ONE OF THE BALL Molniya wrenching problems of modern physics. Hypothesis candidate of technical sciences OI MITROFANOVA EXPLAINS ALL SET PROPERTIES mysterious phenomena, but to pay for it accounts for very expensive price; Shall revise established notions about e. SPECIALISTS, read this article, is unlikely to agree with the ideas of the author. While there may be many, they give pleasure conundrum and shine fantasy.
Many explanations of the nature of ball lightning is a disappointment, as the abundance of funds for baldness. For half a century of scientific study of ball lightning have tried, it seems every conceivable hypothesis, from simple-minded «Thunder substance» of the past century until quite modern antimatter. Time goes — probably somewhere involved and «black holes», but the main tendency is to replace the common first chemical views influx of trendy plasma theory, which, however, did not help the cause, as the most advanced magnetic confinement plasma retained only insignificant fractions of a second. The author of an excellent book «The Nature of Ball Lightning» S. Singer came to the sad conclusion «plasma theory and experimental studies have not been able to explain the formation of a long-term plasmoid in vivo. Apparently, obligatory for any structure of dense high-temperature plasma is a powerful and complex external field. » However, the fireball, literally, clear proof to the contrary.
It is assumed that, in addition to forced confinement by external fields, there is a fundamentally different path — the path of self-localization. By the way, this is a standard lesson in nature: for example, some of the processes taking place in calm gentle living cells, artificial reproduction techniques require bulky, high pressure and large temperature.
The emergence of ball lightning is most often associated with the storm, of course, and we start with the discharge of all the visions of falling from the clouds of linear lightning (sometimes referred to as a zigzag). How does having electrically charged clouds field — nobody really knows, but it is known that the potential difference between thunderclouds and the ground often reaches a billion volts. Air insulator is weak for those conditions — to develop sample: dazzling discharge with a current of hundreds of thousands of amperes disperses billions of joules of energy.
Usually from the cloud to the ground carries a negative charge — much less positive (but tolerable with the charge three times as much — up to 300 pendant). A super fast photographs showed that the outbreak of «typical» lightning lasts about a quarter of a second and consists of several individual pulses, consistently running through the channel, laid the first — the most powerful. The first pulse starts low-luminous stepped leader, moving down the 50-meter spurts. When a leader makes contact with the ground at speeds of up to 100 000 km / s rushes return stroke, we observed generating light and sound effects. As often happens in life, maloprimetny stepped leader carries twice the charge than a brilliant return stroke. Leaders of the next pulse, if they exist, are called swept — they are distributed at a constant speed, and is preceded by a weaker return stroke.
There are also intracloud level, but, although they occur more frequently than discharge cloud — ground, information about them very little. Finally, there are few reports about the slow serpentine discharges, lightning with a rounded end and the other is incredibly
The famous American physicist M. Yuman in his book «Lightning» characterizes the situation: «The general problem is illustrated by the deplorable state of the various theories and then stepped leader,» to explain the steps involved in the formation of concepts such as space charge recombination, electron capture and ionization processes. However, it is of little use, because the physics of these phenomena is complicated and inaccurate. «
It argued that the mystery of ball lightning can not be solved because of the rarity of the phenomenon and the inadequate training of observers, but as you can see, all is not unriddled and linear lightning, although it regularly watch experts. It is discouraging. However, one set firmly part of the energy of the discharge channel, «cast» in the liter volume, will give about 104 J, t. E is a thousand times smaller than it turned into a fireball, which is the joy of science got into a barrel of water.
To trace the transformation of linear lightning in ball, we turn to the most poignant moments: the leader of the newly paved conductive channel, and from the cloud toward the ground rushed return stroke. The rate of current rise in this powerful, rank very high, which means that the discharge head is growing rapidly and the magnetic field — the very thing that covers every current-carrying conductor and any current at all. In turn, the changing magnetic field induces eddy electric and if its voltage exceeds the dielectric strength of the air breakdown occurs. The current breakdown cover curved axis of the torus — a ring flash. Plasma ring crowning head discharge resembles the measuring transformer on the current bus, and I must say, the resemblance is only superficial: the plasma interacts with a current pulse as the winding of the transformer, — the pulse energy is pumped into the energy of the eddy current, and a lightning, like a stocking, begins to slide in nearly stationary plasma harness.
