«Life has changed in their phenomena with such a slow gradually, which occur geological modification of our planet»
This essay — a kind of a short walk to the places beloved city (‘birthplace, where useful «). Places a little, most of them are nothing outstanding — ensembles, the monuments, the life of the famous St. Petersburg and historical events — are not marked. Already realized themselves whether there is sense and the use of these fabulous revelations. Only it is necessary to warn — not for reading Oblomov.
So why Oblomov?
«Calm and indifferent to everything, and the storm — there currently wants …»
When walking around the city, or virtual field, and even in places memorable, important in the history and culture of the people always feel pure joy, enlightenment and a kind of complicity. But Oblomov here and? It was he who in any corner of the entire splendor of St. Petersburg and the majesty of the northern capital is not involved. We’ll try to look under the ground, under the wooden sidewalks, unpaved dusty street, and then under the paving stones, under the century-old sand and gravel bedding and laminated asphalt. Is that a … Yakovlevskoye (too forgotten the name of the former mayor) marble tiles on Nevsky, shiny and slippery, do not peek.
It so happened that the most surprising, unexpected and wonderful in its own way, to the point that should have been the natural monuments and decorate Petersburg as the unprecedented natural heritage — but who will allow? — All this was discovered where he lived is colorless, and once — experienced a storm of feelings, Ilya Ilyich Oblomov. So unwittingly go in his footsteps as they are scheduled in the novel IA Goncharova.
Since it happened — there are also jokes of fate: he, in fact, «drawing a pattern of his life,» never sought to nowhere — surrender first few lines to Oblomov.
Ivan Goncharov acquaints us with Ilya Ilyich when he was still on the Pea, in the city center, where, however, to go even to the Nevsky he was completely useless. But the force of circumstances, and, as we know, the circumstances of such persons run smoothly, turned hermit from Nevsky very far away, and not just anywhere, but in the Vyborg district. No, it is not present or Vyborg Vyborg Side Highway, and not even the right bank of the Neva River. 150 years ago this summer residence outskirts of St. Petersburg: wooden walkways, hummocky dusty street, unpaved alleys, vacant lots, plain little houses, fences, gardens, chicken coops, and fences, with nettles beside them. In the main, almost the only, the street peasants with axes his belt went into the near pine forest, and in the winter, they say, there zahazhivali wolves.
Outskirts called «sand». And it is «in the wilderness of forests and swamps cronyism?» No. Here it is clearly not the swamps and even clay soil. Ilya Ilyich put, it was a matter of indifference, which is the ground. But we can not guard: Sands at marshy banks of the river? And Neva in two steps from the second floor (then 2nd floor — a rarity) is visible, but the fish «in Tonya» peasants walking around. In the early maps of St. Petersburg «Tonia» is still visible, but a hundred years already as sleep. Next — Smolnaya church opposite — Ohta. To St. Petersburg in a wheelchair — three hours.
«Sands» — the land of coups
«And if all of Neva suddenly flow away into the sea, as if the boat will turn and if Sea and our house will collapse? — Mocked Olga «
«The Sands»? Why suddenly the marshes? Where did you come from? Do not wind the same on vzgorok inflated. The dry, elevated place on the Neva and the Gulf of Finland
6-8 meters, no floods here Neva never reach. Christmas church built, and that the street was Christmas, and ridge — also LIGOVSKY-Christmas. Now here Lithuanian and Suvorov avenues and a dozen streets, still Soviet. Well, ridge and ridge. Dry — and beautiful. But strange ridge to the river, right along the river. And not as elongated delta, west and meridian on the Neva squiggles. Across the lower section of the Neva Valley and the delta of the Neva no such relief areas and water flows. Pulse — a lot, northwest there, no meridian. Why should such an anomaly?
