In Kharkov House architect from 8 to 10 May. the city held a meeting to exchange experience in the field of architecture, industrial buildings, designed by the Institute of Promstroiproekt. At the meeting it was presented to the Moscow branch of the Institute and its Kharkov, Kiev, Rostov and Sverdlovsk branch.
A report on the results and problems of architectural design in Promstroiproekt made chief architect of the institute correspondent member of the Academy of Architecture VM’s with n and n.
Speaking of the importance of urban development of industrial enterprises, the speaker particularly emphasized the role of the side industrial area, which faces the housing development, and the role of the group predzavodskoy administrative and residential and service buildings.
Along with the positive examples they have been named and examples of improper orientation of industrial enterprises access roads and the back of an industrial site in the direction of residential development of the city. The importance of the main line of the plant, the factory area and the main building as the leading e e-ment of the architectural composition and examples of landscaping industry.
Speaking of three-dimensional composition of industrial buildings, the speaker stressed the importance of typing as the buildings in the whole and its parts. Here are examples of the unification of architecture buildings, similar in purpose, number of storeys, size and so on. N. On the facades of these cases, a blade in varying proportions, in an amount and rhythmic combination in accordance with the character of the building. Considerable attention was paid to the decoration of both buildings and the improvement of industrial and domestic premises.
In conclusion, the report made some suggestions to improve the project work in Promstroiproekt.
After the report were made by the representatives of the departments of the institute.
The chief architect of Kharkov branch Promstroiproekt I. Hazanovsky revealed a number of methods of using engineering equipment in the architecture of industrial buildings. Speaking of inclined racks are often used in chemical plants, Comrade. Hazanovsky enough reasonably defended the accuracy of their coverage ribbon window.
In his speech, the main architect of Kiev branch prom-Stroyproekt B. Yakimova were highlighted in the work of the department and large-block of large industrial and civil construction and the extensive use of new building materials. He gave compelling examples of civil architecture of large-block full of multi-storey building, as well as recommend how to extend this experience to a group of administrative buildings of the industrial enterprises. In addition, Comrade. Yakimov Take note of the transfer of the Institute of Industrial Design companies from one department to another and even to other institutions, and from one group of authors — to another. This along with the lack of direct communication with the builders and architects of the lack of experience of the authors of the study design in nature negatively affects the architecture of industrial buildings.
The chief engineer of the Sverdlovsk branch of Kovalenko, describing the work department, mainly talked about the lack of specialists in architecture, the number of which in recent years has decreased even more due to the transition to the pedagogical work the most experienced workers. Tov. Kovalenko also said that the theme of the offices do not have sufficient sequence.
The representative of the Rostov branch of A. Rublev made a number of organizational measures, which are of great importance for improving the quality of the architecture industry. He spoke of the need in the construction field supervision, creative dialogue with other institutions Promstroiproekt, the need for qualified architects, and so on. N.
A presentation on domestic premises typing the representative of the Moscow branch of M. Andreev, show the latest versions of the new layout and design of overlap cell types residential use.
Who took part in the exchange of views of the representatives of the Academy of Architecture of the USSR V. bazaar along with a general improvement of the quality of architecture in the works Promstroiproekt noted and disadvantages. One is the weakening of attention to the architecture of industrial buildings.
In the works of the Kharkiv branch of industrial buildings presented much better, but they are seen overreliance architects engineering, technical details of the buildings.
Rostov and Kiev branch bolder solve architectural problems of industrial facilities without violating their functional and technical requirements.
Sharp criticism has been subjected, Sverdlovsk Branch, in the works which no principal focus or proper professional level. Attention was drawn to the need to urgently help the Sverdlovsk branch.
It was noted that the lack of support of the USSR Academy of Architecture Design Institute, working in the field of architecture and industrial structures in particular Promstroiproekt.
Criticizes Promstroiproekt supported by the representative of the Ukrainian Academy of Architecture of A. X x p a t, complementing its criticism of individual ministries and the State Committee of USSR Council of Ministers for Construction, little help architects working in the field of industrial construction. Criticism
Committee was supported by several other participants.
The exchange of views was attended by some employees of the Kharkiv branch Promstroiproekt and other design institutes, noting the importance of this meeting for all architects working in the field of architecture of industrial facilities. It was noted the lack of involvement of the meeting of architects of Kharkiv.
The meeting adopted a decision to plan a way to further improve the project work in a promotional sgroyproekte and improve the quality of the architecture of industrial facilities.
The conference in Teploelectroproject
Turning the country’s big construction of power intensified architectural life Teploelectroproject Institute.
