LINGUISTICS ABROAD

ROMANIA

The scientific study of the Romanian language has been begun by the founders of Romance Philology in the mid-nineteenth century. Later, the origin and development of the native language were the subject of a number of studies of Romanian linguists who wanted to find out the patterns of development and enrichment of the language and solve issues Romanian relations with Romanesque and Slavic. However, in the bourgeois-landlord Romania few scientists were able to some extent to overcome the idealistic construction of Romanian linguistics. This applies primarily to such researchers as A. Chihak A. Lambrior, BP Hasdeu, X. Tiktin et al., Who in his writings were able to identify the correct path of development of linguistics in Romania. However, the views of these scholars concealed, and they do not occupy a leading place in the Romanian bourgeois linguistics.

After the First World War a significant part of the Romanian linguists took the idealistic concept of Saussure, and later structuralists. Such reactionary-minded linguists as S. Pushkar, Kandra, Prokopovich, North Pop, supported chauvinistic policy of royal Romania and its anti-scientific works prevented the creation of a scientific grammar and vocabulary of the Romanian language, as well as science-based rules of spelling. The main work of this period: «Introduction to the study of the Romance languages» J. Jordan, «Atlas of the Romanian language,» edited by S. Pushkar, «History of the Romanian Language», belonging as O. Densushyanu and A. Rosetti — require a radical recycling.

After the establishment of people’s democracy some Romanian linguists continued to adhere to the idealistic concepts in linguistics. For example, Professor A. Rosetti in the second, revised and expanded edition of his work, «the Word. The experience of the general theory «argues that» language can not convey exactly the reality, it is not an adequate expression of reality. Therefore, the language is incorrect and arbitrary. «

Vulgarizing «theory» Marr has also had some influence on the Romanian linguistics; Marr’s anti-Marxist position advocated journal of the Institute of Linguistics of the Academy of Sciences of PHP «Linguistic essays and research» («Studii si cercetari lingvistice»). Journal of the Society of history, philology and folklore «Cum vorbim» («How ​​to talk», executive editor Prof. A. Mourning) offered its pages to non-scientific articles proving the class nature of language.

Marxist provisions should Marr J. Jordan in his book «Russian influence in the Romanian language.» The study of the influence of the Russian language in Romania, according to Jordan, «is the theoretical value because it shows in an accessible and easily verifiable material dependence of language as a superstructure of social phenomena.»

On the influence of the South Slavic languages ​​into Romanian A. Rosetti says in his book «Influence limbilor slave meridionale» (Bucharest, 1950), noting that the Office of the language, literature and the church was in the Middle Ages, a dialect of the Bulgarian language (Thessaloniki dialect). A. Rosetti regard to issues of bilingualism, the Slavic words in Romanian language, using materials of Volume III of his «History of the Romanian Language» and remain in their original positions.

The brilliant work of Stalin’s «Marxism and Problems of Linguistics» given the methodological basis of Marxist linguists RPR.

The activities of linguistic facilities has increased, the development of general theoretical problems of linguistics in the light of the works of Joseph Stalin. Conducting scientific sessions and meetings on the main provisions of the book «Marxism and Problems of Linguistics», the translation and publication of articles by Soviet linguists reviewed journals and books of Soviet linguists, illuminated chronicle review of the most significant events of the linguistic life in Romania — these are the main events that characterize the current state of Romanian linguistics.

Scientific session of the district Soviet everyday work yazykovednyh institutions and especially of the Institute of Linguistics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR have attracted constant attention and find extensive coverage in the pages of the Romanian newspapers and magazines. Commended the Russian linguistic school pupil who was a disciple of Academician FF Fortunatova Professor of Slavic Studies I. Bogdan, and Soviet linguistics gives Academician Yevgeny Petrovich in his article «The value of the achievements of Soviet linguistics for the development of linguistics in PHP.» Seeing Soviet linguist consistent supporters and staunch promoters of the main provisions of Stalin on various issues of linguistics, E. P. dwells exclusively fruitful to tackle difficult issues yazykovednoy science system of free creative discussions and in particular the discussion on the pages of the newspaper «Pravda».

