Montessori children’s group entered our lives not so long ago. But if the Western countries the idea of Italian physician, philosopher and teacher of Maria Montessori has become one of the recognized directions in pedagogy, then we have the opposite situation. WHY this educational system causes so many contradictory responses and heated debate?
In Montessori education in Russia — a long history and difficult destiny. The first kindergarten was opened at us in 1913, several years after it first appeared in Italy. However, in 1926, Nadezhda Krupskaya, criticized the absence of such groups, education of collectivism, after which they were eliminated. The reproach Nadezhda Konstantinovna was not quite fair, because in gardens Montessori children of all ages learn to live together, passing around the experience of care and attention to the younger. However, the idea of free choice of the individual, is relying on the unquestioned authority of the teacher, did not fit into the authoritarian framework of the Code of builders of communism and long gone, having returned to us only in the early nineties.
The name of the pedagogy of the so-called free education received by the name of its founder, Maria Montessori. After graduating from the University of Rome Maria worked at the clinic, where the children with mental retardation. There, she became the first to use special teaching methods to help their pupils fully realize the nature of the inherent possibilities. The search for the new ways of interaction with the child crowned with a sensation. At the Olympics of primary school students in the tasks of writing, reading and numeracy its wards surpassed many conventional children. This unexpected event has brought to the young teacher to develop unrealized opportunities and have children with normal health. Maria Montessori was convinced — a hidden talent everyone has, it is only important to help the little man to believe in themselves, to teach him to treat the new knowledge with joy and without fear to make a mistake, do not justify the expectations of the teachers or the parents hope. The main thing for her was to give the child the right to be themselves. And because every kid is free to choose an interesting moment in his material, and deal with them as much time as he needs, learning becomes a really deep and interesting. How is the individual development and minimal adult intervention looks like in practice?
Not every mother will have the patience to see how little helper, trying to wash the dishes, pours water in the kitchen. It is much easier and feed the baby with a spoon, and fasten his buttons — because we are always in a hurry. But in the end the kid grows with the feeling that none of his adult initiative does not find support from family. So, to become independent, and is not necessary. In addition, a small child is often met with incomprehension not only parents, but also the environment. It feels just like a Lilliputian in the country giants. The Montessori system develops logic and analytical skills -Interested in art for children, it does not really fit a lot of growth can not reach, and if they hold out, the encounters stormy indignation on the part of parents. In groups Montessori solve this problem thanks to a specially created fascinating areas of child development. In each of them the child develops new skills. Mentor shows how to construct materials for the game, but for how long to be in a given space and what items to get acquainted with the — decides the child.
Practical life area where you collected materials related to the transfusion, oversleeping and sorting of items — everything that develops a movement of the hand. At the same time no one is trying to please the child, giving him a safe, non-spillable nebyoschiesya or toy items — all here now. And if it’s something inadvertently spilled or shed, no one punishes and does not take a thing by listing prohibited. Thus, the baby he gradually learns from its mistakes, even if doing them again and again. Older children learn more complicated skills household: to wash their hands, lace boots and clean room. Mentor reveals how it is more convenient to deal with the task by breaking it into smaller steps. After all, in our daily life, parents or lack the patience for it, or we just do not know how to explain these operations is available to the child. Playing Zone sensory special items, the child makes the difference in their weight, temperature, surface features, thus developing your senses. Moving literally touch, letting the new information through the tips of his fingers, the kid is much deeper and more clearly able to understand abstract concepts of mandarin round in shape and less elongated pear. Mathematical Development Zone Zone sensory taught to think logically, and when the child enters the area of mathematics, it becomes easier to translate the known concept in mathematical terms.
Area of language development using natural materials kid acquainted with letters, painting their finger on the sand crumbles or croup. It feels small children remember better than visual, and even visually. A feeling specially created bukovok fluffy wool gives kids a great pleasure. It also taught writing at first, and then read as a child perceives the image of the letter as drawing, that is, as a game. And he, in fact, simpler to draw A and B than to accept their abstract image in the book.
Zone Space education in a playful way children easily learn the basics of botany, zoology, anatomy and other science disciplines by means of interesting puzzles, volume atlases, models of the human body. Kid is an active participant in the process. The boundaries of the atlas can be in shade and a special telescope to see the stars and learn about other planets.
It is important that the items in each environment are not duplicated. And children learn to abide by the order or to agree on a joint game. This is the ability to hear each other and compromise is the principle of acquisition of different ages groups. Senior junior help that brings the group to the family environment.