Not that geological experts these questions are not asked. The answer seems to lie «on the surface»: because the ridge is located in the rear of the Gulf of Finland, and the cross of his strike, but still composed of sand, is a former beach ridge here thousands of years ago the sea. Students explains the easy and secure. Like, everything is logical. And researchers thinking — is more difficult. Why straightforwardness, not concavity around the former closing the Gulf coast, where quite unnaturally sharp bend turn the channel, the width of the same? Why in the delta region there are no other parallel to the shaft? What did sands proven marine origin and their arrival by sea from the west and not the east? What is the source of receipt finally -Age sand? And in general, what it is composed of a ridge and what the spread sand down the section at the ridge area and the adjacent places?
No responses to the surface, more precisely, not so much on it. Looking well. And not necessarily new: as early as the 20th years of the last century, the famous geologist, Professor of Forest Academy SA Yakovlev collected all the sections of the pre-revolutionary wells in different parts of the city.
According to the study of old wells have the pleasure to announce: Ligovsky-Christmas ridge, on which millions of Petersburgers and drive drove countless times — is not only a form of relief in the city one of a kind. This is a wonderful layer cake rather roll (so called loaves in St. Petersburg), sprinkle with how we have conducted, rubbish or, as we read in the noble dictionary of engineering geology — soil bulk density, or — archaeologists -More noble «cultural layer «. Incidentally, in some places — up to two meters thick.
Under expressive garbage last centuries, indeed, Sands and some other. First, they go to the level of the Neva, up to 6 meters, which lie on the famous tape clays accumulate in huge freshwater glacial lake, disappeared about 10,500 years ago. Later in the neighborhood spilled younger pools with varying levels. They are within the Neva Lowland carried their water with sand and silt small rivers great-Izhora, great-Tosna, great-Ohta. Deposits of these rivers will definitely stand out in the whole area, now owned by the so-called delta of the Neva. Such fine-grained, partly clayey sands near St. Petersburg are common.
But it is only under the Christmas ridge above them lies an alien, just a special layer is not suitable for all laws and dynamic marine geology and on the principles of fluid mechanics to quiet riverbed and nisin-delta area. Do not layer — the whole stratum, power (ie the column height) and 4 meters, climbing to the summit ridge. This sequence is not just lies down on the clay belt, it is «embedded» in them. This means that the river ran into them and made a part of his bed, as, indeed, fine sands and later pools. If you mentally remove the top, alien thickness, then there will be no ridge — peace and quiet coastal marsh.
Of course, it is not in the ridge rather, not only there. It is only speaking to the surface visible and it is not clear signs of the major events, extraordinary events, TURNING, completely reformed former clay-peat-bog estuary in the eastern part of the future of the Gulf of Finland. So what are violated «Gradually, a place [on the common belief, acceptance and IA Goncharov] Geological modifications of the planet «? This geologist eloquently tells the story is the same thickness of exotic deposits not only in the upper parts of the Christmas ridge, but going down to the water level in the river and even at 20-30 meters below. The main thing is its composition, it is not just sand, which would be in line with, and in part of the delta of the ordinary, pleasant and gentle rivers, as modern Ohta, Tosna, Izhora. Thus, even the spring rivers can not afford to drag, but for kilometers, the mass of coarse sand, besides gravel and debris. Moreover — disposable, single splash.
Even the mighty Neva — much too watery and powerful — such feats are not capable of. Perhaps, indeed, the sea is furious floods and unprecedented storms sketched? Not at all. Geologist pours out on the table, or if you prefer, on the ridge of a handful of counter-arguments. Here, for example. After 7-6 thousand years ago, the sea is not reached such a level that the sea water can be applied to the height of detrital material, which is now his find. And fat is not the sea, and typical freshwater river bed. The material swept to the east, on the Neva «pipe», that’s why at the Neva is not typical of the plains of the river channel (read this in any tutorial).