At meetings of the linguistic institutions and companies were placed on a variety of topics reports, often creates a lively exchange of opinions. However, some linguists superficially without due seriousness, began to study the works of the classics of Marxism-Leninism, and especially works of Stalin, which prevented a proper understanding of the urgent tasks of science in the field of language. The newspaper «Skynteyya» speaking of course Prof. Rossetti on the history of the Romanian language, said that the course was preceded by an introductory talk about the work of Stalin, which was a formal reply as A. Rosetti has not applied the provisions of the Stalinist doctrine in later chapters . In his introductory conversation he made a blunder, claiming that «language should not be the development of society.» Naturally, the slow restructuring of some linguists impact on the success of the work yazykovednyh institutions PHP. It should be noted fruitfulness of such activities as the main content of posts articles by Soviet linguists. So, Nikita M. read the essay on the article by Academician VV Vinogradov «Brilliant Marxist linguistics program.» In the mountains. Timisoara Professor S. Bynder twice gave a talk about Marxism in linguistics. According to the report of Professor A. Mourning «Brilliant works of Stalin on linguistics» acted most Romanian linguists, including Kotyanom I., A. Rossetti, V. Kazakov, I. Jordan, who unanimously pointed out the exceptional value of works I. In . Stalin to study various aspects of the Romanian language. It is essential that the scale that took propaganda Marxist linguistics, not only in the capital of PHP, but also in cities such as Ploiesti, Sibiu, Galati, Stalin and others.

Great value for new ways to strengthen the Romanian linguistics had a discussion on the problems of the social sciences, conducted by the Academy of Sciences of PHP 21-25 March 1951 and the expanded session of the Division of Language, Literature and Art of the Romanian Academy, on the anniversary of the publication of the works of Stalin in linguistics. In the first debate with great presentation «Proceedings of Stalin on linguistics and linguists PHP problem» made Academician Yevgeny Petrovich. Using concrete examples from different areas of the Romanian linguistics Rapporteur showed what vast prospects opened before the Romanian linguists. Disagreeing with the Romanian supporters teachings Marr, he reproached the magazine «Cum vorbim» in a series of erroneous protection provisions of the «new doctrine» of the language. Questions to enrich the vocabulary of, but with new words and expressions, but the widespread use of the experience of the classics of Romanian literature and composition of regional dialects E. Petrovich leads to the conclusion that a great responsibility lies on Romanian linguists in not only study, but also improve the whole people language. The report outlines a series of concrete measures: completion of the editing and publication of the «Atlas of the Romanian language» in-depth study of complex issues Romanian-Slavic relations in connection with the history of the language, and in connection with the history of the Romanians. Lack of scientific illumination key aspects of grammatical structure makes an independent Rapporteur to highlight the problem of Romanian grammar.

A number of interesting observations about the current state of the Romanian linguistics concluded a report by Professor L. Raut «Comrade Stalin’s works on linguistics and the problem of the social sciences in our country.» The report consistently to expose the vestiges of idealism and cosmopolitanism in the works of some linguists PHP, and noted the need for a determined struggle for the successful development of Marxist linguistics works in the light of Stalin on linguistics.

At the July session, conducted by the Office of Language, Literature and Art of the Academy of Sciences in cooperation with the Ministry of National Education and the Union of Writers PHP, reports were presented by Academician M. Sadoveanu «Language — the creation of the people,» the academician E. Petrovich «Teaching I. In Stalin’s language and yazykovednyh problem institutes of the Academy of PHP, «associate professor KV Gorshkova» The development of Soviet linguistics after the publication of Stalin’s work «Marxism and Problems of Linguistics», Prof. Mourning «On the spelling of the Romanian language», as well as reports Nana M. » On the teaching of the Romanian language in school, «Professor N. Pascu» Fundamentals of teaching foreign languages ​​in the Soviet Union and the role of linguists in raising the level of teaching of the Russian language in PHP «, Professor S. howled» On the technical terminology «and Professor I. Vitner» The value of work and . Stalin of language for the development of literature in PHP. «

Not accidentally President of the Academy of Sciences academician T. Savulescu PHP in closing remarks called on Romanian linguists and historians of literature to promote the study of the main problems of the origin and development of the Romanian language and its basic lexical fund and the vocabulary of its grammatical structure, Romanian literature and pointed to the need to accelerate the resolution of urgent tasks. Therefore, it is clear the call: «We can not be late, we are not allowed to be late,» because the language is one of the powerful levers of building a socialist culture in the Romanian People’s Republic.

As noted earlier, the new period of development of the Romanian linguistics are not marked by the emergence of large studies in various departments of the Romanian linguistics. Questions history of the language, as well as his theories are put to the last time in the articles devoted to particular issues; but made great collective works, although necessary brainpower in PHP for that. For example, focus on the study of the Romanian language. During the 1950- 1952 biennium. Romanian linguists products is reduced to a small article VI of the Jordan «Language Emipesku» report F. Dumitrescu «Eminescu and the old language,» the report by Professor I. Barbu «Observations on the syntax Creanga» report Marina I. «Observations on the tongue 3. Stancu novel «Shoeless"»Prof. article. G. Istrate «Eminescu and the vernacular» (a large number of topics related to Eminescu due fulfillment in the 1950 centennial of his birth). This is still possible to add an article by Professor A. Rossetti in the «Science Journal» for 1951 «Observations of the language in Dimitrie Cantemir» Hieroglyphic History"». Trying to make some generalizations is an article by J. Popper «Stalin’s theory of language and questions of our literary language.»

