The greater efficacy of organic and mineral fertilizers in orchards discussed in previous articles issue of our magazine. However, this subject is inexhaustible, it is necessary to highlight, using the experience of many scientific institutions in relation to the different soil and climatic zones.
In the 20 years of experience Mleevskoy Horticulture Research Station (Cherkasy region, Ukrainian SSR) on loam leached chernozems in the annual application of mineral udobreniy- 60 kilograms of NPK per hectare, in 12 years of fruiting apple varieties Pepinka Lithuanian yield increased by 114% (119 centners of apples per hectare), when fertilizing manure (40 tons every 3 years) during the same period — 76% (n 98) compared to controls (p 55).
In Melitopol Horticultural Research Station in young orchards on sandy black earth was added to 60 kg of NPK, per hectare (in the non-irrigated and irrigated gardens), and the first three years of fruiting apple crop varieties Reinette Simirenko increased by 30-40%. The same dose of fertilizer in the 20-year-old garden farm «Bilkey» (gray-ashed loamy soil) over 8 years of experience with the tree crop varieties Boyko increased by 43%.
The study of different systems of fertilizers led to the conclusion that in the fertile garden of the most effective organo-mineral system.
In 10 years of experience Mleevskoy Experimental Station of Horticulture conducted in the forest-steppe zone of the USSR in the low-humus chernozems slabovyschelochennyh (1953-1963 gg.), The best results gave a system in which manure is used in combination with mineral fertilizers, sowing green manure and early spring feeding. Fertilizer for years alternated. In the first year have made 20 tons per hectare of manure and 30 kg of NPK, in the second — 60 kilograms of NPK, the third -siderat: the 30 kilograms of NPK (for sowing green manure), in the fourth — 60 kg NPK. Every year, gave early spring feeding — 30 kilograms of NPK per hectare.
Such a system will provide the fertilizer annually harvest of apples Papirovka 176 quintals per hectare, Antonovka ordinary — 248 (harvest control without fertilizers — respectively 142 and 182 C). Every year yield increase by fertilizer is depending on variety 36-66 quintals per hectare.
In young orchards and the best results were achieved with a combination of manure fertilizers. Thus, in the experiment with the apple tree varieties Pepin saffron and Zelenka Dnieper, which takes place from the time of planting the garden until it enters into marketable fruiting time (1951-1963 gg.), The average yield fruit for the first 9 years of fruiting was in the form of 20 tons of manure per hectare (or green manure) once in three years — 60-74 quintals per hectare, and a combination of manure (20 tons per 1 ha) with mineral fertilizers (60 kg of NPK per 1 ha per year) — 81-102 centners, yield increase for by mineral fertilizers, depending on the grade — 22-28 quintals per hectare.
In experiments Umansky Agricultural Institute with apple varieties Calville snow and Pepinka Lithuanian (1934-1963 gg.), The best results were obtained by organic and organo-mineral fertilizer system. The yield increase due to mineral fertilizers (1945-1963 gg.), Depending on the variety has been from 13 to 22 quintals per hectare, with a combination of fertilizers with manure — 24-32 quintals (harvest control 70-102 quintals).
According Melitopol Experimental Station of Horticulture, in a black earth soils of the south of Ukraine the combination of fertilizer (NPK 60 kg per 1 hectare per year) with manure (20 tons per 1 ha once in three years) increases the yield of apple, entering a period of fruiting on 15-20 quintals per hectare.
These figures show that the increase in the yield of the fertilizer is made from 20 to 50 quintals per hectare, that is, every quintal of fertilizer gives additional 3-7 quintals of fruit.
To explore the rational methods of mineral fertilizers, Ukrainian Research Institute of Horticulture and experimental stations a lot of work. Having experienced several options: solid sieving followed by plowing at 18-20 cm, entering into the well to a depth of 30-35 cm in the furrows (18-20 cm deep), cut along the rows of trees, set the advantage of applying fertilizers in the well. When this phosphorus enters the trees earlier in the largest amount, as determined by Tracer.