So what? In the story titled «The Birth of the Neva» the author already had to write: It was a powerful water shaft height of a dozen meters, plus a couple of dozen meters underwater, escaped from Ladoga. He raced galloped half of the Neva (Neva future) tunnel 70 kilometers. And at the last sharp turn uplift him as an obstacle most of the sand and stone, and more cargo, lightweight rushed to melkozemnymi remains the ultimate goal — not far, has flattened the coast. Yes, where until recently — well, that some three hundred years to «geological modifications» — «he stood, full of great thoughts, and looked into the distance.» Of course, I am looking to the west. We are now forced to look to the east and north. Anyway, knowledgeable geologists are doomed to see. Flip-earth’s water, a disaster (Neolithic — exactly) that changed everything and everyone around him. Generally speaking, predestined to be where St. Petersburg.
Oblomov can be no doubt, I would have believed him because: «A storm like myself out there wants.» But Stolz, educated, sensible and practical, business-like thought, perhaps, would be imbued. And even that any rational offered.
Catastrophic wave of Lake Ladoga — it’s amazing, it’s hard perceptible. But this is not all about extreme Petersburg, still almost Do not know.
Ah, Summer Garden, ah …
«… And earthquakes, as a sin, in St. Petersburg does not happen.»
Habitation Ilya Ilyich was running for months and years in a purely domestic, monotonous environment. But one day … indifferent sad succession of days, not just broken, life is not only disturbed the peace — he exploded. Almost every day — to the city three hours RV and bliss, the thrill of meeting. At the height of the volcanic explosion of the senses — a date in the Summer Garden. Autumn, colorful leaves on the ground, deserted, secluded alley …
For the story, like, well, it does not apply. A couple of years ago, in passing, remembering Oblomov the sand in the essay «The Birth of the Neva», on this stage, I would have thought no way, would not have gone back to the novel. But in 2010, I am receiving from St. Petersburg colleagues, knowing my professional interests and opportunities, some pictures. Archaeological excavation in the Summer Garden. In the photo something completely unimaginable, inexplicable — for the Summer Garden. But it is very familiar to other, distant and not very areas. But to the center of St. Petersburg? This?
A colleague writes: archeologists perplexed, can not understand whether it is artificial Perekopa, or traces of the former excitement here Neva water, or traces of the bombings of the war years. Just where were thrilled from reciprocity Ilya and Olga.
Then I broke out. It was necessary to calm down, act consistently, remain even at this deep rough ground impartial. Another would be: real seismic dislocations in the heart of St. Petersburg, where the entire 300-year history, there was no earthquake its «homegrown», not those that were carrying vibrations from the Vikings and the Greeks. No, definitely not been any local, sensible people, that is the intensity of 2-3 points. And seismic maps, it is clear that this area is shown as almost entirely aseismic. And here seysmodeformatsii, and «pull» them at 5-6. Suddenly? Do not worry.
From the ground, we were not in danger. Firstly, because the earthquake, which has left here the facsimile, there was about a thousand years ago. Secondly, its center was located beyond the city, and far away, somewhere in the Karelian Isthmus and on the west bank of Lake Ladoga. The banks of the Neva, then almost deserted, located on the far periphery of the shocked region. But …
If such an event for the city does not have any significant value, behold, on the «Company» in this way we can not say. The engineering and design practice «Company» — means «object of special responsibility.» Special -under Petersburg.
Much more! Next — «Think for yourself, decide for yourself.»
But first, it would be good to get acquainted with the modern (and not forty years ago, when these «company» under the then Leningrad erected) special literature and updated (or not) the requirements and standards of the construction and operation of these objects special responsibility.
In the meantime, back to Ilya and Olga Ilich, cute chirping, and throwing each other looks of … Ilya Ilyich turned down an offer to move to his beloved boat to the opposite shore. And we, let’s, wharf. There we were waiting for the next geological surprise.
«… There is slowly crumbling mountain, where for centuries the sea …»
In those days at the shore of the fortress lay completely deserted. Now, in the good days are under its walls lie like citizens. Current bathers have no idea at what point a rest. Yes, even the guides do not tell you that this place is now detected, and without archaeological excavations, is «in the head.»
