Heading out of the capital on the highway Moscow — Yaroslavl, bypassing Sergiev Posad and Pereslavl, you need to stop the car at the entrance to Rostov the Great in the place where the road goes to the shore of Lake Nero. It offers one of the most fascinating panoramas of the Russian land: slightly pinkish ancient walls and towers, slender gate of the temple, the cathedral and the mighty volumes Belfry. This architectural ensemble is perceived from afar fabulous vision, a kind of City of Kitezh, which appears and disappears in a mirror-like surface of the lake.
City Reserve Rostov preserve the unique ensemble of national architecture of the XVII century — a vast complex of the Rostov Metropolitan Church, often called the Kremlin. Of great interest are ensembles of monasteries and ancient Avraamieva later Yakovlev, as well as temples XVII-XVIII centuries and residential buildings XVIII-XIX centuries.
The town was first mentioned in Russian chronicles in 862, along with Novgorod, Moore Beloozero. He went down in history as a major cultural center of the pre-Mongol Russia, already at that time received the name of Great. However, from the art of the Rostov principality pre-Mongol era are preserved only scant attention in the annals.
Widely known was the library of the Rostov Prince Constantine, in which the enlightened ruler collected rare books, manuscripts; famous treasure house of the princes of Rostov. All this wealth of culture was looted or burned in a terrible hour of the Tatar invasion.
In later centuries, Rostov has never reached past glory, but in XIII-XV centuries are going on successive development of traditional arts and culture.
Great was the cultural and educational activities "St George’s gate" — Rostov monastery, which along with the theology taught philosophy, Greek, ancient literature; Here a rich library of books in various languages. Hence there were many outstanding writers of the Enlightenment.
A unique monument of medieval art of Rostov the Great is a white stone "Cross Bearded clerk"Dating from the 1458 year. The basis of its composition forms a bas-relief crucifix on the right and left of the figure of Christ in the upper crosshairs are placed statues coming, and at the bottom — the figures of the saints, the patron deacon.
XV century in the history of Rostov the Great poorly reflected in the records, and only in the next century the town holds a large monumental building — erected an enormous Cathedral of the Assumption and the Church of the Ascension — Isidore’s Cathedral.
Even in the circle "favorites" Cities parks surrounding the ancient capital, Rostov highlighted the uniqueness of the historical center — and especially the Kremlin created on a plan of the architect — Peter Dosayeva. Peculiarly his plan: if the traditional monasteries located in the center of the cathedral church, there is a pond in the center, bordered by tree crowns. This ceremonial space formed not religious but secular purpose of the building — the Red Chamber, "Samuilov housing", Economic body covered ring fortress walls with towers and gates of the major travel towering slender temples. For inside the fortress walls they are addressed "inside", Vidneyas its exquisite silhouettes against the sky; addressed "outside", The same gate of the temple architectural accents form the outer scenic panorama of the ensemble.
Dosayev reached the decorative richness of the ensemble this simple technique, however "inside out" the typical structure of the Kremlin, shifting the center of gravity of the whole composition of the central part to the periphery.
The uniqueness lies in the design Dosayeva he created a round-trip around the perimeter of the castle walls: moving on it, you can explore the interior gate of the temple of the Resurrection (of the north gate) "Jonah tent" — Home of Jonah and Sysoevicha Ikonopisnoj chambers (on the eastern wall of the Kremlin), Church of the Savior on Seni, Gregory the Theologian and Church Gate Church of St. John the Evangelist, crowning the main entrance to the Kremlin. Bypass leaves a lasting impression on the part of the cloister gallery is open, and it allows the height of the fortress walls to see the changing panorama of remarkable monuments of architecture; on the opposite side, the open apertures of loopholes seen the light blue of Lake Nero, the town itself.
Independent artistic value have well preserved to this day the medieval frescoes of temples of this ensemble.
The greatest interest is painting Gate Church of the Resurrection, made around 1675 best muralist, among them Dmitry Grigoryev — painter "first article" Moscow Armory and Gury Nikitin, Kostroma, whose work is one of the pinnacles of the national painting of the last quarter of the XVII century.
The monumental painting of the church of the Resurrection of creating a perpetual festival of colors: light coming from large windows reveals all coloristic richness of design artists.
