More talk about ways of protection and maintenance of herd of wild reindeer in our country took place in Dudinka on the first interdepartmental scientific-production meeting. On it, in particular, presentations were made on the first production experience shooting deer in the wild water crossings in the Yakut ASSR and the Taimyr Autonomous District. In autumn 1970 the experiment was repeated on the Taimyr Peninsula. These works have been caused by the following circumstances.
As you know, Taimyr population of wild reindeer — the largest in our country. The number of its growing every year. Based on data from the last accounting (1969) and the average annual growth of the population of wild deer population in 1971 will increase, probably to 400 thous. Heads. Apparently, the growth of the herd will continue as long as a result of increasing population density and undermining food supply will not happen the number of self-regulation. These disastrous consequences are well-known and highly undesirable. It must also be considered that the increase in the number of wild deer will complicate the management of reindeer in Taimyr and Evenk national constituencies. Therefore there is a need for regulating the growth of planned stage of «savages» by the fishery.
From 1967 to 1969 plan of hunting of wild deer in the north of the Krasnoyarsk Territory has increased from 6-7 to 35 thous. Heads. However, in the last two years (1969, 1970), the actual amount of fishing does not exceed 8-10 thous. Heads, and commercial products was a small percentage. In 1969, the government handed over about 500 carcasses of wild reindeer, in 1970 — 1500.
In connection with the formulation of the question of the mass industrial harvesting of meat and other products of wild reindeer became necessary to develop and apply the most effective ways of its production. Of all the possible methods of fishing allowed and forbidden, of particular interest is a method of extraction of deer in the water crossings. In the Far North, he has long been used by local and national population was considered one of dobychlivyh. About the famous «pokolkah» water wrote in the last century F. Wrangell (1841) AF Middendorf (1869), PI Tretyakov (1869), G. Maidel (1894), and later — NP Naumov (1933), Michael N. (1938), Alexander Popov (1948), A. Drury (1949) and others. Pokolki deer made on such major rivers as Anadyr, Kolyma, Indigirka, Olenek, Anabar. Within Taimyr they practiced on the rivers Big Balakhna, Upper Taimyr Pyasine, Taree, Pure.
Back in the twenties of this century, fishing for deer crossings on water was circulated widely. Thus, in the season 1925/26 in the Far North was produced on the water and land more than 55 thousand. Deer. Worked on the Taimyr Peninsula in the thirties land surveying expedition recommended prey wild reindeer on water crossings newly organized collective farms. The scientific literature has repeatedly expressed the view of the availability and the need to use this method of fishing production animals.
Currently, fishing of wild deer on water crossings is considered prohibited. In Taimyr it remained only on the river Pyasine, where every year the local national population produces 300-400 deer. In foreign northern countries, particularly in Canada, a massive fall in the water shooting caribou crossings he practiced until 1956, while the number of animals allowed.
Industry practice shooting some ungulates (eg, saiga) showed that some banned sport hunting for ways of production appropriate to apply in specialized hunting-trade economy. As a result, long-term observations on the Taimyr Peninsula, we have come to the firm conviction that the process of production of reindeer on water crossings is for many state and collective farms the most efficient and cost-effective. Modern technical equipment makes this process efficient production. Used in the past instead of spears and light boats — «branch», now you can use high-speed motor boats and firearms.
Fishing for wild reindeer on water crossings should be done during their autumn migrations, until freezing. Around the second half of August herds of deer to migrate to places of winter pastures, breaking in the way of large water barriers. Every year, animals crossing the rivers and lakes in almost the same place. The main autumn migration flow deer runs through the area of the upper and middle Pyasina.
Massive herds crossing in August and September allow to produce in a short time, with minimum effort and funds, industrial harvesting of high quality deer products. By around the end of August fatness most animals approaching normal. Their meat as food, gets a good taste of dignity. By that time the skins of deer also have the necessary quality of the commodity.
Base equipment and shooting expeditions.
Experimental shooting of wild deer in the water crossings in September 1969 and 1970. carried out in the upper Pyasina in the northern strip of the forest-tundra, about 250 km from Norilsk and 40 km south of the river mouth Dudypty, here it was built a temporary basis the expedition living room (beams), cutting area and hang with up to 300 carcasses.