«Hare» story placed knowingly in a row with a story about underground revelations in the summer garden. The fact that those mysterious «waves» (actually seysmodeformatsii), dug up by archaeologists and restorer of fountains, a detailed study found several features. They settled a train only in the northwest, near the Neva, and a low humidified part of the garden. All six or even eight «waves» rolled together in one direction. At the core of each of these layers were curved and inclined equally and thus the reason you need to take the strain pulse is from the northwest, from the river, in fact — from some distant place in the Karelian Isthmus, where, incidentally, seysmodeformatsy set, and they are much powerful. There our group worked with them seriously and effectively. Here, on the island, the view down recently, after reading a book about pre-Petersburg.
The first took a fancy island of Peter the Great. By winning the Swedish Nienschanz the first thing he thought about the protection abroad. Bypassing all the channels and islands of the Neva delta Peter found on this small island in Finnish Yenisei-ri must be Russian outpost, for Swedish ships, Buda go to the Neva estuary (in which Peter no doubt), this section does do not pass by. It is here that ended in a single large bed of the Neva, and the river was divided into many sleeves, forming numerous islands of the delta plain. The island, like, inconspicuous, small, nondescript. But the singularity.
Pull it along the main ducts of the right bank of the Neva River and is separated by a narrow strait very much, not even the strait, and a deep ditch, however, natural. Other similar combinations in the delta was observed. And somehow, this unusually-ditch flow is separated from the shore of the array — a symmetrical arc. It ends directed to the south, to the Neva, not perpendicular, and more obliquely, towards the common river. Hydrology Delta does not provide for such.
And it is «illogical» looked so narrow channel, and such a small island in the place where a single Neva stream emerging from the steep turn sharply changed at a right angle for by sublatitudinal, the North, the West, the whole force of impact is on this segment the right bank. Something is wrong here. The river would be a breakthrough in this place extensive deltaic sediments in the canal without any difficulty. Here some new formation, after the emergence of the delta of the Neva River and its three thousand years ago. All indications are the same: we are dealing here with a small and young landslide.
How to check? Boring in the Peter and Paul Fortress — who will solve, and who I represent, where I find the means? Requirement is the same geologist — Sergey Yakovlev. In his encyclopedic book «is applied and the relief of Leningrad» (1926) published materials on all pre-revolutionary wells. Height above sea island only some 2.5 meters, the water is at a depth of 1.7 meters from the surface. So much layers saturated with water — suitable. On top of the fine clayey sand, and below it at a depth of 4.5 meters of clay belt-too approach. And no peat, as larger low-lying delta of the Neva. And how focused! Arc back to the northwest, a convex front — to the south, south-south-east. Right in the Summer Garden on the opposite shore, in a straight line only 300 meters away. And the line is looking from the northwest to the southeast.
So it turns out: a young, energetic horizontal from the Karelian isthmus momentum, reaching the flooded Neva bottom and find the weak areas (sop tape clay), the cross benches on the way and the free space in front of them, pushed them in passing, a block on the go, malleable, He pushed a meter or two in the water, and the second, already on the other side, tried to resist, crumpled into an accordion («waves»), and rushed on, as if nothing had happened. Landslide in such favorable conditions, fully meet the power propulsion 5-6 points more to him in the water but on clay, is not necessary.
But the castle is unshaken, say. Yeah, why is that not shake. The island holds and keeps the Peter and Paul Fortress, waiting for the next opportune moment. A thousand years.
Ohta — «the impossible possible»
«Not terrible storms or damage not hear in that region …
Flooding and that rarely happens. «
Well, at the end of the Okhta, where heroes I. Goncharova fall happened.
Earth began to yawn on Okhta in 2007, when Alexander Column to the advanced gas production seemed insignificant, and they set out to build a 400-meter «kukuruzinu.» What’s «great construction projects of communism» or «Great Plan for the Transformation of Nature» (as well as the layman). Another century, another scale.
On high concrete fence fathoms letters published broadcast advertising: «The impossible is possible.» Alexander Blok, the maxim is adapted rushed to unprecedented heights schemers such «possible» nightmares have not seen. Yet unprecedented happened: under the pressure of domestic public and the threat of loss of the status of the city of monuments of world significance had proudly retire.