Eddy current «young ring is created by electrons — massive ions react slowly. However, the electron current does not last long: twisted magnetic field of the discharge, the electrons lose energy as any oscillating charge, the rate of falls and they are cooling down, grouped along the axis of the harness. Electrons will move on converging spiral — this is obvious, but no less obvious Coulomb repulsion forces, which do not have to let the electron component of the plasma or grouped along the axis of the harness or in any other place.
Attention! We came to the crucial point of forming stable plasmoid — now it’s time to leave the ring alone and try to find evidence heretical thoughts about coalescence of cold electrons in a magnetic field. The existence of associations of electrons in a Cooper pair and exciton drops this assumption does not so ridiculous, but now it’s not about that. We are interested in the possible difference between the figures on the scope of the electron field, and as any experimental evaluation of this parameter is missing, the gap in the experimental data, as usual, will have to fill the theoretical considerations about the origin of the electron charge: that is, to find out what’s inside the electron.
Despite the fact that elementary particles began to learn much later fireball achievements there are many more «dualism», «strange», «charm», frankly mystical «spirits» and even «Chimaeron», «secret Peony» and finally » pomeranchon schizophrenic, «as they called one of the virtual particles. True, called — does not mean to explain the terminology and the escalation does not indicate a major success, but rather the mood of the researchers. Periodic calls for madness, too, can understand — because the tiny particles were not in the teeth of the theory of relativity. Eventually, they were declared unimaginable.
But as soon as an electron exists, he somehow arranged — this does not go away, and if the rotating charged ball is not suitable for the role of his model, whether to give up all attempts at modeling? So, when the failure of the model revealed. Earth in the form of a plane on the three pillars, it was replaced by a rotating magnetized ball. By the way, what would happen if the magnet to rotate around its axis? The answer to this simple question is not too obvious, even to those who know about the unipolar machines: it appears, from the standpoint of a stationary observer, such a device is equivalent to the electrical charge. In fact, the magnetic field rotates along with the body of the magnet induces an electric field which, in turn, acts on the test charge (there can be doubts — and rotates whether the field with a magnet? We will not argue: three paragraphs, we move on to the system, in which the rotation of the force lines does not require proof, as long as we take this statement at face value).
You can come to this surprising conclusion in a different way: to enclose the test charge around the stationary magnet. In this case, the charge moving in a magnetic field, Lorentz force acts directed so as to change the coordinates. Both views are equal and are different explanations of the same phenomenon — the emergence of the force acting on a test charge. It is clear that a change in polarity or direction of rotation of the magnet lead to a change in the sign of the charge of our home-made.
Of course, the electron — is not rotating magnet, where to get and where to put, say, in the annihilation. Magnet Yes we would not be necessary if the field is to exist independently. It turns out that this phenomenon takes place under certain conditions the magnetic field, «packaged» in a closed electron vortex tube size does not spread electromagnetic wave, and acquires the properties of self-similarity. Generally concentrated to a certain density of energy creates a vacuum (now euphemistically refer to as marshmallows) focusing heterogeneity, creating for itself a trap resonator.
Attempts to adapt vortex ring as a model of the electron began a very long time, the benefit of basic research carried out by Helmholtz vortices closed even in the middle of the last century, t. E. Doelektronnuyu era. But the idea of whirling electrons collide with the reluctance of the rings to be alone, they retain only the dimensions in a continuous forward movement, and being stopped, spread out like ripples. The remedy suggested by Maxwell. Pursuing the modeling of the vortex atom (electron and then open something was not), he closed knotted vortex tube in the form of a trefoil. Another solution found Academician Mickiewicz, its electrons — two vortex rings, linked like a chain links. Such a system, like a shamrock Maxwell rotated (has spin) and therefore moves forward more slowly than a single ring, not all too fast for the electrons.
To build a stationary electron from moving rings managed to Moscow physicist VA Bunin. He did just laid in a plane oriented in two opposite sides of the ring, and as a result they had to chase each other. From a pair of rings lying next to the eight there and pitch, and making it difficult to resist and do not cheat anything else that loop, but that’s another story … A little later the electron in the form of a rotating eight came the American physicist G. Dzhel. But it hinges have an extremely magnetic, and there is no mention of the vortices.
Thus, the electron of Bunin — is folded eight magnetic vortex tube in Compton wave length. Revolving around an axis of symmetry with the Compton frequency, eight swept area of the torus. However, the torus 137 times larger than the classical electron … but who was measuring?