The problem of domestic laws of language development, raised in the article by Professor A. Mourning, has not received adequate and reasoned lighting. In a series of articles the authors refer to the basic vocabulary, word formation and word usage problem. Academician E. P. in an article talking about the uneven development of language elements, outlining some of the findings in accordance with the work of Joseph Stalin.

Contradictory Romanian spell caused the need for spelling reform. With the project of a new spell academicians. E. Petrovich and Professor A. Mourning. The project E. Petrovich, consisting of 24 items proposed vowel sound, close to the Russian expected to pass on the letter with the help of i, and not two letters a and i, as it was until now, the spelling of the diphthong ia, after consonants in the beginning of words, after the lip, write i to denote non-syllabic character and softening the preceding consonant mostly at the end of the word. Also enter the spelling u after i semivowel distinguish on the letter s, and z, depending on the location and surrounding sounds, transcribe foreign words at a rate Romanian pronunciation, transmit foreign names with the preservation of their writing, in some cases, in others, giving them the phonetic Romanian transcription, and so on. n. Free discussion of these projects can help to implement the orthographic reform, which will be held at a high scientific level and broad-based public assimilated.

It is impossible to ignore certain lag methodologically read linguistics courses. In addition to previously mentioned rate A. Rosetti, the newspaper «Skynteyya» says language course in the theory of Professor A. Mourning, reproaching him in the declarative use of the epithet «idealist metaphysician reactionary» no real Marxist critique of the reaction of linguistics, quoting a wide Saussure unnecessarily and without opposing ideas advanced linguistics that linguists idealist.

The challenges facing the Romanian linguists, and yet unsolved, academician E. Petrovich formulated as follows: «drawing up a common descriptive and normative grammar of the Romanian language and comparative grammar of Russian and Romanian languages, compiling Russian-Romanian and Romanian-Russian dictionaries, edition of the dictionary Academy PHP the printing of which was started 40 years ago, the compilation and publication of bilingual dictionaries — the Romanian-Hungarian, Hungarian-Romanian, Romanian-German, German-Romanian, learning a dialect of Romanian, Hungarian, German (Saxon in Transylvania) and speaks Ukrainian, Slovak, Czech , Serbian, Bulgarian, et al., presented at the territory of PHP. «

The free development of a democratic Romania, successfully carrying out socialist construction with the support of the great Soviet Union, will ensure the continued growth and prosperity of material science and advanced linguistics.

CZECHOSLOVAKIA

The brilliant work of Stalin’s «Marxism and Problems of Linguistics» marked the beginning of a new era in the development of the science of language. Stalin created the theory of Marxist general linguistics and gave the most advanced linguists all over the world work program in the field of theoretical and applied linguistics on the basis of creative Marxism.

The exceptionally high value of the works of Stalin on linguistics for all the ideological, theoretical and organizational work of the Czechoslovak linguists. In Czechoslovakia, conducts research most highly qualified group of linguists. As you know, in the period preceding the linguistic debate in the USSR, the leading trend in the Czech linguistics has been a structural linguistics. Promoting the principles of this area, since 1929, engaged in «Prague School» brings together a group of Czechoslovak and foreign linguists. The bodies of this group were the periodical «Slovo a slovesnost» (1935) and collections of «labor» mug. In 1946 it was founded «Bratislava Linguistic Circle», published in 1947, the magazine «Slovo a tvar».

The main theoretical position of Prague «school» structuralists were the logical continuation of the idealistic concept of language put forward by de Saussure. The idealistic concept of structuralism in some areas merged with the anti-Marxist «theory» Marr. It is understood themselves structuralists. Professor Gavranek noted that «new doctrine» of the language and the Prague School of Marr structuralists are closer to each other than some thought. Makes them, in particular, an incorrect assessment of the results of linguistic crossing, which allegedly leads to the formation of a new language, and the exaggeration of the role of semantics in interpreting linguistic facts. Supporters of the «theory» Marr sought to give «new doctrine» of the language of Marxist-Leninist linguistics. Criticism to structuralism marrovskih positions could help the Czechoslovakian linguist. Namely, such criticism was contained in a vicious article by Professor Chemodanova «structuralism and Soviet linguistics», advocate anti-Marxist installation of the «new doctrine» of language Marr. Czechoslovak linguists needed Marxist installations in the field of linguistics, which would allow them to creatively develop their science and fruitful work for the good of the Republic, following the path to socialism.

