAIN NAME A human-readable web address that saves us from remembering the IP addresses of computers we want to access on the Internet. It can be broken down into sections, with geographic delimiters (if any) at the end of the address (.uk, xa, and so on), the domain type in front of that (.com, .org, .net), and the selected name preceding them both. Many domains are nominally non-geographic, such as those terminating .com, .int, and .net.
DNS DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM
A series of distributed servers that maintain a database of IP addresses and the domain names to which they relate.
IP ADDRESS Unique number given to a computer or router that identifies it on a network or the Internet. Every time you enter a domain name, it’s converted by a DNS server to the IP Address of the computer hosting the requested site or the router through which the host computer is connected to the net.
IPV4 (Internet Protocol version 4). The most widely used Internet addressing system currently in use, which employs four groups of numbers between 0 and 255—for example, 126.96.36.199—for each machine or router. Its successor, IPv6, which has capacity for addressing a far larger number of devices, has been in use alongside IPv4 since 2006.
ROUTER The box that connects your Mac or home network to the Internet. It’s a small computer in its own right with specific functions. It handles incoming and outgoing network traffic, as well as exchanging data between machines on your network, Wi-Fi included.