Like it or not, people are surrounded by clouds of a variety of fears. They are born with us — the baby is not yet know how to laugh, but is capable of experiencing fear. Some nightmares unabated, accompany us since the dawn then, suddenly other updated, growing out of nowhere and suddenly becoming horror of our time. A relatively new character in the gallery frightening creatures became doppelganger.
Behind this strange thing we should thank the German Romantics; from there, from Germany, and takes her name (it. Doppelganger — double). But the concept of «doppelganger» means slightly more than double. Doppelganger — have not lost once upon a time a twin brother and not a simple doubling of the entity. Tweedledee and Tweedledum Kerrolovskie as Gogol and BOBCHINSKI Dobchinsky — not doppelgangers; also can not be considered doppelganger twin brothers, lords Ballantre described Stevenson. But Olga and Yalo from the «Kingdom of Crooked Mirrors» Gubarev — an example of strong and pedagogically useful friendship Soviet pioneers and patronized her doppelganger.
Doppelganger always copy, fake, indistinguishable in appearance from the original — and still its opposite. However, something that gives doppelganger. He casts no shadow, is not reflected in the mirror and can not exist independently. Sooner or later the doppelganger necessarily return to his double ‘- and is unlikely to be a good meeting.
It so happened that at the beginning of the XIX century’s worst nightmare became not vsdminsky Sabbath, not a dragon’s mouth, and did not rise from the grave ghouls and suddenly you met on the road itself, is currently going forward with a sinister smile. Romanticism from the beginning stretched to the border states to extremes, and ultimately — to madness. Just say that in the early XX century, it was the same — a passion for romantic pose to high ideals, to the aesthetics of the Middle Ages, revolt against the philistine society. Then in literature and art are back and doppelgangers.
Age of Enlightenment closely pushed humanity to the second truth is simple: «Know thyself.» This inscription adorned on the temple of Apollo at Delphi, and then it turned into everyday use aphorism, it was interpreted in many different ways, and now we read the words of TS is not without internal chill. Do not look for monsters outside. Monsters — in you. The philosopher Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling, a friend and idol of the German Romantics, led accurate, albeit poetic definition of horror: «Creepy called everything that was to remain secret, hidden, but it turned out.» That’s doppelganger — not just a copy of the person, but suddenly break free from the inner abyss creature; something shameful or frightening, it was to remain under wraps, but instead walks, talks and lives of some of its hostile, and unnatural life.
Psychology, of course, will not operate on the notion of frivolous «doppelganger.» Similar phenomena in nau’ke are called «autoscope.»
In «The Big Psychological encyclopedia» autoscope defined as «clinical disorder that is characterized by the emergence of the individual the illusion that he sees himself as if from outside. Phenomenal «I" as if the individual acquires the ability to separate from the physical body and observe it as an external object, all somatic sensations visible body image are no longer available. Perceived body image need not be identical to that observed in a normal state of consciousness (such as a mirror), in particular, may have a different age (the age of the elder), but despite this, it is still perceived as an image of itself. » What is this if not doppelganger? But «autoskoiiya» sounds more solid, more reliable, gives reason to believe that the phenomenon is studied, described and probably curable. It’s okay, in general.
SECRET RISE explicit.
Century XIX, the iron age of steam locomotives, factories and the first electricity was proud of the fact that almost all the phenomena of life can learn to classify and sort through, and if some facts can not be explained now, the scientists of the future will certainly give an exhaustive answer.
Then before us is the first attempt to scientifically prove the possibility of a split personality down to the physical separation of man. Discoveries in the field of psychology, particularly the psychology of the unconscious, looked simply stunning. The theme of «dark twin», «shadow side» was not just interesting, but one of the most popular. It turned out that, in any, the most educated and respectable person has some secret door behind which probably lurks a monster. From madness and outrage no one is immune — and it tells us is not a religion, not morality, but uncompromising and incorruptible science. Life has become very uncomfortable. There was a question whether it is possible to get rid of annoying the «inner monkey», and if so, in what way. The logic is simple: if the different organisms, fused into a single body can be separated and operate separately, so why is it not possible to the same division, «Siamese twins» in his own soul?