In 1969 the expedition organized by the Agricultural Research Institute of the Far North, included 16 people., In 1970 — 35. In 1969, the expedition was to shoot 22 days in 1970 — 27 days. From the means of transport used and the first year and 5 motorboat motor boat with an outboard motor «Whirlwind». Motorboat and boats were equipped with radios, «Nedra». The finished products are delivered to Norilsk Pyasine incidental waterway. In 1970, the expedition was the boat (150 l. C), a barge (100 m.) And 7 motor boats. Temporarily also used self-propelled barge (20 m.) Expedition has one radio station «RSO» and six radio stations «Nedra».
Deer Crossing through Pyasino during the shooting was rather uneven. In 1969, the animals were transported rapidly from 16 to 20 September, in 1970 — the last days of August — beginning of September, and from 20 to 24 September, the success of the work interfered sometimes strong winds, storms, rain and snow.
The technique of shooting.
Daily expedition base at observation posts located at 5-10 km above and below the seat base, rescue boats went 3-5. The rest of the boat were not the basis. Each boat is mechanic and gunner. They had a gun cartridges (not less than 100 pcs.), Rocket launcher with rockets, binoculars, walkie-talkie, hunting knives, 50-60 m braided rope to collect and bundle of deer carcasses, about 40 liters of fuel reserves. Posts to monitor located on the high banks of the river with a good view of the terrain. As the base, and the posts are on the right bank Pyasina as deer migrated from the left bank. Upon arrival at the post observers systematically searched with binoculars opposite shore and were always ready for a rapid exit. Each post — one boat. Observations lasted from 7-8 hours. before dusk (20-21 hours). Radio base with posts was carried out every hour.
Once a herd of deer entering the water, on duty quickly goes to him, he went round to group animals into a solid mass, and began shooting arrows.
The results showed that out of a herd of 100 head with a boat in 10-15 minutes you can shoot 50 to 70 individuals. rest break on the shore. Shooting success depends largely on the speed of exit and the good work of marksmanship and skillful maneuvering of the boat. When shooting large herds practiced interaction observation posts, which are pre-notify by radio.
Collection and processing of deer carcasses.
After completion of ejection duty boats collect carcasses. Animals recovered from the upstream base, tied at 15-30 pieces and let go with the flow of the river. On the results of the production reported by radio to the base. When shooting a deer carcass below the location of the base pribuksirovali boat to shore and collected in the party. After the message out there to the base of a boat or a self-propelled barge. When shooting in one place a large number of animals on duty all the boats returned to the base and, if necessary, sent to help in the production area.
Carcasses delivered to the base of a wooden platform pulled out of the water to a cutting pads to prevent pollution. On the cutting sites, in parallel with the butchering, performed veterinary-sanitary examination of meat and meat products. At the same time meat branded according to the category of fatness. Ready to hang carcasses received, which served as a place for their cooling and temporary storage. In rainy and windy weather hung covered with tarpaulin or organic film. All the valuable by-products obtained from the cutting of carcasses, canned and preserved.
The results of the shooting.
Deer prey on the water in September 1969 made for only 5 days. 255 animals were shot, including 50 males and 205 females. Calves, yearlings are not mined. In 1970, for 23 days in September it was shot 938 deer. The highest number of animals (491) produced 5-star days — from 20 to 24 September. If we take an average of four boats involved in the shooting of then for the entire period of fishing per boat had produced 234.5 deer. Average daily production during the same period, taking into account non-working days (fog, storms), was 10.2 per boat, and the star most productive five days — 24.6 deer.
It is interesting to bring data on Hunting of deer and butchering in the most stressful day of work — for September 20. On this day, the team of four boats (4 and 4 arrow minder) produced in 9 hours 244 deer, or an average of 61 per boat. The collection, delivery and handling of carcasses continued intermittently with 13 hours. to 1 hour. night. Two teams (14 people.) Was treated with 244 carcasses in 12 hours. 25 min. The average per processor accounted for 17.1 mascara. The first team of 7 persons has processed within the specified time, the carcass 163, the second, also of 7 — 81, or, respectively, 23.3 and 11.5 carcasses per person. Assuming an eight-hour working day, the results of treatment for one person will be: 15 for the first team, second — 7.4 mascara. A significant difference in the results of treatment due to the fact that the first team consisted of specialists in butchery, the second — from the amateur hunters. However, such a burden for those and others turned out to be excessive. The next day, 21 September, due to fatigue handlers were shot only 49 deer that are processed only the first team (7 carcasses per worker).
