A. Yu Efremov
Currently, Germany is building two high-speed lines (HSL): Hannover — 330 km Würzburg and Mannheim — Stuttgart 100 km. Start of operation of these lines is planned for 1991. AFL planned mixed traffic of high-speed and conventional, including freight trains.
Due to the rapid development in recent years of railway automation devices, are widely used in microprocessors and fiber optics project of equipping high-speed lines by means of signaling and communication repeatedly revised. In particular, it was decided to turn the automatic locomotive signaling of continuous type (ALSN) as the main means of signaling and communication systems, to abandon most of the travel traffic, test and implement a positive result on the AFL system microprocessor centralization (MC). Changes in the project are also due to the new technical requirements imposed on devices signaling because of the decision to increase the maximum speed of trains on stages (up to 250 km / h), the main routes through the stations, rejecting on a side road. The use of eddy current brakes and increase the dynamic loads on the track led to a complete abandonment of counter axes minimize the number of block joints, the preferred use of inductive loops instead of short-track sensors of different designs.
Let us consider some means of signaling and communication, which is scheduled to equip new lines of the German State Railways (DB) and high-speed rolling stock.
Automatic locomotive signaling
The system ALSN on DB Provider for the exchange of information between the control center and stationary engines used laid between the rails inductive loop. ALSN dispatch center, where a transmitted information on engines in recent years, equipped with computer systems such as LZB L72 with three computers working in parallel series PDP1I. Currently implemented locomotive unit type ALSN LZB80 (see. «ATIS», 1983, number 8), which includes three-channel microprocessor system with safe failures. LZB80 able to receive the information transmitted via the inductive loop and radio, as well as interact with devices floor spot ALS.
Initially, the AFL Hannover — Würzburg and Mannheim — Stuttgart scheduled to use the same signaling system as in parts of the reconstructed line DB, which allowed the movement of trains at speeds up to 200 km / h. In this system, Traffic light signals are provided in full with the simultaneous display on the locomotor motivic traffic light traffic signal indications floor. With the advent of having high availability devices LZB80 decided to cancel the installation of traffic lights at the AFL-through auto-lock, leaving the travel lights for fencing conventions between the paths (they are arranged every 7-8 km) and at the stations. Lamps of traffic lights turn off when you approach them with a working train ALSN devices. New alarm system allows the movement of traffic on the testimony of travel at speeds up to 160 km / h, and on the testimony of the locomotive traffic lights — at higher speeds. In the first case, the speed control point performs ALS type Indusi.
Dividing lines on the block portions remain. To control the use of their free scheduled code jointless track circuits AC voice frequency (4,75..L6,5 kHz). Transmitting and receiving electronic components of track circuits placed in positions of centralization. On one block area may be one train equipped with a device ALSN. Following a train without AFL device ALSN is only possible with the free area all the way up to the next traffic light track. For these trains capacity of the line is sharply reduced, offset by savings in capital expenditure of approximately $ 30 million. DM by eliminating the floor-through traffic. In addition, it is believed that the proportion of AFL trains devices ALSN will continuously increase.
To adapt to the conditions in the existing high-speed lines in the DB system ALSN fundamental changes are not necessary, but added several new features. These include: conjugation sites with traffic-light signals and areas where ALSN is the primary means of signaling and communication; implementation of an automatic service brake; formation in the control center and the transfer of positions to centralize command to turn off lights when approaching traffic lights travel to train them with devices ALSN.
Train control system 1SE
To move on the AFL with the speed of 250 km / h, an experimental long-distance train ICE, the control system which is based on the widespread use of microprocessors and fiber optics. This system was developed by AEG-Telefunken and universal. It is designed for any type of electric rolling stock.
ICE train control system is built in a modular fashion and has a hierarchical structure. Separate subsystems are ‘near an object management and distributed throughout the train. They are matched to each other through the buffer memory KS (Fig. 1, where LP1, LP2 — processor communication; RP — governing processor; LZBP — preprocessor signal ALSN LZB; EAP — input-output processor; AS — traction control equipment; BS — management of braking equipment; F1 — informing passengers; KZS — conventional train control signals; D — diagnostics). The system is based on 8- and 16-bit microprocessor type Intel 8085, Intel 8087, Intel 8088. The transmission of information is carried out over a fiber-optic line LL1, which is to improve the reliability duplicated line LL2. Here we use the fibers with a gradient structure (core diameter of 200 microns) «temporary seal is achieved data rate of 1.28 … 5.15 Mbit / s. Optical transmitter and receiver, respectively, are light and photodiodes. The maximum permissible transmission distance without repeaters 500 m.