The electric field created by the rotation of the magnetic eights, like the field of a rotating magnet, is toroidal, and its poles — failures. Although there are obvious differences: as they work only two magnetic loops, the electric field should pulsate at twice the Compton frequency. Why does not this frequency emitted electron is hard to say — the easiest way to get rid of something like the first postulate Bohr, but the presence of such ripple makes transparent essence of the postulate of stationary states and thieves rules of quantization of orbits; as it becomes clear where did the idea of the duality and the wave properties of electrons moving. After all, a trace of flying with the rotation gorodoshnoy bits looks like a wave, but there is sufficient reason to suspect the bit in dualism.
Besides the charge of the electron must still be a magnetic moment. It creates a rotation of the same eight, because the circular motion of the magnetic loops have the ring current bias. Looking at the particle «inside» — the only way to understand the multiple effects, but at the same time — this is the path escapist theme. Our present knowledge enough to conclude that the toroid coaxial electric field magnetic dipole and back, and therefore, an external magnetic field orients electrons so that the Coulomb forces prevent attraction dipoles. The convergence of the electron can be completed connections and unified into garlands or thread.
The magnetic field, of course, the joker of physics: it can do everything, even to increase the strength of the insulator air surrounding the electronic thread. But what can you do, the pulse does not last long, and creates a field discharge current should ever stop. The decline in the magnetic field on the trailing edge of the canopy pulse induces eddy electric field directed toward that which sparked ring and accelerated electrons. And this field-it is possible to finally disperse the ions. Incidentally, the situation has changed in the ring: electrons, linked to a closed thread resemble more core than the transformer, and can not prevent the occurrence of an induction current of ions.
Frozen into the plasma ring magnetic field pulse is interested, and this was a mechanical boost also affects the formation of the vortex. If the momentum is positive, as in our case, the force applied to the ring coincides with the direction of its free movement, and therefore, the vortex is created combined efforts of electricity and hydrodynamics. A successful combination of eddy current effects of ions, electrons keeps the center of the magnetic field and creates a vacuum in the interior of a thin plasma torus.
Form a ring discharge current is no longer needed — the separation of the ion and electron plasma component prevents recombination of charge — and the ring for some time could exist independently, moving with transonic speed (maybe it is a «slow lightning»). However, such perfection is not always achieved: apparently, in an ideal world of lightning — a rarity, which often occur with uncomplicated electronic ring core or badly twisted vortex ions. For them, supporting the reduction of the current disastrous. With the destruction of the ring stored in its energy is released in the form of discharge similar to the parent, which may again form a nearly stationary ring … Do not these metamorphoses — level leader?
It is much easier to get a plasma vortex ring without electric discharge, for example, in a supersonic tornado funnel. Cylindrical vortex that has arisen in the layer jump speeds costs nothing to link up in the ring, and if both the ionization threshold is exceeded, a positive centrifuged plasma component will surface current, and hence the magnetic field cooling electrons. Perhaps a similar way to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy suitable to explain the lightning, appearing not only in energetic vortices, and volcanic eruptions, which helps ionization temperature.
Considering the conversion of linear lightning in the plasma ring, had to go hypersonic wave (which in a moment will be a thunder), photons and electron avalanches at the head of rank and much more. Of course, these processes affect the mode of formation and stability of the ring, but add any clarity, rich detail, and to understand them is not easy: try to imagine what happens when a leader encounters a return stroke.
In short, if all goes well, then in less than a thousandth of a second, and the linear lightning has managed to drive himself in a thin plasma ring, which is in no way resembles a fireball. For grace ring hidden high strength. In it, in addition to the forces inherent in every closed vortex, for example ring a smoker, have powerful magnetic and electrical forces.
To plasma vortex ring was a fireball, it will have to «ruin», turning the familiar eight not — just a figure that could be closed swirl virtually no forward movement. Of course, this is done by itself because of the loss of stability — small deviations from the correct form of flat rings starting to grow, and eight ready. Next rotating eight and not rotate, it can not form a torus, and perceived eyewitnesses.
This structure follows the electron, and therefore it makes no sense to dwell on how the magnetic field frozen into the plasma loops, provides a fireball positive charge and magnetic moment. Let us better part, which in the electron seems to be no. When folding pull together between eight branches, a new rotation — it will be called «core». Acting as idler gear, he agreed to the plasma velocity in the contact area branches than the Q of the system increases and holds eight of the deployment — Match current core and branches «glues» the construction of the points of contact.