Montessori Without Borders
On European parent online forums no hot controversy surrounding Montessori. These schools and kindergartens have become an integral part of the whole system of children’s learning. Natalia, mother of six years and four Leschi Lera, leads the children in a Montessori kindergarten in Zurich. Before children go to such a group in St. Petersburg, Natalya, and have the opportunity to compare. «There are teachers looking approach to each child, it is the counting. — Alex giperaktivnostyo different light. In the St. Petersburg group was often isolated from the game, so as not to disturb others, explaining that as soon as he rested, it can come back. But to just sit on the sidelines of such a child can not. In the local kindergarten teacher I realized that he likes to draw, and at this time offers him a pencil and paper. She praises Lesha and shows other kids his drawings. Thus, the son does not feel like an outsider. » Natalia also believes that there is more trust in children. «When we got acquainted with a garden, it is learned that the door to the street is not closed. I was terrified. However, the teacher said: «I have to rely on the children.» Children know that they have to promise not to go, and they are treated as equals. This does not condone whims. My children have become more disciplined than before. They are trained to strictly observe the daily routine: wash by hand, dressed for a walk, and always started to finish. » Why educational system in our country is so controversial? «The tradition of the Montessori system we had for many years been interrupted, and then exported to many as a» pig in a poke «- says child psychologist Olga Marina, which has experience in the Montessori kindergartens in Russia and France. — Not all teachers are properly trained. As a result, even a certified group sometimes are a mix of original ideas and Montessori borrowed elements of other systems, and all this is multiplied by its own experience of educators who sometimes behave with the children as they accustomed to. «
Sometimes, because of the inability to interest the child, so he brought the case to the end, not enough professional teacher can simply keep aloof. For example, you can not kid} ‘to fasten the strap or tie a scarf and he is allowed to leave everything as is. This misguided principle of Maria Montessori, urging people not to break the will and the inner nature of children. However, the statement is in no way diminish the role of the teacher — he needs in each case motivating the child not to retreat before a difficult task or bored. At the same time creatively to resolve each situation, so that the baby still did the job himself or by an older child. This is partly due to the polarity of such parental views — we can just take the children to a completely different approach in teacher groups united only by one name Montessori. It is also important to remember that the principle of non-violence training, when every child in the development of new knowledge allowed to move at their own pace, can lead to the fact that one of the babies to six years is not very good to read or count. «Europe is not a problem, — says Olga Marina. -There Elementary School does not absolve itself of responsibility and shifts them to the parents. But we can not get the kid in first grade with high demands. Under the Montessori child will not «train» the fact that it is to a certain} ‘due date shown an excellent result. There are imparted basic training and quality of life in the team: hard work, the ability not to give up at the first difficulties to interact with other children, different in age, and character. «
Sometimes only after a while some parents are aware that the Montessori approach to them is not close. This is understandable: after all, we ourselves brought up wrong. We do not understand why there do without the classic primer, first learn to write, and then read or not «give a hand» in the drawing. Therefore, before deciding on the choice of children’s groups, should carefully read about the Montessori method to understand how you fit these principles and whether you want the child to grow and develop in this environment. Armed with this knowledge, you will also be clearer whether the selected group of true ideas in this direction.
Notice to parents
Russia has not always respected common standards of Montessori. It is not necessary to be guided only by the group closest to your home. It is important to meet with teachers, and equipment space. It should be divided into five developmental areas for various activities of children. Observe the teacher — if he manages to patiently interact with each child by helping to develop a new one? And, do not hurry the child, however, ensure that he finish the job before classifies materials into place. If fuppe allowed active participation of parents, it is contrary to the principles of Montessori. After all, here is to create an environment in which the child is committed to do everything himself, and does not rely on assistance to mother or grandmother. Their presence speaks only of a lack of training of teachers who will not accept liability, without the help of a person close to the child.
Study at home
What’s in the bag? (3 to 5 years)
Develops tactile sensations
Show your child 5-6 familiar objects (spoon, ball, machine or little doll). Place items in a bag and ask the baby to close his eyes tightly. He gets them, and tries to define the touch.
Peppered rump (2.5 to 4 years)
Develop muscular coordination, the ability to serve themselves to Prepare a pitcher or large measuring cup flour, liquids and so on. D., And fill in any half-grains. Take the jug in his right hand, the left cup and show your child how slowly pour the contents of one vessel to another. Ask him to repeat. Subsequently grits can be replaced with water.
Lid size (2 to 4 years)
Develop hand and eye coordination
Arrange the bottle caps to the baby, then slowly remove the lid and tighten the back. Stir cover. Ask your kid to pick up and put on the cover of all the desired bottle.