Such methodological guidance contained in the brilliant works of Stalin on linguistics. This is the greatest event in the history of progressive science were happily greeted by linguists Czechoslovakia. Translations of Stalin have been published in all the Czech and Slovak newspapers and went separate editions in Prague and Bratislava. On the philosophical faculties of universities held theoretical conference of linguists. The magazines were published articles disclosing the value of the Stalinist doctrine of language for all branches of science.

The first conference devoted to the works of genius Stalin, was held at the Faculty of Philosophy at Charles University June 29, 1950 The meeting was attended by representatives of all the departments. Reports F. Travnichka B. Gavraneka and stressed the importance of work of Comrade Stalin for the further development of Czech linguistics, were discovered reasons uncritical attitude to the «theory» of Marr and condemned dictatorial methods used Marr supporters in the scientific work. Professor V. Vladimír Skalička and Isachenko assessed the comparative-historical method that was used Czech and Slovak linguists. In the future work on the restructuring of teaching linguistic disciplines has been moved into separate departments of the Department of Philosophy, of which the last academic year, stood out independent Philology.

Most interesting is the discussion on structuralism, open the magazine «Tvorba» in order to expose this idealistic direction. The editorial staff stressed that Stalin’s doctrine of the language is not yet fully understood by the Czechoslovak linguists that the further development of linguistics is possible only on the basis of a Marxist in a scientific discussion, criticism and self-criticism in the scientific work.

The debate was opened by Article P. Sgala «Proceedings of Stalin on linguistics and the Prague a structural linguistics.» The author points out that the main task of linguists Czechoslovakia is to expose the idealistic nature of structuralism. This can be done only on the basis of Stalin’s theory of language. Describing the situation in which there was structuralism, ie. Sgal notes that in the period of the bourgeois Czechoslovak Republic propaganda structuralism was one of the forms of struggle the ideologists of the bourgeoisie and the method of dialectical materialism, and concludes that the essence structuralism is a kind of idealism in the social sciences. Highlights the harmful activity beloemigrantov cosmopolitan Jakobson, who, hiding behind the guise of «non-partisanship» in matters of philosophy, deliberately propagated the idealism at a time when the progressive linguists Czechoslovakia still could not rely on the theory of Marxism-Leninism.

Citing the main thesis of the structuralists, that «language is a system of relations, caused by their mutual connection,» that is. Sgal correctly concludes that the structuralists, analyzing the relationship of language elements, overestimated the internal relationships in language and ignored the more important communication language with the development of society and thought. All the attention of researchers to focus only on this connection to clarify the relationship between the components of language structure. The structure of language freed from the concepts of time and development. Communication language development with the history of society was subjected to distortion: Linguistics consciously divided into «internal» and «external» linguistics. According to the structuralist, «extra-linguistic reality» hinder the investigation of «immanent» language development. Such an understanding of the language and the laws of its development incompatible Stalin’s teachings on language as a social phenomenon.

The author considers non-Marxist structuralist definition of language as a system of signs, immanent in relation to the thinking and the development of society. The nature of the linguistic sign structuralists always interpreted in the spirit of an idealist. Misunderstanding social essence of language structuralists aggravated idealistic interpretation of the laws of society and its development. It had a circulation scheme of bourgeois sociology, which have nothing in common with Marxism.

Idealism in public structuralists question leads to a distorted perception of anti-historical laws of development and functioning of the language. Vividly antihistoricism structuralism manifested in the opposition and break synchrony and diachrony, static and historical study of language. For structuralists remained unclear basic laws of historical development of the language. Therefore, in explaining the reasons for the change of language structure, they almost always rolled to the position of mechanism or vulgar sociology, linking these changes to the language of crossed or individual historical events. According to P. Sgala, structuralists irregularly created a new branch of science «semiology» (the science of signs), part of which was announced linguistics, aesthetics and art history. This of equating language and culture has paved the way for the adoption of some of the main anti-Marxist scholars provisions Marr, of language as an ideological superstructure.

Czech structuralists have repeatedly stressed that they are distinguished from Copenhagen «school» functional approach to the elements of language structure. However, a functional approach to language in the absence of a correct understanding of the characteristic features of the language and its public entities led to blunders. For structuralists have taught that language functions in a variety of «forms» are different. In their view, the language of literature is fundamentally different in function from the usual language, which has the function of communication. This distinction has led to the separation of the national literary language, to the confusion of languages, dialects and class «jargon» and along with it contributed to the growth of formalism in literature passion pun at the expense of transferring the content.