Robert Louis Stevenson, British writer-crank, writes «Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde». Dr. Jekyll, a respected man, a philanthropist and a gentleman, a very early age realize that his «dark half» is too strong and fully capable to destroy his reputation. He finds that «some material may alter the human body» is the appropriate medication, in an evil moment takes him — and soon he becomes a free and easy like never before. So the light escapes Mr. Edward Hyde, the dark side of the good Dr. Jekyll. Stevenson does not aims to give such transformations at least some scientific basis — he rather naively commented that Hyde was younger, lower and weaker than Dr. Jekyll, since the evil inclination is still not quite prevailed over the bright side. But then, when Hyde finally let himself go, Dr. Jekyll could not keep him in check and had to take medication in order not to turn into Hyde, and to accept its former appearance. Doubles are reversed! Eventually the drug ends hideous Mr. Hyde more than nothing can stop, and at the last moment of its existence, Dr. Jekyll takes poison, poisoning, and thus his evil twin. Contemporaries book met with delight from the writer Stevenson, who was respected a few connoisseurs, became a star of the first magnitude.
About thirty years before the attention of the world was represented by another pair of psychological antipodes. It is about the narrator and his doppelganger of short stories by Edgar Allan Poe’s «William Wilson.» Here, however, the reader is on a par with the author remain in the dark about where did the mysterious «second Wilson», distinguishable from the first except that the voice — double can only whisper. Doppelgangers, and here is the complete opposite of his «original» case he upsets him and paralyze his life. In the end, the hero kills his tormentor. There is, however, one juicy details: the «second Wilson» is «light twin» and narrated by the original person — «the dark side». Whenever doppelganger interfere in the affairs of his «ward», he does so in order to prevent any vile, disgusting and outright crime, conceived villain. In the final, stabbing his opponent, the narrator suddenly appears in front of a huge mirror, which does not die his bloodied reflection, not himself. Story ends as almost always at the Po, in the wake of the absolute and hopeless despair.
SUBSTITUTION and the displacement
What is so terrible doppelganger? He does not drink blood as a vampire, not eats flesh as a werewolf, he did not curse capable. But at doppelganger is one most unpleasant feature — it can take your place, to push you out of life, defame in the eyes of all those who have hitherto considered your friends. And is doing all that it could with impunity: from an external point of view, between you there is no difference.
We have already seen how the desire for immoral pleasures killed Dr. Jekyll, fully surrender to the power of his Mr. Hyde. However. Stevenson still remains true romantic knight Henry Jekyll he has prepared himself such a fate. Hyde was originally weak repulsive dwarf — only indulgence Jekyll his dark side has led to an imbalance. Ultimately, it is the doctor was on the position at his doppelganger disgusting «alter ego»: falling asleep in his own guise, he woke up already Mr. Hyde. This story can be safely regarded as psychologically, and in a strictly moral way. Evil and irresistibly attractive, drag your finger to the devil — he grabs the whole hand; claw stuck — the whole bird abyss.
From this point of view, manmade doppelganger-antipode can recognize the portrait of Dorian Gray (from the same works of Oscar Wilde), which takes care of all the consequences of twenty years of debauchery, vices and crimes of its original — handsome as a Greek god, unfading youth. When not restrain disgust. Dorian attacks the portrait with a knife, everything back to square one: the servants are in the office of the dead hideous old man, and the canvas again smiling face of a beautiful young man.
In another behaves doppelganger in Andersen’s fairy tale «The Shadow.» Shadow does not seek to take the place of scientists in the world — it is too unenviable, while Shadow rich, influential and even marry the princess. All efforts doppelganger reduced to just to get his former master to take place the shadows, but he refuses, and secretly kill — as «sbrendivshuyu shadow, imagines himself as a man.» Doppelganger won — though with impunity. No one will suspect it of dubious nature.
The most horrible and exhausting case of repression described by Dostoevsky in Petersburg poem «The Double». This early and generally quite weak product may separate its fragments to inspire a real horror. Throughout this extended stories the author does not give the reader a clear answer whether there is actually a mysterious Golyadkin junior, or it’s just nonsense man who at the end of the poem falls into a madhouse. The situation is complicated by the fact that the difference between the two Golyadkin almost there — both of them most unpleasant person, so how would sympathize with none. It would seem impossible not to feel sorry for a man who suddenly taken up arms against everything — from the weather to his own valet. But as soon as Mr. Golyadkin somehow manifests itself, try to explain, to justify, to intimidate all the sympathy immediately ends: too unbearable even by the standards of St. Petersburg comes this crazy official. Especially appalling is that people react to the antics and the very appearance of a sinister double calmly, as if it should be. Not a soul sees nothing strange in the fact that in the same department of the Department are two officials of the same name, origin and strikingly similar to each other (by the way, and in a short story by Edgar Allan Poe anyone at school did not surprise the simultaneous appearance of two boys born in the same day, similar as twins, bearing the same name and, moreover, are not relatives). His party doppelganger plays like clockwork: from the pathetic supplicant vtёrshegosya in trust, it is very quickly becoming his board, and then — a ruthless enemy destroyer and a slanderer. Where fraud where dexterity damn double definitively destroys lives and sanity unfortunate victim. A higher authorities happily provides him with it all possible support.
