Life Karl Marx was like an adventure novel!
Sometimes it’s hard to imagine that Karl Marx was a real person. For us it has long turned into a marble statue of a man with a strong head of hair, beard and large features. However, in the life of the founder of Marxism it was not at all like a marble monument.
Parents of the future philosopher were ethnic Jews, and belonged to a very noble rabbinic leave. But Heinrich Marx, later, and all his children, moved to Lutheranism in order to make a career lawyer in the city of Trier. Thus, Karl Marx already in his youth realized that he was not entirely Jewish (religious Jews are very badly converted Jew) and not very German — still the blood is blood.
This dual position led multi-talented boy from childhood to think much about the unfair structure of society.
«Happiness — in the fight!»
Not by chance, Karl Marx, in his mature years, the question of amateur questionnaire said that happiness is in the fight. He had to fight since childhood. He won the first victory in the battle for love. Already in 1835 — at the age of seventeen — the future great economist, he took one of the most important decisions in my life: to marry Jenny von Westphalen. Her father, Ludwig von Westphalen was a highly educated man. He was friends with Heinrich Marx was glad his presence in the house of the young Charles (so Jenny Karl knew from childhood). Ludwig Marx Jr. instilled a love of ancient art and philosophy. It is one thing to be friends, and the other — to intermarry. A descendant of the ancient German aristocratic family background Vestfa-fiefs too wanted to see in his zyatyah Jew with a very uncertain future. But Jenny was set up quite differently. She was older than Charles for four years, but no one except the Moor (the name of his entire life in the family because of the bright southern appearance), see their husbands did not want to.
Karl and Jenny were passionate and full of hope correspondence for seven years! But the wedding took place only after the death of both fathers. Fraulein von Westphalen was twenty-nine when she became Frau Marx.
Unfortunately, her father turned out to be right about the uncertain future of Charles and that the existence of Jenny condemn him to poverty and suffering. But no matter what life couple Marx went down in history as one of the happiest marriages.
Under the weight of the ban
Learn Karl Marx loved. He began studies at the University of Bonn as a lawyer. Then he continued his studies in Berlin, but as a philosopher and historian. He defended his thesis in philosophy. And he worked as a journalist.
The fight for the understanding of family background Vestfalenov even more exacerbated in Charles sense of social injustice. Prussian monarchy, he felt rotten through and through. In the end, the pages of periodicals Marx began openly calling for the overthrow of the king and his government replaced the rule of an elected democratic government. Now censorship with special care monitored the activities of the opposition journalist. Most of his works were either prohibited or ruthlessly indented.
The desire to teach at the university also remained unfulfilled — the government has not allowed a dangerous freethinker communicate with students.
1843 was a turning point in the life of Karl Marx. He moved with his family to Paris, there to publish the magazine, which was to unite the German and French democrats. In the same year there was an important event in the life of Charles — familiarity with the future of a friend, colleague, co-author and sponsor of Friedrich Engels.
The science of super-profits
Engels first drew attention to the plight of fellow urban proletariat, ruthlessly exploited factory owners. About how the workers live, Friedrich — the son of a factory owner — he knew firsthand.
This spark was enough to ensure that in the minds of Marx began to form the foundations of the theory of surplus value, which immortalized his name. Karl sat down to political economy. He always thought: this is the area he lacks knowledge. We can not say that this area of knowledge in those days did not develop. But there are many gaps and errors, was liquidated by Marx. Economist «combed» early knowledge of the surplus value and identified it as a source of super-profits obtained by capitalists.
The main evil, Marx and Engels declared private property, as reported in his «Communist Manifesto»:
«Modern bourgeois private property is the final and most complete expression of producing and appropriating products that is based on class antagonisms, on the exploitation of others. In this sense, the communists can express their theory in the single sentence: Abolition of private property. «
Poverty is not a vice
Marx spent his time for scientific work, discussions with political opponents and conversations with like-minded Engels. That, incidentally, was just two years younger, but Marx always happy to perform the role of a junior colleague. Marx had to earn money to low-paying journalism.
In the meantime, the family grew. All the years of marriage of Charles and infinitely pre-
Few people know that during his studies at the University of Bonn Karl Marx has a rather violent temper.
He was active in student partying, often ended in fights. At one time, the future genius of political economy served as the president of «Trier club beer lovers.» And once he was arrested for 24 hours for a drunken brawl in which several of the studiozusy pitched his Jenny was born seven children. But only three daughters survived to adulthood. In the death of the rest of young children could be accused as the then common infectious diseases that could not be treated, and poverty — the eternal companion of the family. Sometimes, parents and children sat for weeks on one bread and potatoes.
Marx moved from one rented apartment to another. Somehow, to pay the bills, I had to lay the family silver background Vestfalenov. Jenny laughed (!) Told how Charles took the pawnshop for a criminal. Employees of establishments decided that such a modestly dressed man may not be the family silver aristocrats acquired honestly.
The main work
In 1849 the family again had to change the host country: Marx was expelled from France. Their last refuge was London. After moving to live I had the means, which gave the family of Engels. In addition, the small amount of money still bring occasional journalist Karl earnings. Although at the time it had fully captured the main work of life: three volumes of «Capital», in which he explained the economic laws of capitalism and makes predictions of further development of the society. Karl Marx believed that mankind would live to create a just a classless communist society.
At the end of 1881, Jenny died of cancer. Carl after her death, completely lost his footing in life. He was survived by his wife of two years …
The first volume of «Capital» was released in 1867 — during the life of its author. Engels published the next two after the death of his friend and teacher. A special book has found a response in the minds of Russian revolutionaries. This is despite the fact that Karl Marx himself referred to as «Asians» highly critical. In his work «The Secret diplomatic history of the XVIII century,» he bluntly wrote:
«Muscovy was raised and grew up in a terrible and vile school of Mongolian slavery. Even after his release, Muscovy continued to play the role of a slave who has become a master. Later Peter the Great combined political art Mongol slave with the proud aspirations of the Mongol ruler, Genghis Khan bequeathed which implement a plan to conquer the world. «
It is known that Mikhail Bakunin terribly offended Marx for such an attitude to Russia and even going to bring him to a duel.
One way or another, but the theory of Marx for many years held the minds of thousands of idealists around the world, including in Russia. Today, the main work of the ideology of communism — one of the most widely read books in the world.