In the Kyrgyz Research Institute of Agriculture conducted a special study on the development of horticulture in the region of the Central Tien Shan. It is located at an altitude of 1600 (the lowest point) to 2500 meters above sea level, climatic conditions for agriculture and gardening are unfavorable. According to long-term data in areas where cultivated field crops, the absolute maximum temperature (in July and August), plus up to 34 °, and minimum (November-March) — minus 38-43 °. In addition, the temperature during the month and the day also changes abruptly. The frost-free period is only 75-80 days and only in some years up to 100-110 days. The precipitation is not more than 270-280 mm a year. In most areas the snow cover in the winter months does not happen.
Orchards in the Central Tien Shan is not, and attempts to acclimatise introduced species and varieties of fruit crops for a long time have not yielded positive results. Nevertheless, we believe that you can get good results. For more than 10 years at the institute are working on removal of highly resistant local varieties of apples, pears, plums and cherries.
Out of the fund selection, there are three varieties of plums that show high viability in the harshest conditions of the Central Tien Shan. These high-yielding varieties, come very early in the fruiting, fruits have a good flavor. In deriving these varieties were used as mother plants seedlings Ussuri plums grown in Kyrgyzstan, as well as the paternal form — sort of Japanese-American and Chinese groups Vaneta, Satsuma and its seedlings, plum Simon. Commonly used methods for the selection and training aimed seedlings by sowing seeds free pollination II and III generations.
When directed upbringing good results yielded the following techniques: effect on the seeds that pass the last stage before the spring planting stratification, sharp changes in temperature for 5-10 days; Autumn sowing of hybrid seeds after they have 3/4 of the period of stratification; continuous mulching with straw and manure solomistym soil at the site of the primary selection to 4-year-old fruit-bearing trees; cultivation of hybrid seedlings of all breeds to 3-4 years of age in a hot climate, followed by a change in high altitude areas for further training and selection. Under the hybrid seedlings contribute only phosphate and potash fertilizers.
Here is a brief description of plum varieties bred for the regions of Central Tien Shan and other mountainous regions of Kyrgyzstan.
Highland (№ 155) seedling varieties bred by crossing Manchurian beauty and Vaneta. The young tree has a wide-pyramidal crown of medium thickness with age — round. It bears fruit in the second year after planting saplings. The fruit is dark-pink, round or oblong-rounded with a thick white coating. Peel medium density. The flesh is light yellow, juicy, sweet. Stone is small poluotdelyayuschayasya from the pulp. The fruit ripens in early September.
The beauty of the Tien Shan (№ 156) was obtained by crossing varieties of seedlings Manchurian Beauty and the Vaneta. The tree grows rapidly, crown relatively rare, round-spreading. At the time of fruiting enters the second year after planting saplings. Fruits are round-oval with a pointed tip, dark red with a bluish bloom, the average weight of 30-32 grams. The flesh is yellow, juicy, sweet. The skin is thick, not tart, well separated from the pulp. The fruit ripens in early August.
Naryn — seedling from free pollination of Manchurian beauty. Trees come into bearing early and high-yielding. The fruits are round, dark red with a thick glaucous. The average weight of 23-25 grams. The skin is fairly thick, not tart. The flesh is yellow, juicy, sweet with barely perceived acid. Stone is small, poorly separated from the pulp.
These varieties, in addition to areas of the Central Tien Shan, be tested in the Primorsky and Khabarovsk territories and parts of Siberia.