Meeting with a double, as well as the sudden displacement of Yakov from all areas of life and replacing it with a new and beloved Golyadkin junior, written out with alarming certainty. Incidentally, autoscope quite common in epileptics — it is possible that part of the sketches Fyodor, who suffered from «falling sickness» made «from life.»
It is not always a terrible doppelganger that intends to take the place of their «master.» Strictly speaking, a function assigned to it only in the XIX century, when humanity has become too much attention to questions like «Who am I, if I’m not me.» And people easier, not burdened with unnecessary philosophical zamorochkami and previously knew perfectly well that he had met doppelganger, as a rule, does not live long. For example, the doppelganger Virgin Queen Elizabeth appeared, heralding its demise. In Russia, with its doppelganger pretty creepy way met the Empress Anna Ivanovna and Catherine the Great. Both of them a few days before his death, they learned about their own twins, seated on the throne. Both heard of outrageous ghosts prefer to get out of bed and go to the disease personally make sure that happens.
According to legend, Anna Ivanovna asked his counterpart, who he is and why come here. The ghost did not answer. Duke Biron angered audacity unknown fake, ordered the guard to shoot, but the bullet did not cause any harm doppelganger. Anna Ivanovna was convinced that it would come her death — and indeed, a few hours later the Empress died.
As for Catherine the Great, in her case, a meeting with the doppelganger was not so dramatic: no interviews, no shooting. But the overall theatrical effect rose to the occasion. The maid of honor saw the Empress in his nightshirt, with a candle in his hand comes out of the bedroom and goes into the throne room. No one would not be surprised, but at this point, to the dismay of the maids of honor.
Empress in the bedroom rang a bell. After learning about the incident. Catherine, in his time, and Anna immediately got out of bed and went to meet his own ghost. As later recalled witnesses (or as deemed necessary to decorate this heart-rending scene descendants), the hall spilled ghastly green glow. Dialogue doppelganger was not followed; Catherine II, when he saw himself on the throne, fell unconscious and died two days later of a brain haemorrhage.
Not only in the higher echelons of power believed accept «double — to the death.» At the same Dostoevsky’s immediate superior Golyadkina Anton Antonovich. comforting slave, says: «This is, you know — that I’ll tell you ‘- the same thing happened to my aunt with obscene hand; Before his death, she also saw herself twice … «We have to think, the words of the authorities has encouraged many Golyadkin senior, and they allow us to know that in Russia at the time of Dostoevsky suicide meeting a man with his own double was not a novelty.
I’m lost in time
However, immediately after the death of a meeting with the doppelganger comes not always. In addition to literary works, where Doppel-Ganger necessarily obliged to do something interesting (to spoil the man’s life, to condemn him to death, and so on), there are many stories about the meeting with his counterpart, and most of these meetings took place quietly. Maupassant. for example, I am sitting at a table and worked, and at that time entered the room of his doppelganger, and even said a few words. Exactly those Maupassant about to write about. And nothing, no one died. We know that Byron repeatedly «met» on the walk to their friends just as the days when the poet was ill, often in another city. The most well-known case — a clash of Johann Wolfgang Goethe with his own double. It is interesting by the fact that sheds some light on the possible nature of doppelgangers.
Goethe conducted a detailed diary, so on this adventure, we know first-hand.
This accuracy in the transfer of parts — a precious gift for the researcher of strange phenomena. This is evidence suggesting that, perhaps, the nature of doppelgangers have something to do with wandering in time and, therefore, our time is not so linear and irrevocably, as is commonly believed. Get at least Esenina meeting with the Black man: so tempting to see in this poem the poet’s conversation with doppelgangers, thoroughly examine his heart, motivation, its past and present, because these two are really one and the same. But Black people already know what the outcome of their meeting, and — increasingly — the earthly fate of the poet. Ends poem familiar to most doppelganger way — trying to kill him: But instead of a dead twin poet sees a broken mirror. Print the poem after the death Esenina.
Idea. it is possible to meet with the future-in our own past (and get a safety net in difficult situations), it has long stirred the human heart. Actually, when Harry Potter in the third book banishes dementors, sending a Patronus across the river, he acts as a doppelganger — a wanderer in time and save Sirius Black and himself. And here we can not say about the rare, but still well-known varieties of doppelgangers.