For the exchange of creative experience in July. in Moscow it was called architectural designers Teploelektroproekt Conference, in which, apart from Moscow, was attended by the following departments: Leningrad, Kharkov, Ural, Kiev, Rostov, Riga, Lvov, Tomsk, Novosibirsk, Gorky, and Odessa Branch of long-distance transmission. The conference was attended by the Bureau of the section of industrial architecture of the Union of Soviet Architects of the USSR, the scientists of the Academy of Architecture of the USSR and the workers of the design organizations of the capital.
At the conference, which lasted 10 days, it was done several scientific reports on the work of offices and an exhibition of projects of all departments.
Reporting of large developed designs for power Donbass made by the representatives of the Kharkiv branch of the engineer and architect L. Semenets M. Wexler.
On the walls of large fillings Ural power said the representative of the Ural Branch of the architect A. Kopylov.
On the experience of the use of large blocks in the construction of power plants in Leningrad posts made architects of the Leningrad branch Buzyukov B. and P. Basque.
On the application of large blocks of settlements in the construction of power plants in Latvia made a representative of the Riga branch of the architect VK l and i and n. On introduction of ceramics in the construction industry said the representative of the Kiev branch of the architect M. Svetlitskiy.
Notice of precast concrete plants made Teploelektroproekt engineer P. Sverdlov, the organization and economics of construction — Engineer Gurevich.
Director of the Institute Teploelectroproject F. Ivanischenko described the activities to improve the architectural design conducted at the institute. Over the past three years imposed Chief Architect architectural and planning workshop, held an architectural competition for model projects.
Tov. Ivanischenko noted that by developing some good projects, designers have not created institute a complete solution of the whole complex power structures; Architects little participate in the development of master plans for power plants.
Chairman of the section of industrial architecture of the full member of the Academy of Architecture of the USSR E. Popov in his speech noted that due to the complex work of engineers, technologists and architects created good model projects the largest thermal power plants. The architectural image of the idiosyncratic nature of identified production facilities without imposing an alien mask civil or unique buildings.
Referring to the general issues of the composition of the complex power, E. Popov pointed out the need for ensemble approach to solving the three-dimensional composition of the general plan of the station. He noted that the draft the main buildings can be divided into two groups: the first group focuses on the composition of a main front in the second group can be seen by volume solution of the whole complex of buildings.
Given the complexity raznovysotnyh body of the main building and specificity of all facades unacceptable individually solve some facades, as was done in the first group of projects.
Correctly followed the second path, when the architect seeks to make the main body of the architectural unity of the simple but expressive means, given that the plant as a whole is surveyed only from distant viewpoints. Next E. Popov spoke on the admissibility of the architectural composition of the building CHP horizontal belt glazing, given the nature of his frame designs.
Chief engineer A. Teploelektroproekt Chetverichenko noted that the institute should be further in-depth development of the model design. He said that now developed a new series of model projects stations operating at very high settings. Power of some of these stations will be 600 — 800 thous. KW.
Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Architecture I. Magidin noted that the exhibited projects visible known artistic commitment. The advantage of some of the new projects is the use of new industrial designs. The introduction of large and coarse-filling allows you to create a new image of a modern power plant, it is felt the power of the industrial structure.
The focus of architectural solutions of the industrial site combined heat and power facilities identified approved projects in 1953 the main buildings of the seven types of thermal power from 50 000 to 300 000 kW.
These model projects were developed in consultation member of the Academy of Architecture of the USSR E. Popoza by a team composed P. Fuss-ka, F. Hazan, I. n o p y in g C O O Ivanov (Moscow ‘), B . B y s w to about in a, P. Baskov, Krygin S., B. Altgauzena, M. Maximova, A. Zaletova and other (Leningrad).
The advantages of large wall filling in building power plants have been well illustrated by the projects of the Ural Branch (author — the architect L. Kopylov) and Kharkov branch (author -arhitektor M. Wexler).
Application of power to the Ural concrete sandwich panels with mineral wool insulation, which were made at Berezovsky building designs. enabled highly mechanized construction works on the sites.
Projected Kharkov branch for power Donbass penosilikatnye panels have an advantage over concrete, giving savings of cement.
Leningrad branch, using a wealth of experience in large-block construction of the city, the project main buildings of HPP with capacity of 300 thousand kw. With walls of large size ofakturennyh blocks. Extensive plastic processing facades ofakturennymi cinder blocks very tempting for architects who have to design the facades while industrial buildings, as a rule, not plastered.
Riga branch of the Institute has developed a series of apartment houses and public buildings of large blocks of settlements for power (the author V. -arhitektor Klavin). This uniformity of the wall material for industrial and settlement development creates the prerequisites for reducing the cost of construction and improvement of the quality of architectural complexes.
Kiev branch of the Institute also drafted the main buildings in large-sized cinder block (the author — the architect M. Svetlitskiy).
The subject of a detailed discussion of the conference participants had a number of problems associated with the specific architecture of large-block and large-panel construction, including the principles of «cutting» front walls, dependency scale structures on the block size, and so cutting them. P.