The ends of core polar caps closed funnel torus spectacular extending it to a sphere. Obviously, it is the ends of the core — sparking pockets, and thus active regions fireball show where its pole. The magnetic field is directed against the core of the field created by the rotation of the hinge. The opposite direction of the field, as well as eight intersecting branches, cause the appearance of strength, buoyancy core, which explains why sometimes there is pear-shaped.
But that’s not all. In contrast, eight of the vortex core is not closed. He works as a centrifugal pump, prisasyvayas ends what has got, and if he manages to simultaneously contact with two surfaces, such as opposing walls of the chimney, the stability of the system increases significantly. The presence of the magnetic moment and charge allows multiple Thunderball held in the chain: the magnetic fields act as a thread, and the Coulomb forces do not allow merging of individual «beads.» Single-wire line agree on the propagation velocity of the pulse discharge at a rate of the plasma ring. Therefore, overhead lines and terminals when a lightning strike are often effective generators fireballs and even fix them, the ball is strung on wire like a bead, which is a core hole.
For artificial playing ball lightning does not need high voltage. It is not necessary and the discharge through the air — a positive impulse can move through a conductor, it is necessary only to pick up the speed of propagation, a front, and the duration of the current pulse. This method has already been implemented when the fireball appeared in the submarine at open circuit high current (150 000 A at a voltage of just 260). It is possible to dispense with all current, forming energetic vortex ring directly from the finished plasma. In addition to the manufacture of ball lightning it opens the possibility of obtaining electricity through shorter than in MHD generators, because, as we know, every such ring, destroyed, transformed into a current pulse.
The magnetic moment and charge the ball can control its position using an electromagnetic field. Can carried out simultaneous running makeup ball field. Also possible is a reverse process: the selection of energy in the external circuit. However, not having caught the hare, not cook the stew, so we will not delve into the details of the application of ball lightning in the national economy.
In cases where the destruction of the ball going through a deployment in the ring, accompanied by a burst of bright jet ejection — so observers describe the discharge channel. It is clear that a post of such a discharge, acting as a lightning rod, sometimes hit a new linear lightning. The destruction of the balloon may occur otherwise if the eight bridged from the axis of rotation, it loops form two unlinked rings, which are either immediately converted into pulses, throwing two jets in opposite directions, or again add up to eight, and then there are two fireballs half the diameter (not volume). Often, they are again divided in half.
Eight — the most simple and «regular» basis of ball lightning, but there are also exotic multilobal structures break down into the ring on the number of petals.
We can assume that the threefold structure, separating only one lobe becomes eight, and then keep the size of the ball, despite the emergence of a new, half less.
Fireball to itself, will move slowly along the rotation axis upwards or downwards depending on the method of folding a ring in the eight, and being oriented intrinsic magnetic moment in the field of the Earth, it must move along magnetic field lines. The correctness of this movement is disturbed irregularities surrounding electric field, hurdles, the wind … In addition, the air flow, mismatched with the axis of rotation, leads to the Magnus force directed across the stream, and after an accidental deviation of the fireball back at Meridian precessing — whether surprised her intricate trajectory.
End core cling to the window pane, the fireball gently melted glass from his nose. If this is not glass and steel bulkhead is to be tunneled through it, the ball lightning must first turn in the ring, transformed into a current pulse in such a way to flow through the metal, form a ring on the other side and then fold in the eight.
The most remarkable observation of ball lightning was able MT Dmitriev, who contrived to define everything, do not touch it. He estimated the plasma temperature at 13 000 — 16 000 °, and this value does not tally with the stories about the transparency of the world. But rotating eight, even if it were completely black, making transparency inherent property of ball lightning: through it you can see things as through the disk formed by the blades of the fan. Dmitriev and those who had seen a fireball near while preserving calm, mention some internal structure of the ball: it reviewed the central part surrounding a bright nucleus, and the cladding layer. Just a picture gives the rotation around the eight core.
Magnetic loops, spinning around the wires, creating interferences from which light bulbs and ring tones … In general, do not seem to leave no effects, paranormal, as required by an adequate model. The coincidence of the signs are usually only leads to errors: after all, the camel can not be distinguished from the peanut, if we consider only the humps.