Chairman of the Republican society of hunters Czechoslovak Vyacheslav Zasmeta published a book, which I described the economic side of hunting in this country.
The author notes the multilateral favor of hunting and confirms it figures obtained hunting products in bulk and in money terms.
The total area of the hunting grounds of Czechoslovakia is 11420.7 thousand. Ha. Of these, arable land and Seda occupy 5268.4 thous. Ha (46.2% of the land), Lhasa — 4280.1 (37.5%), meadows — 817.7 (7.2%), pastures -620 (5 4%), prudy- 53.3 (0.5%), rivers and other water — 67.8 (0.6%), other land — 313.4 (2.6%). In addition, 50 519 ha of nature reserves (reserve 34) and 98355 ha — pheasantries.
In Czechoslovakia it hosted the 8200 game farms, I’m including 644 state hunting Forestry Office area 1047 thousand. Ha (15.3%), 50 special farms — an area of 194 thousand. Ha (1.7%), 7506 farms hunting area of 9,480 companies thous. ha (83%).
The average area of state hunting farms is 2520 hectares, of hunters — 1260 hectares. large size state hunting farms there explained that these farms are located mainly in the forests that are home to ungulates.
Economy Hunting Czechoslovakia. Ing, B. Zasmeta. Prague. 1968
Hunting society lands transferred by contract to rent. The contracts are due to rights and obligations of companies. The latter should run the economy in accordance with the plans drawn up for each year, to maintain the number of fauna, the corresponding site class land, and take the game otstrelennuyu procurement organizations. Part of the game for a set fee is used by hunters. Cash received for the delivered products, placed at the disposal of society.
All the lands of Czechoslovakia probonitirovany and distributed by leading (basic) types of game animals. The distribution of land held a special commission to determine the optimal number of animals in accordance with the appraisal.
It is interesting to note that 37.5% of the forest deer habitable recognized only 16% land, habitable deer, 42% -that is, over the entire forest area. This suggests that the deer adapted to the field conditions.
The largest area is recognized as hare habitable. It inhabits almost all the arable land, meadows, pastures and forests of the. Partridge mainly occupy arable land and meadows. For pheasant require small areas of forests and water bodies, so they are suitable for land recognized only by 27%.
All hunting areas of Czechoslovakia in recent years, there are more than forty species of game animals, the most widespread species are rabbit, pheasant, partridge, duck, roe deer n and of fur-bearing animals — muskrat, fox and marten.
The number of big game at all times maintained at the same level, while the number of small game, especially grouse and hares, varies greatly.
In the table 2 game animals in physical and monetary terms is a kind of fixed capital, which does not follow the drain. In accordance with the plans of the shooting of the next crop year removed the main types of game animals.
The annual shooting game in terms of money equal to 10.2% of the total value of the entire stock of game animals.
The highest income yields shooting hares and deer. In general, the cost of hunting big game shooting fine equal to the cost. If we take into account the shooting partridges, which again will be made in achieving planned their numbers, the cost of hunting small game increase. The amount of meat produced by shooting small game, and now more than from ungulates. A systematic increase in the shooting of hoofed animals for the last 20 years, achieved through biotechnical measures, strict regulation of culling the herd, proper sex ratio and age structure.
Plan shooting operate hunters, united in groups and societies, and the main link and the hunting is the primary organization in the field — a grassroots team. Structure of the organization under the society of hunters following, the supreme body — the Congress of hunters, which convenes every six years. The Congress elects the Central Council of the Union of Hunters and the Presidium of the Central Council. Slovakia has its own board, which is subject to the Central Council. When the central council established disciplinary senate and the Audit Commission. Under him are the Kennel Club, the management of trapping animals, management of breeding and selection, management accounting and mechanization.
On the ground, there are regional and district society of hunters, who runs! primary groups and monitor their activities.
The Central Council and its local branches are working in accordance with the development plan of hunting drawn up for the period from 1960 to 1975. In this regard fifteen tasked with getting from one ha of land in the Czech Republic, one kilogram of meat, Slovakia — 0.5 kg . For this purpose, it planned to provide pheasantries in the area of 100 thousand 300 hectares yew. Broodstock with a yield of 800 thousand. Young. For all other types of fauna are also defined control numbers of breeding stock and the size of the shooting,
In 1967, Czechoslovakia was 127 thousand. Members of hunting societies, including 39.6% of the workers, peasants, 20% of forest workers 11% and 29.4% of other categories. To join the society needs the recommendation of two members and passing the exam following the course. Membership fees are set at 60 crowns, in addition, the hunter pays 4.5 kroons of insurance premiums and pay a hunting license cost 50 kroons per year and 120 crowns — in three years. During hunting tickets annually receives more than six million. Crowns and, moreover, foreign hunters pay for licenses seven million. Kroons.
