Nearing the end of the fifth year of seven-year period. Gardeners state and collective farms worked hard and raised a rich harvest of fruits and berries, despite the fact that last winter was severe in some areas and caused considerable damage to fruit trees.
In the North Caucasus from peach and apricot podmerzli to 30% of fruit buds. In areas of low temperatures in the spring of Transcaucasia and prolonged rains in the flowering period adversely affected the pollination of fruit crops. In the gardens of Moldova, located in the lower places, much podmerzli fruit wood in some varieties of pear, quince, affected fruit buds of apple, plum, apricot, peach and almond.
Despite the adverse weather conditions of winter and spring, the country’s widely expected good crop of apples, especially in the Crimean region in the North Caucasus and Transcaucasia. It is expected a rich harvest of citrus fruits, especially tangerines in Georgia. In some areas of viticulture, despite the partial damage to the vine, good ripening grape harvest.
Now the main task of farmers, farm workers, professionals, gardeners and winegrowers — to keep the harvest in a timely manner to carry out agro-technical measures to combat weeds and especially to pests and diseases.
It should be carefully and well in advance to prepare for the harvest in time and no losses.
The decisive condition for the successful harvest of fruits — thorough and timely preparation of all materiel and personnel.
In each sector, regardless of the area of fruit plantations, to be drawn up a work plan with a timetable and harvesting each crop group of varieties.
In the plan it is necessary to provide the required amount of equipment — baskets, ladders, boxes, plodosemnikov.
To preserve the fruit must be collected in advance built shelters with the necessary equipment for the product processing and packaging.
Preparation and proper placement on harvesting will ensure high productivity.
The decisive factor in ensuring the timely harvesting and obtaining high-quality products, is to determine the optimal timing of removal of fruit each fruit species, groups of varieties, and each variety separately.
It is especially important to determine the optimal time removal of winter varieties of apples and pears. Gardeners many farms in the past preferred to remove such fruit early, at a time when they have not yet reached maturity removable. It devalues the harvest.
Unripe fruits and prematurely taken ill kept, do not have identity, and sorting them is necessary to refer to the low commercial grade.
Apples pozdnezimnih varieties must be removed from the trees at a later time. It should be borne in mind that before doffing, the fall, they increase in size and weight, acquire the color corresponding pomological variety. If they are removed in a timely manner, in the process of ripening changes in the chemical composition of the fruit does not fall outside the rules.
However, since harvesting the fruit can not be delayed and to prevent fraying. Too late harvesting of fruits may lead to death of the whole harvest. Moreover, it adversely affects the overwintering fruit trees.
All these factors should be taken into account in every household.
Harvesting fruits, berries and grapes should be set performance standards, depending on the yield of individual species and varieties. Properly established norm generation contributes to increased productivity.
The primary task of the leaders of collective and state farm directors, farmers and workers, specialists, agricultural workers harvesting organs — maintain high commercial quality of the fruit removed.
Do not leave them open to the sun, in the rain. Every hour in the open air reduces weight and impairs the quality of the commodity shot fruit. It should be organized immediately sorting, product processing and packaging in accordance with the existing republican specifications.
We can not allow in a packaging unit for mixing fruit pomological and commercial grade. Even a small admixture of other varieties admitted for sorting leads to the devaluation of the entire consignment and caused great material damage to the farm.
It is unwise to enter those heads of households who in the name of the imaginary economy of labor rent state procurement organizations fruits and berries are not sorted on commodity varieties and sometimes even allow mixing of pomological varieties. Such collective and state farms, and often do not get half of the actual value of the fruit.
It is difficult to mechanize is eat the fruit of the tree and cut flower vine bush, but the export of crops from the garden should be as mechanized.
For transportation of the fruit in large farms need to have a platform trailers specially prepared wagon with springs in order to minimize the loss of quality of fruits and berries during transport.
Each gardening and Vineyard and careful preparation of the season harvest, the rational organization of the work will ensure the successful solution of the most important tasks — the harvest on time, lossless — the plan sales of state procurement organizations fruit, berries and grapes high commercial quality.