Impossible frantically trying to make possible the heroic archaeologists under the direction of Peter Ye Sorokin. According to the scale and speed of excavation work at archaeological excavation site of the future for more than two years on Okhta performed, indeed impossible, at least in the civilized world. The monument of world significance, which was supposed to be a unique open-air museum, an unprecedented pride of the northern capital, for impervious unwanted eyes and feet concrete fortifications rapidly destroyed in the hands and eyes of stunned archaeologists. The plot is a regular drama of our culture, the mentality, the struggle for the impossible, instead of the required. But a little bit true to our story of the tiny possibility.
With St. Petersburg acquaintances I was able to work on the Okhta. As a geologist and as a specialist in the deformations of natural sediment under different influences. Would you believe it or not, and check-in nature will not be possible: all razed without a trace hands of Asian migrant workers and for domestic knives bulldozers. Naturally, under the «strict guidance of» high (and not) soaring uncle (and aunt), gazes and acted out of «higher» interests of their own towers.
As part of the irregularities and deformations of layers of natural causes colleagues and I have been able to fix something fragmentary, at your own risk and, of course, money. The two main items to history to Petersburg directly related, first discovered documents, and equilibrium mnogoznachimye (otherwise would not make sense to write). The positions are still not known even to the scientific community, not to mention the St. Petersburg audience and sweltering in the fight against «kukuruzinoy» patriots and enthusiasts. Briefly and clearly, the points.
In the excavations, under the horizon with the massive cultural and Neolithic finds in them fixed exotic layers of powerful streams. These layers, no doubt, show some sudden, extreme flow force broke into the calm waters of the lagoon during the Finnish 7-5 thousand years ago. That is, before the river Neva. But the power of a little breakthrough she concedes.
They erupt from dammed lakes in the middle reaches of the river Tosno and Izhora, likely later as the Neva from Lake Ladoga. Breakthroughs occurred not by chance, and water disturbances engendered by powerful local earthquakes. For Scandinavia after the last glaciation era strong earthquakes — a common phenomenon.
The conscientious reader has the right to demand proof of evidence. But from whom? From the Neolithic fishermen have lived continuously poured smoother? They were silent for millennia, is now to be silent on the shelves of their archaeological items that could tell a lot about, is clearly (to know how to see) were discarded on the flow field. Now they speak through the mouth of the archaeologists, but talk about something else, not about its dramatic fate. We’ll have to rely on the experts — geologist and paleoseismology. They told about the «incredible» expressive introduction and irregularities in the layers of archeological digs. And brought, mixed, dilapidated and scattered numerous traces of past activities of fishermen and their attempts to fix something after the next flood. Known in the past century, flooding in the west — is «flowers» in comparison with a storm breaks from the east.
This is a completely new dimension paleogeographers attention and … the regional branch of the Emergencies Ministry. The archaeological digs at Okhta paleoseysmodeformatsii specific crushing individual horizons and breaks with displacements of layers reliably recorded and interpreted. Not too large, but quite relevant events 6 and possibly 7-point intensity. And not 7-6 thousand years ago, and closer to our time (there will be money — will date). So much for the «full seismic safety» on a scale of thousands of years, according to (the State Construction Committee approved in 1997) State of seismic zoning map of Russia.
Color, hail Petrov, and stand steadfastly like Russia,
Yes, dying the same with you and losers element.
P.S. Three days later, after the electronic version of the manuscript the author put an end from St. Petersburg arrived a longtime colleague and kind. He brought along with documentation from a new series of photographs of the archaeological excavation. They are in different scales and angles, confused eyes (non-specialists) and roughly caressed the eye (specialist) violation of the horizontal (as he was supposed to be from textbooks) layer of young peat — an inclined gap is not less than half a meter (as it according to the laws of stratigraphy not I suppose). According to the laws of seismology supposed to take: tectonic, seismotectonic reset.
Where? Yes, right there. On Ligovo-velocity Christmas ridge. Well, is not that right under the house where peacefully ended his days, Ilya Ilyich Oblomov.