It should be noted that the handlers had no means of mechanization, applied solely manual labor,
In such circumstances, daily (8 hr.) The rate of output per processor should not exceed 7 carcasses, and at maximum load — no more than 15. The daily rate of shooting deer per motorboat (2 pers.) Should reach an average of 10-15 goals and at maximum load during mass crossings — 25 animals.
From 938 deer on the sex composition shoot 32.1% males and 67.9% females (1: 2.1). The group caught males and females included all ages of animals, except for calves. When shooting we stuck to the same percentage of males and females, which is characteristic for the entire population of wild reindeer. Calves, as in the previous year, not were shot, except for the small amount required for biological research. As a rule, at the crossings vazhenok not all were shot, some of them were released on shore to them could escape and are left motherless calves. However, observations showed that the calves are not immediately and not all follow the alien females. Some of them are on the beach and just stick to the following migratory herds and groups. Obviously, most of the calves have lost mothers die in the winter. Therefore, the mass shooting deer avoid futile death of calves and violations of the existing structure of the herd should produce fingerlings with their mothers.
Obtained from the slaughter of wild reindeer products waterway was sent to Norilsk. In September 1970 the boat made 5 flights, self-propelled barge — one. The boat went three times without towing the barge took on board prepared for shipment batch of 80-90 carcasses. The remaining two flights made it to the barge on which the goods 250-300 carcasses. When sending stowed on the deck on top of the carcass covered with tarpaulin or organic film and link.
All meat products was put Noriltorgu in deer skins and partially Camus — North Turukhansk State Industrial promhozu economy. The average carcass weight of 40 kg carcass (adult female — 43 adult male — 67 kg). The output meat of calves in September was equal to about 15 kg live weight of 32 kg. Almost all the meat (96-100%) put the first category at the price of 163 rubles. per hundredweight.
In 1970, we calculated the cost of the work. Big spending went to maintenance and rental of water transport. For example, the maintenance of the boat spent almost 18 thousand. Rub., Or 46% of the total cost. This includes depreciation and salaries command over the entire year, even though the boat was used to shoot no more than half of the navigation. Quite significant costs due to the acquisition of leases barges and other necessary materials. However, at the time the meat on the above prices obtained profit margins experienced shooting was over 60%.
Materials and experience gained during the experimental shooting of wild deer in the water crossings, will provide substantial assistance to state and collective farms in the Taimyr organization of industrial mass shooting. For planned Gospromkhoz our recommendations are as follows. The main shooting area — upper and middle reaches Pyasina where in August and September is transported most of the deer. Here for 300-500 km of coastline can be arranged, depending on the production plan, 4-6 bases or industrial sites. They should build production facilities — accommodations, cutting platform, hung, merzlotniki and so on.. In order to improve the economic efficiency of industrial shooting wild deer with the creation Gospromkhoz in the most convenient location on the banks of Pyasina necessary to plan the construction of fences — the guide and the special state industry economy. For the slaughter of animals should be used Binding agents.
Besides mass shooting deer at water crossings, Gospromkhoz, as well as collective and state farms Taimyr reindeer can arrange fishing on land. This process can and should be applied in the fall and winter in places where migratory animals have large reservoirs in the foothills, canyons and valleys of the mountain rivers. There is the possibility of a relatively limited area to produce the mass shooting of deer rifle, the same basic structure «Guide» will increase the effectiveness of hunting. For getting to the production and export of air transport, and should be used ATVs.
Mass shooting of wild deer should begin not from September 1, as set hunting regulations, as from 20 August. Until September 1, it is necessary to conduct a selective shooting, producing approximately 30% of males aged and older and 70% of young heifers and calves lost females. In September need to shoot all the animals in a ratio of 25% males, 50% females and 25% of calves.
Special permit required to establishing acceptable acceptance price of meat of wild reindeer. The unprofitable They are very low: 1 kg of meat of the first category is worth 73 kopecks., The second category — 59 kopecks. Meanwhile, as shown by the experimental shooting, the cost of 1 kg of meat in slaughter weight even without the capital expenditure was 96 kopecks. Consequently, Gospromkhoz will operate profitably in the event that delivery prices for meat of wild reindeer will be substantially increased