Tov. Sgal stressed that Czechoslovak structuralists nihilistic attitude to the traditions of Russian linguistics, abandoned comparative historical study of languages ​​and, for the most part engaged in phonology, detached from the practical needs of society. He notes that the Copenhagen «school», consistently developing structuralist thesis of language as a system of opposites caused only by their relationship, turning to linguistics «pure linguistics» and completely separated from the history of the study of the language it speaks society.

Discussion paper P. Sgala caused a lot of feedback. A number of articles have been opened other perverse position of structuralism and most important disadvantages of the Czech linguistics. Professor F. Travnichek article «structuralism — the enemy of our linguistics» states that some structuralists still think, though their views on the language and the laws of its development coincides with the teachings of Stalin. However, it points out Professor. Travnichek, Stalin’s doctrine of the structure of language and the internal laws of its development has nothing to do with the immanent laws of the structuralists. Warning, a dangerous quest to reconcile the views of the structuralists with the Stalinist doctrine of language in a timely manner. For example, 111. Petsiar in «Slovak speech» asserts that «the so-called functional point of view, which emphasizes the already functional and a structural linguistics, is in full agreement with the Marxist doctrine of the language.»

Rector of Charles University, Professor J. Mukarovsky Professor J. Belic, professor Travnichek uncovered basic errors structuralists in learning language. The latter, in their understanding turned into jargon divorced from the common language but the consistent implementation of the principle of «immanence» of language development in the practice of linguistic purism led to. Although the selection of different «languages» was based on the functional-structural method, it is essentially anti-Marxist position merges with Marr about the «class» of the language.

B. Barnett, in his article, «A Critique of structuralism in our linguistics», pointing to the anti-historicism of structural linguistics, said that structuralist methodology was imbued with all the work of the Czechoslovak linguists. On the depth of its impact it is also evidenced by the fact that the fight with structuralism began only a year after the appearance of the works of JV Stalin that in that time the Czechoslovak linguists have not yet created jobs on the basis of Stalin’s theory of language.

The discussion revealed the idealistic nature of the main provisions of structuralism. However, the wording «Tvorby» unfortunately not summarized the discussion. Can not qualify for this brochure professor Travnichka devoted to criticism of structuralism. During the discussion, little is said about the problems of further work of linguists Czechoslovakia. It was completely set aside the question of the internal laws of the development of language, the study of which is the main task of linguistics. I have not received the final permit also the question of the principles of typological comparison of languages. Also remains unfulfilled promise of the magazine «Slavia» to organize the debate on the Slavic comparative historical linguistics.

The discussion was posed and solved the question of the relationship between the Czech and Slovak languages. In the article «On the relation between the Czech and Slovak languages ​​from a Marxist point of view,» Professor Travnichek indicates that during the period of the bourgeois republic establishment of Slovak literary language was regarded as harmful disruptive actions Slovak autonomists, as an event that destroyed the Czechoslovak national unity. The ruling circles of the Czech bourgeoisie fought against the independent existence of the Slovak nation. Error Czech linguists in the Slovak question marks Travnichek, was not to emphasize the linguistic affinity of Czechs and Slovaks, and that they did from the fact that the proximity of the Czech I Slovak language erroneous chauvinistic concluded that the Slovak language is not an independent national language, and with Czech, Moravian and Silesian dialects constitutes the highest linguistic unit — Czechoslovak language.

Bourgeois ideologists have used these findings to the Czech linguists to the oppression of the Slovak nation, depriving them of the right to national self-determination. Only the works of Stalin on the language of the nation and helped to carry out the people’s democratic Czechoslovakia principles of the Leninist-Stalinist national policy. According to the Constitution of May 8, 1948 «The Czechoslovak Republic is a unified state of two equal Slavic nations — Czechs and Slovaks.»

The unprecedented rise of national culture, which occurred in Czechoslovakia after the victory of the workers in February 1948, was reflected in the Slovak linguistics. In the short term it has been reorganized scientific activity, which is now concentrated in the Linguistic Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences and Arts and the Slovak University in Bratislava. Currently, prepared the collective work: a new set of rules of the Slovak spelling, large standard dictionary of the Slovak language, bilingual dictionaries, atlas and so dialectological. N.

Linguists Czechoslovakia learn Marxist-Leninist ideology «closely monitoring the progress of Soviet linguistics.

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