Applications in the construction of thermal power station wall filling of slit-shaped ceramic block was shown at the exhibition in the project purposes, designed by architect M. Speglitskim with the participation of the engineer N. Pereyaslavets.
Reducing the wall thickness and bulk weight applied ceramic possible to reduce the weight of 1 m2 of wall up to 50% compared with conventional brickwork. Decreased also by 30% the complexity of the masonry. Terracotta armor units have been used in the ceilings, giving substantial savings of cement.
The disadvantage of this architectural project is the granularity of the main architectural articulation in a number of objects and the variety of sizes of skylights, as well as different-scale individual architectural details. Lack of multiplicity in the modeling blocks and metal complicates the work.
Among the projects that use progressive filling wall, is a project urban CHP coal storage, the walls of which are projected from asboshifernyh slabs and concrete panels (authors — architects F. foresters and Vladimir Vasiliev). The project is seen the desire for a more compact power plant master plan and improve the development of architectural solutions. To this end, some of the objects of the industrial site interlocked in one volume, in particular office buildings and communicating office (author -arhitektor Ya Yaroshevskii, Moscow). Lock buildings would create more expressive composition node entry of the industrial ensemble, enriching the façade building line significant architectural volume.
One of the most important issues in the practice of designing master plans for the station is the question of the relative positions of the main and auxiliary building.
The decisions of master plans office building, usually located in front of the main building, thus obscuring the leading object of the industrial site. In the newly proposed arrangements, office buildings are well disclosed in the prospects of the main objects of the station, which significantly improves the overall composition of the ensemble. The building shifted position of the auxiliary building also creates a number of advantages, providing a wide scope of work with the front end. The proposed placement of buildings unanimously approved by the conference participants.
The need arose to build a thermal power station complexes in the city poses a number of problems linking the architecture of industrial cogeneration facilities with the architecture of residential and public buildings.
Above this difficult task is now working team of the Leningrad branch of the Institute by creating a project for the purposes of one of the urban areas of Leningrad (author received for the construction of the main building of the project architect A. Saprikon).
Questions reflect national characteristics in the objects of industrial buildings, constructed in different republics of our multinational Union raised in the statements of a number of participants, Avenge completely insufficient attention paid to problems of national architecture in the design practice.
Use projected CHP motives of Russian architecture can be seen in one of the largest project of the Ural plants, designed by architect I. Maltsev.
All the speakers talked about the need for extensive training of the architects of the industrial profile in architecture schools.
In the resolution, the conference identified a number of measures to improve the organization and quality of design. The most important of them are the following: increase the participation of architects in drawing up master plans for all stages of design, from the choice of an industrial site before placing the village; concentrated in one branch of development of model projects under the odds of projects under a unified architectural guidance; the development of certain typical industrial site support facilities to strive for the greatest possible number of locked buildings; prevent the release of project tasks into separate objects incomplete without the architectural design of the job; strengthen communication with building architects, organized at least twice a year, leaving the authors to the construction site to monitor the implementation of the project: to enter into the scope of work of model projects leading development of the necessary buildings interiors.
Discussion of the development of Klaipeda
Union of Soviet architects of the Lithuanian SSR, in collaboration with the Office for architecture, held a creative conference on the development and reconstruction of the city of Klaipeda. The conference was attended by architects, builders, representatives of departments.
The report «On the state of development of the city of Klaipeda» was made chief architect, Comrade. Černiauskas. For conference participants, organized a trip for individual construction projects and the largest complex of new construction.
Speakers in the debate pointed out that the main provisions of the master plan correctly identify the city’s development as a major industrial center and important port. At the same time it pointed out that the master plan is not enough to take into account the development of the city of some industries and the problem of housing for workers in this industry.
When building the city were errors in the placement of construction: neglected the concentration of the first stage in a large array, forming the main thoroughfares and new ensembles.
In some cases, incorrectly applied the standard projects, the development is the central quarters of uniform typical houses.
Design organizations, developing technical documentation for urban construction projects, delaying the design. As a result, due to the lack of projects of more than 30 significant buildings, sites which are marked in the central part of the city, can not start construction.
Continues to be low quality of construction works: poorly executed exterior and interior of buildings, individual design elements, enough used industrial methods.
Speakers noted that the city inspectorate Gosarhstroykontro la does not lead the fight due to the poor quality of construction, allows the commissioning of unfinished objects — without the improvement and correction of identified defects.
Conference decisions were taken to address shortcomings noted by it. Such a creative conference was held in the city for the first time, her work proved fruitful.
Union of Soviet architects of the Lithuanian SSR and the Office for the architecture planned to hold similar conferences in other major cities of the country: Kaunas and Siauliai, as well as in the capital — Vilnius.