The number of hunters in Czechoslovakia limited by the requirement to have a 30-50 per hunter hectare field of forest land and 50-100. For every 500 hectares of hunting society should have a guard.
The law about hunting, published in 1962, provides extensive powers of a national committees (councils) territories and regions that are not only monitor, but also help societies of hunters in their work.
Revenues hunting societies is the delivery of procurement organizations leathers and skins of ungulates fur animals. The average annual income from this kind of hunting products from 1961 to 1965 m. 9 million. Kroons. The purchase price for certain types of furs (in kroons) such hare — 2.25 -143.76 marten, stone marten — 187.20, polecat — 32.06, protein — 5.66, muskrat — 25.82 and otter — 65.
Czechoslovakia received significant amounts for export of hunting products. In an average year on this article goes 989 thousand. Dollars. Exports mainly live game, mainly partridges, pheasants and hares. During the period from 1961 to 1965 annually exported 33.8 thousand. Partridges pieces, and in 1962 they were exported 62.3 thousand. Partridges then exports gradually decreased, and in 1965 was exported only 5.9 thousand. Pieces . The decrease was due to a decrease in exports of partridges in their numbers in the hunting grounds.
It should be noted that, despite a total ban on shooting partridges in recent years capturing them for export did not stop. Exported game live mainly in France, Italy, Luxembourg and Germany.
Speaking about the importance of hunting, B. Zasmeta points on income from industry, manufacturing hunting guns and ammunition. Czechoslovak arms factories producing shotguns of various calibers and rifles in the amount of 2140 thousand. CZK annually and ammunition to 18933 thousand. Crowns. Every hunter and gets an average annual hunting clothes, raincoats and boots to 830 crowns, and all hunters — 105 million. Kroons.
Along with these positive aspects of hunting should be mentioned and the damage that causes the hunting fauna of Agriculture and Forestry. In Czechoslovakia, as in other European countries, the losses caused by game animals shall be reimbursed by the organizations in charge of hunting.
The annual average loss over the specified five-year period, amounted to 15,150 thousand. Crowns. The greatest harm brought rabbits, especially in orchards and fields. Deer are most harmed by the woods and deer and forest and crops in the fields. Ironically, mouflon — forestry and animal Thorne — he harmed most of all in the fields adjacent to forests. Lan, on the contrary, more damage is done to the forest. Considering the relatively small number of these animals compared to roe deer and deer, they should be regarded as serious pests. The number of deer and deer about 25 times higher than the deer and mouflon, and the harm caused to them, compared with fallow deer and mouflon more than just 10 times. On one head and roe deer damage is estimated at 90 crowns, and upon the head of mouflon and fallow deer — 218 kroons.
Wild boar is a threat not only to the fields he digs up potatoes, but in the summer is often a few days living in the fields of ripening wheat or rye, arranging there maturation and trampling large areas.
Damage caused by game animals agriculture and forestry makes to control the population of a species at the same time to carry out protective measures. The cost of fencing is only in 1965, it has resulted in the amount of 27,986 thousand. Crowns.
Government agriculture although make claims to parts of the Hunting property in Spend, but at the same time assist in breeding pheasants and partridges, taking measures for the protection of nests and young, as well as part of precautionary measures when applying pesticides and mechanization. According to the Scientific Institute in Zbraslav, partridges and pheasants annually consume 30 th. Tons of harmful insects and weed seeds, eventually saved 150 thousand. Tons of grain worth about 300 thousand. CZK in purchase prices.
In Czechoslovakia, pays great attention to the fight against predators, which include almost all attributed fur-bearing animals, stray cats and dogs, also in crows and magpies. As hunters Czechoslovakia fully mastered the methods of regulating the number and qualitative composition of a species of game animals to predators assistance for this purpose do not resort, on the contrary, by all means try to keep them to a minimum. Damage caused by predators hunting, determined by the specific figures. In an average year are killed by predators: birds of about 10 thousand. Pieces, partridges 9 th., 12 thousand pheasants. Ungulates and 35 goals. Losses from predators determined by the sum of over 2.5 million. Kroons.
Hunting in Czechoslovakia is the sporty character. Hunters are actively involved in all activities for the protection and reproduction of wild game and the whole shooting held their own. From the delivered products hunting societies have significant revenues, which are almost completely cover their expenses. The state, by implementing hunting products, also has the benefit of up to earn foreign exchange. With this organization, I’m interested in the conduct of hunting and hunters, and the state.