In intercar connections optical fiber cable wound in a special socket that can accommodate up to four lens connections. The coupling is provided with a centering engaging elements, you can use it not only in the manual, but also with the automatic coupling cars. In the lens-type connection is expanded to 5 mm of the beam of light coming from the incoming fiber. After passing through the compound lens system beam is narrowed and again introduced into the outgoing fiber. This prevents excessive attenuation of the light signal due to contamination in the lens connection. There is also an electric heating sleeve, eliminating fogging lenses.
The microprocessor centralization
The difference in the timing of the completion of the AFL (1987-1991 gg.) Allows you to implement a system microprocessor centralization in areas to be completed last. It will be possible for a positive test result, MC Hockenheim near the station on the line Mannheim — Stuttgart, which will begin in 1987. It will test the advantage of MC systems to relay centralization, as an extension of range (the zone control post on the MP high-speed line is planned to include an arrow and signals on a stretch of 40 … 50 km), and additional features, reflecting the specific AFL: ALSN interaction with the management of switches with two or more electric.
In the vicinity of the station will be installed Hockenheim MC EIS-type manufactured by Siemens (see. Atis, 1986, number 5). MTs implement provided in two stages. The first phase will include a zone of control device on the floor area of 12 km, it will be covered in the second section from station to station Bryuler Veg kraichtal 50 km with one overtaking point, two points, and branch paths between the numerous congresses. Hockenheim at the station, which is a hub for the AFL Mannheim — Stuttgart line Mannheim — Karlsruhe, establish a system of centralized type of relay SpDrS 600. In the first stage, it will ensure the safety of trains, and in the area of control of fasting MP, who is also accommodated in the station Hockenheim.
The structure of the MC is shown in Fig. 2, where EO OE — electric converters into optical signals and vice versa. The control area is divided into five areas, each of which is allocated to the district microcomputer BR1-BR5, realizing the central dependence. For direct control switches and signals through a matching device in April are executive microcomputer StRll- StR52 (the first figure in the index indicates a microcomputer belonging to the district). The pretreatment teams on duty at the post carries a microcomputer MC ER. Commands are entered using the alphanumeric keypad T for their visual inspection set black-and-white display KM. ASR microcomputer controls the display of the situation on the train screen color displays FS and provides an interface with the system ALSN LZB. The basis of microcomputer is a two-channel microprocessor system with safe failures SIMIS. For microcomputers BR1-BR5 allocated one backup microcomputer RBR, all other microcomputer systems MC duplicated.
Exchange of information between the microcomputer occurs through fiber-optic lines, which include fibers with a gradient structure (core diameter of 50 micrometers, shell — 125 microns, frequency bandwidth — 600 MHz-km). When using the LED light with a wavelength of 1300 nm signal, taking into account attenuation splices, optical plugs and system reserve (6 dB) maximum allowable distance from the optical transmitter optical receiver is approximately 15 km. It can be increased by the use of more powerful light sources such as semiconductor lasers. Data link systems, MC is scheduled to be placed in fiber optic cable telecommunications, which are duplicated to increase the reliability and stacked on different sides of railway track.
For communication with the microcomputer executive floor devices is a traditional cable with copper conductors, the length of which can be up to 6.5 km. This allows you not to install the execution of the microcomputer in the immediate vicinity of the convention between the paths and traffic lights to control their fences and siding with the arrow points or branch points. Placement executive microcomputer provides local control arrows without the inclusion of the latter in the route, depending on the post MP.
ALSN dispatching centers are designed to work with systems of relay centralization; to interact with the MC changes in them will not be made. Posts related to the centralized control center dedicated lines that carry data on the state floor devices and free way. In addition, a shared channel for cyclic polling stations and centralizing the command to turn off the light travel .svetoforov. These commands are processed in the district and executive microcomputers as well as the team on duty at the post MP.
On the SFL to reject the trains on the side of road at a speed of 200 km / h will be installed turnouts with moveable frogs conversion curves and radii of 7000 m, which do not allow to use traditional actuators arrow. In this case, the areas switch points and crossings envisaged to place multiple compact conversion devices associated with a common cable logic unit where concentrated control and monitoring functions. The logic block through a cable line interacts with hardware post centralization. Each transfer device includes nevzreznoy electric servomotor (20 kN thrust), the locking and control units. To control the arrows are shorter incision inductive loops.
