A year ago solemnly marked the 70th anniversary of the Moscow Metro. Moscow Metro — a unique underground museum, which contains works by the most talented artists working in a variety of genres, styles and techniques. In the early 30-ies of XX century, young architects, designers and artists have managed to create an unprecedented synthesis of three different styles. They combined classic architecture, rationalism and modernism in art system stable. Later, a new style incorporates sculptures and mosaics, paintings and ceramics, metal and glass from their rich palette of possibilities. In the metro imprinted life, dreams and aspirations of several generations of people.
In the 1930s — 1950s ceramics used as the basis for monumental painting, for example, a panel E.Lansere station «Komsomolskaya» or as material sculptures in porcelain reliefs E.Danko station «Theatre» and G.Motovilova at the station «Prospect Mira». Let us consider in more detail the three stations opened in the last twenty years, «Borovitskaya», «Roman» and «Chkalov». In 1986, the station was opened «Borovitskaya», which was the result of the search of a new type of communication with the city (and architects L.Popov V.Volovich artist Nikolaev).
Going down from the tower Borovitskaya, passengers get on site review of a large panel of red clay with a relief stylized flags and gold painted that «pick up» the solemn spirit of the capital. As the descent into the white escalator arches and corridors invades red bricks, which are printed relief images of buildings and trees, through the brickwork clear emerges spruce forest. Due to the minimal set of tools is born the image of the city, surrounded by forests and rivers doggedly elevate your walls.
Theatre in the lumen of one of the arches over the aisles looking brick tops of towers, slightly «touched» gold. Architectural and historical atmosphere pervades every corner of the game lobbies, halls escalator, runs, hits, aprons. The brickwork interspersed throughout relief tiles of the same color with coarse symbolic «images-hints.» They are the archaeological antiquity, the illustrative material. The most interesting «George», «cannon», «male and female workers», «St. Basil», which are well developed in low relief of living. Various images are located on the square tiles in random order. Topic image defies systematization «alphabet», «boat», «horse», «the gates», «Christmas tree», «airplane», «digit», «boat». Relief tiles enliven the monotony of the brick, making meaningful sense.
The use of red brick as a finishing material was bold and unexpected decision. In conjunction with monochrome terracotta tiles, the wall has acquired sophisticated aesthetic quality. Masonry in the openings pylons smoothly into the arched vault, returning on another pylon.
The panel devoted to Moscow — the capital of a multinational state. It occupies the bottom half of the Kremlin, fashioned in terracotta red bluff big, but quite recognizable. Because the Kremlin raised the tree, in which the crown of «family of nations» of the former USSR are arranged in two rows. The background are gold bricks. Common colors of gold and red terracotta color harmonizes well with the whole station, making it a whole in regard to color. In general, the station gives the impression of an unexpected comparison of light and shadow, mass and void, reality and fiction, exciting complex literary and historical assotsiatsii.V 1995 open station «Chkalov» (architects N.Aleshina, L.Borzenkov, A.Vigdorov artist M .Alekseev). Individual stations to create a visual image of the body of trucks and going into the distance arcs of lighting fixtures. The passenger goes through the central hall, as if the light inside the greenhouse, festively lit streets of plastic pylons and arches blue-gray marble. Over outs in the end of the hall in the «portholes» unknown aircraft entered the colored ceramic reliefs depicting the forces of nature, eddies, swirling above the ground. Gray-blue glaze covers the panels, duplicating the pattern of marble slabs. The idea of the architect was in complete subjection to the relief of the interior, although usually art panel is designed to be dominant.
In the same year it opened the station «Rome» (architects L.Popov, N.Rostegnyaeva, Zh.Imbrigi sculptor L.Berlin). «Rome» has in common with «Borovitskaya», being a work of the same author — L. Popov. First of all, managed to avoid any architectural quotations. The image of the Eternal City created high vault of the central hall, based on the large skylights. Poles pylons devoid of sharp corners, so clearly visible travel facilities.
Sculptor L.Berlin did not show the kind of Rome did not make copies of ancient statues; he beat the legend of the founding of the city, is well known to all, the language modeling of soft refractory layer «a la prima» without detailed study, academic modeling of the muscles and wrinkles. It turned thumbnail image, preserving the structural features of the material, plastic, shape.
Inputs, outputs, crown interchange lanes clearly marked medallions with warmth and humor representing certain images of the famous myth «Wolf Child», «Children who are building a tower», «Head of the ancient deities.» Drip greenish glaze reminiscent of traditional pottery, ceramic crafts of immersion into the depths of history, where, of course, there is a place on the basis of the legend of Rome.
In this amazing plane is a common field for cooperation refined architecture and urban folk art. At the top of the stairs, at the end wall, played a sculptural and architectural spectacle. The wall fountain is arranged, to which «the legendary children» are sitting on huge chunks of columns by Corinthian capitals. The artist did not care for the «noble» processing of historical values: in his performance chamotte column, based on a review from the depths of the room, deliberately covered with decorative colored enamels.
Invite a master paradoxical sculpture as L.Berlin was in line with the conscious intention: to break the traditional image of a frozen metro station is an example, dedicated to the Eternal City.
Experience has Metrostroiteley and artists provides an extensive range of genres, those techniques and materials. The aim of ceramics, as a representative of any artistic specialty is the «humanization» of architecture, the translation of complex abstract ideas into the language of feelings and images.