The great mass of stories about deadly twins seeking to take your place, forcing you into oblivion, foreshadowing the death of, or at least illness, yet from time to time there are stories about the doppelganger, who come for help, warn of danger, taken away from dangerous places. JK Rowling. making Harry Potter doppelganger savior, does not become sokrushitslnitsey canons.
Do not forget that the people say, if our guardian angels face are the same as ours, but clean and beautiful. In connection with this recall doppelganger Williams, who turned the light side of a dark original. Not by chance the character of Edgar Allan Poe says:
This incomprehensible tenderness «other Williams» rejected the guardian angel of the narrator — perhaps. One of the most profound discoveries in the psychological novel, which itself is perhaps the best of all that he wrote.
Carlos Castaneda tells a story of his teacher, Don Juan, about a strange bifurcation, which saved his life («The Power of Silence. Two odostoronnih Bridge»). Once Don Juan found himself in the river and realized that he could not cope with the furious flow. Suddenly he felt himself on the land.
With frightening speed, he raced along the same river.
That losing contact with «him on the shore,» then regaining it, Don Juan was able to find the strength and you will be taken to the bank, and then reflect on the experience. Paradoxically, but sometimes people met with their counterparts, ispyt -vayut not horror and joy and relief, the influx of strength and confidence. However, in this case, more often than not recall exactly angels.
And it’s worth noting that at one meeting of this kind there are ten stories about evil dopielgangere.
Doppelganger OUR DAYS
Of course, a cinema, and after him and computer games simply could not pass such a tasty nightmare. The film adaptation with doppelgangers appeared at the dawn of cinema. The first full length horror film.
«Prague student», talked about the doppelganger, and he was shot on the grounds of that «William Vilsoia.» Since then, the infernal counterpart definitely in vogue. Scary pictures, frozen identical children, deathly face, indistinguishable from each other, pleasantly tickled the nervous system.
A string of doppelgangers for every taste and color stretches cinema — thousands of them!
Movies about doppelgangers are based on two main schemes. Some people talk about the terrible twin, who undertook nowhere dreams take your place in this world and because your life turns into a nightmare, and you — a bloody monster (like in the movie Avi Nesher «doppelganger» or the Anglo-French thriller «Reflection»). The other is built around an internal affair «dark side» of the tearing of the subconscious (as oskaronos Mr. «Black Swan» by Darren Aronofsky). Features allow cinema to make stunning images: woman acquires feathers of the mirrors, windows and generally emerge from anywhere nightmarish phantoms face flow Drut in druokku — in general, the art of public tickle of her own money mastered brilliantly. There are, of course, peace and doubles practically sisters, and behind them is not so much the audience watching with horror as sympathetically (as in the films «The Double Life of Veronique» or «Do not look back»). There doppelganger becomes a pretext to raise the eternal questions and talk about what interests the writer and director.
But in computer games is no particular spirituality in the doppelgangers not hang.
They proliferated everywhere — from the «Munchkin» to DmC, and there are games on the «Watch», and in the good old AD&D, and Warhammer. Here they do not offend by high motives. Doppelganger — then horror, flying where have hidden killer bloody butcher death on the long gray legs. In an extreme case — not big and not too strong a crook. has some specific functions such as mind reading from a distance and creep into the confidence of art. If doppelganger is not a murderer, then most likely, the thief — and wants to profit by your zolotishkom or artifacts. Do not worry — soprёt and leave. Computer game doppelganger — the humanoid, covered with gray skin, the three-meter monster as if crudely fashioned from clay, the guy flying in a cloud of dark emanations, with a grim face and a long sword. Everything depends on the game. As often happens, the development of some of the features of the mythological creature are discarded as useless, and some others, on the contrary, increase. Doppelgasher game usually radically different from the book is the fact that a «mass product, an entire race rather than a double one particular individual character, a meaningless outside its pair. Some game doppelgangers why nervously react to the silver — but then, most likely, the depot that the developers have suddenly suffered an acute attack of lesgata.
However, here and there in the games adhere to the classic version. So, in the old vile «Munchkin» doppelganger — just complete the doubling of the player. And in the Mafia: The City of Lost Heaven doppelganger also quite canonical. Its function is very simple: it comes out of the body of the hero and Tommy runs a substantial advance its «prototype», diverting the snipers. In addition, the twin can play kamikaze bomb and undermine ourselves and the enemy.
But doppelganger century is short-fifteen minutes in a handsome kostyumetroyke disappear by itself. In any case, the appearance of doppelganger and «Mafia» is his quick and certain death.
Well, there he and the road.
So if you come out to meet you … do not be afraid. Calmly define to what you are now a reality. Sometimes doppelganger — it’s just a doppelganger …