Travel lights adopted by DB, the terms of dimensions can not be installed on the AFL; therefore developed a new design of the traffic lights with a shield, the reduction in width of 640 mm and having a rectangular shape. The shield is an integral part of the head of traffic lights, which are placed lens sets of signal lights. The components of the combined production of the Siemens traffic are shown in Fig. 3, where 1 — additional bracket; 2 — door; 3 — head frame; 4 — bearing bracket; 5 — an arm; 6 — additional indicators; 7 — the main traffic light shield; 8 — schnt warning lights.
In the construction of additional pointers as amended. Instead of pointers, in which the signal for the issuance of evidence used 35 bulbs, introduced new unified pointers with one filament lamp and fiber optics. The speed indicator signal whose values remain constant, refused to install incandescent lamps. The light source here is, for example, light of the green light of a traffic light core from which the beam is diverted to index optical fibers.
Optical fiber communication
For the needs of long-distance communication used in the AFL scheduled backbone fiber-optic cables and transmission systems with pulse-code modulation type RSM480 (480 voice channels). Calculations have shown that, for example, high-speed line Mannheim — Stuttgart cost fiber-optic communication line, compacted RSM480 system, is 14% lower than the coaxial cable from the analog high-frequency transmission system V300 type (300 voice channels).
Laying of the cable line between Mannheim and Stuttgart length of 112 km with a four-point recovery started in 1985. It used a fiber-optic cable, which includes multi-mode optical fibers with gradient structure. This fiber comprises a core 50 microns in diameter enclosed in a shell diameter of 125 microns with a coating of synthetic material with a diameter of 250 microns. The coating is used for convenience, and compensation of lateral forces that can shift the axis of the fiber and cause additional attenuation of the light signal.
Cable core forms a light guide placed in a plastic tube with a diameter of 1.4 mm. To protect against moisture and mechanical decoupling of the fiber and other components of the cable space in the core is filled with a jelly-like mass, whose viscosity in the temperature range -30 … +70 ° C varies slightly. Eight lived wound on a support element of glass fiber reinforced plastic. Of these fibers contain only two remaining cable serve to impart the necessary mechanical properties. On top of this lay stacked tensile strength glass fibers, followed by a waterproof layer and a plastic cable jacket. Cable diameter 14 mm, weight 110 kg / km, the construction length of 2000 m. Kilometricheskoe attenuation in the fiber at the wavelength of the carrier light signal 1300 nm is 1 dB / km, the bandwidth of the frequency — 1200 MHz-km. The maximum length of the regeneration is about 25 km.
Except for the first segment of the 13 km long cable is laid two tracks on either side of the path, because they are also scheduled to be used for the transmission of information in the MP station Hockenheim. On the stretch of tunnels and fiber-optic cable is placed in a trough with electrical cables at the stations — in PVC pipes. Splicing of light guides in the coupling to the thermal method. Attenuation splice averaging 0.2 dB.
Dispatch traffic control
On the SFL posts centralization is expected to operate, bringing the minimum number of staff. For example, devices on the floor AFL Mannheim — Stuttgart is scheduled to be operated from a centralized to four junctions. However, the high-speed lines are part of the rail network DB, and have multiple points of contiguity to the usual lines, where the program operation includes frequent visits trains AFL. Therefore dispatching traffic control of trains on the high-speed lines it can not be focused on the positions of centralization.
Currently, every railway management DB are already in operation or dispatch centers Train Control (CDC), equipped mini and microcomputers, color displays, telephone and radio means for transmitting commands assistant station and locomotive drivers (see. Atis, 1986 number 7). The objective is to organize dispatchers train crossings, overtaking and so on. D. Within the territory of the railway management. Primary sources of information for these centers are established in positions of centralization relay or microprocessor devices indicating numbers of trains. They combined two-wire lines for communities, which are connected to the computer connection in the center of dispatching management.
Since the AFL pass through the territory of several railway managements DB, it decided not to create for them special CDU. Line Mannheim — Stuttgart and Hannover — Würzburg be conditionally divided into two respectively, and the three sites, which will allocate the jobs of five dispatchers CDU Railway directorates Karlsruhe, Stuttgart, Hanover, Frankfurt and Nuremberg. CDU in Stuttgart already exists, the construction of other CDU is scheduled to finish by the beginning of the operation of high-speed lines.
To improve dispatching traffic control is considered. the ability to transfer funds from the ALSN CDU directly to the control system of train information on best from the point of view of energy consumption rate.