The Gate Church of the Resurrection, St. John the Evangelist have the same compositional device design the main entrance to the Kremlin, flanked by two towers, projecting beyond the plane of the exterior walls. This traditional architecture of Western Europe compositional device was known to Peter Dosayev, and he created a deep national interpretation of motive, completely depriving it of its formidable appearance inaccessibility entrance of the castle lord. Facade "gating structure" travel and a wide aisle architect covers decorative patterns the continuous carpet.
In general, to create a kind "Damper" architecture entrance to the Kremlin, bearing in his art form rather secular and palatial beginning, rather than religious.
Huge Assumption Cathedral, the construction of which dates back to the second half of the XVI century, is situated outside the walls of the Kremlin, on the north side; its shape keeps the tradition of large five-domed cathedral church, constructed in the era of Ivan
Terrible. The enormous volume of Cathedral impresses monumental, solemn grandeur.
Near the Cathedral of the Assumption, on the east side, it is Belfry, built in the years 1682-1687.
Architecture Belfry terse; thanks to the enormous spans "ringing"In which the bells are suspended, it permeated the air, and as it is linked with the space. Russian man in the distant past is deeply appreciated and understood chimes — national musical culture. "Rostov chimes" were the pride of Rostov the Great. Amateur ringing Jonah Sysoevicha ordered 13 unique bells, the execution of which required great art. Curiously, the largest unique bells, as if inspired, had their own names. So the biggest bell (2000 pounds), cast in 1681 by master F.Terentevym was named in memory of the father of Jonah — "Sysoy", Followed by the bell "Polyeleos" (1000 pounds) "Swan" (500 pounds) "Hunger" (weighing 140 pounds). Smaller bells cast of the XVII century called "Baran". "Red". "Goat". Bells cast dictates of ions having a certain tone, and ringing in the XVIII century were recorded in the notes; among the rich melodic ringing distinguished Rostov "Ionian". "Ioakimovskaya". "St. George".
Ensemble of Rostov Kremlin — the pearl of national architecture — eclipsed the other, preserved Rostov valuable architectural ensembles, including two monasteries.
Abraham’s Monastery (founded in the late XI — beginning of XII centuries) is located on the eastern outskirts of the city. The original was completely wooden. The first stone building it — Epiphany Cathedral, built by order of Ivan the Terrible in 1553 in "… overcoming the memory of Kazan kingdom". This Memorial Church, which was adopted in Russia to put in commemoration of major historical events. Epiphany Cathedral — "native ideological brother" Basil’s Cathedral, a symbol of the final liberation from centuries of oppression.
Ensemble Yakovlev monastery, founded in the XIV century, is situated on the shores of Lake Nero, on the western outskirts of Rostov.
The fame of the monastery brought the monuments of Russian classicism of the XIX century: the temple of Demetrius, built with funds of Count N.P.Sheremeteva architect E.Nazarovym and serf architects — A.Mironovym and Dushkin, who created ensembles manor Sheremetev — Kuskovo and Ostankino; Yakauleuski church gave its name to the monastery, built as suggested by the architect Pankov, largely based in Yaroslavl. By Yakovlevsky Monastery adjoins existing Saviour Cathedral is an ancient monastery founded in the XIII century Duchess Maria — the wife of Prince Cornflower.
On the outskirts of Rostov, on the banks of the river Ishni, it remained rare in central Russia a wooden church of St. John the Evangelist of the XVII century. Temple longline type "octagon on the quadrangle" with late malovyrazitelnoe belfry. The interior of the church is surprising mastery of ancient carpenters and wood carvers; attraction of the temple are "Royal Doors" tyablovogo iconostasis, made a monk Isaiah in 1562.
Rostov has managed to keep another attraction — the Church of the Assumption, better known as Isidore’s Cathedral, built in 1566. The inscription on the white stone slab of the western wall of the temple says: "Summers (1566) Reigning command and pious king and sovereign Grand Prince Ivan Vasilyevich of All Russia, his royal treasury, built the church of Ascension And this, it is the Wonderworker Isidore, bishop Nikandr at Rostov, and the Church does great Master Prince Andrew Little". Monument interesting unusual design solution overlap, would make the temple a memorable appearance.