For several years the institute and its research stations study norm of fertilizers for different soil and climatic conditions. It was found that high rates of fertilizer leads to an accumulation of excessive amounts of nitrate in the soil, increased salt concentration, increased acidity and to some inhibition of fruit trees.
Based on many years of experience, recommendations on the use of fertilizers and the young fruit-bearing orchards in different areas of the Ukrainian pochvennoklimaticheskih.
In Polesie on sod-podzolic and gray podzolized soils in the fruit-bearing orchards need to make every two years manure (compost) — 30 tons per hectare per year — fertilizer — nitrogen 90, phosphorus and potassium to 60 kilograms of active ingredient per hectare; on dark gray podzolic and black soils of forest-steppe zony- once every three or four years, 25 tons of manure per hectare per year — fertilizers, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium to 60 kilograms of active ingredient; in the steppe regions in the black earth and chestnut soils in non-irrigated orchards — one every three or four years the manure (20-25 tons per hectare), nitrogen and potassium — 45, phosphorus — 75 kilograms of active ingredient per hectare.
In irrigated orchards should apply higher standards of organic and mineral fertilizers: manure — 25-30 tons per hectare (every three years), nitrogen-120 kilograms, phosphorus — 90, potassium — 60. The nitrogen introduced into the 2-3 period under irrigation .
In the fruit-bearing orchards necessary to fertilize the entire area. In young orchards before entering the trees at the time of fruiting commercial fertilizers applied to the soil better tree trunks with a diameter of 2-4 meters (depending on the age of the trees). In 1 square meter should be made: in the area of Polesie manure (compost) — 3-4 kilograms of nitrogen — 9 grams, phosphorus and potassium — 6 grams of the active ingredient; in the forest — manure (compost) — 2-2.5 kilograms, phosphorus and potassium — to 6 grams; in the steppe zone — navoz- 2 kilograms of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium — 4-5 grams. In those years, when the organic and mineral fertilizers are applied together, the norms of the latter is reduced by half.
In years with sufficient rainfall in areas of Polesie, forest-steppe and steppe zones of irrigated gardens between the rows of fruit-bearing orchards, you can grow plants for green manure — lupine (in Polesie), mustard and phacelia (in the forest). Under the green manure crop is necessary to make 30-45 kg of active ingredient of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium per hectare.
With abundant flowering and fruiting trees should be feed with liquid manure (6-8 tons per 1 ha), bird droppings (8-10 centners per 1 ha), ammonia water (1.5-2 n 1 ha) or full of mineral fertilizer calculating to 30 kilograms of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium per hectare. In irrigated orchards fertilizer combined with irrigation.
Fertilizer need not be completely satisfied yet. It is therefore important to use a fertilizer primarily in specialized horticultural farms where they can immediately be most effective. These farms are concentrated the main and most valuable commodity fruit plantations, and the area of the Ukraine in the coming years should be increased to 100 thousand hectares.
Experience of specialized horticultural farms in Ukraine showed that if provide them with mineral fertilizers and chemical plant protection from pests and diseases, they can grow 200 quintals of fruit per hectare and allow the country to 2 million tons of fruit — twice as much as the fact that It is now giving all gardening republic.
Research fertilization -plodovyh cultures have shown that not all issues have been resolved. Due to the wide scope of public works on the chemicals used in agriculture is necessary to differentiate the dose of fertilizer for the gardens in the zones, to develop a system of fertilization apple and pear on slaboroslyh suspensions, examine the conditions of supply of fruit trees on the slopes of varying steepness and exposure, to begin development of fertilizer gardens on the slopes.
It is necessary to lay the experiments to study the combination of root and foliar application of macro and micro fertilizers.
It is necessary to make efficient use of fertilizer, pay special attention to the mechanization of their submission. Consideration should be given a dose ratio and timing of fertilizer application on berry plantations in different soil and environmental conditions. Now that the party and the government have embarked on meeting the needs of agricultural fertilizers, crop protection chemicals and machines, opened unprecedented opportunities for intensification of horticulture, better use of fruit trees and a sharp increase in their productivity.
Ukrainian fruit growers direct all efforts to ensure that these opportunities have been implemented.