Tasting rooms wine cellars, whether the farms of the Crimea and Moldova, Georgia and Uzbekistan, the fraternal socialist countries, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania, in many ways similar: vaulted ceilings, walls decorated with national ornaments, unsophisticated wood, clay or metal carvings, simple, rough planed tables, chairs, barrels or stylized chair-throne of the god of wine Bacchus …
But, perhaps, the first time I wanted to save after tasting a wine label. And not because we all liked the wine, which at the end of the conversation gave us Janos Silvashi — agronomist, this unusual farm. Rather, because along with the revelation of the old winegrower, this label was perhaps the most important argument in favor of telling them the surprising fact — on the site of the miners’ workings on dead ground, so to speak, in the «industrial desert», you can grow all the grain, food, vegetables, plant gardens, forest plantations, even the grapes from which it turns out is a beautiful and delicate wine.
On the label were shown: Rye ear, bunch of grapes, open pit mining of brown coal — lignite. Above the picture the word «restoration» that means the restoration of soil fertility, and the bottom — «Italian Riesling.»
In the corners of the label crossed hammers emblem miners Hungary. Such labeling is other than the Hungarian People’s Republic, there is nowhere in the world. But I want to believe that soon they will be much more.
And while their homeland — the spurs of a small mountain range Matra, north-east of Budapest. There were once found significant reserves of lignite, and later on their base near the town of Dendesh increased the country’s largest thermal power plant «Yuri Gagarin».
The energy giant round the clock smokes his pipe, cooling tower soars. And a continuous flow of many kilometers of conveyor belts crawls to its steam boilers lignite mined the miners trust «Matraayya.»
Coal mine robbed the cooperative «Nadezhda» Vishonta village of about twenty square kilometers of land — told us the head of one of the departments of CHP Jeno Molnar. In the past, I’m an agronomist and I know the price of this «industrial desert». They know it, and many workers power, because most of them came from the peasants. Therefore, we are all very happy, when miners started to revive the soil to revive the dead career. The method recognized by the best in the world. Its essence will explain his «father» — Janos Olah, our amazing scholar and practitioner.
…Describe the ugly picture of quarries, probably not worth it. Many saw it in life or on the silver screen. Indeed, the desert!
But here! Along the road stretched vineyards, forest plantations, orchards, vegetable and green with corn plantation! Whence was brought here as humus and organic matter?
— No non-local humus on our lands vozrezhdennyh not! — That was the first revelation, which we literally "intimidated" and surprised Janos Olah, head of the department of coal reclamation trust «Matraayya.» — That’s the simplicity and essence of our method. Desperate to quickly restore life "Industrial desert" known traditional methods, we went to the obvious insolence. So, anyway, first we evaluated our actions reclamation experts. Now, however, they changed their point of view to help us write a lot of good scientific articles … Maybe even defend the thesis …
Overweight, short, gray-haired man smiled innocently, and then instantly became serious:
— However, jokes aside. We have proved that in the development of lignite does not need any humus. Himself lignite able to «come alive» and bring fertility. But for this it is necessary to achieve the main goal: to make lignite bioactive. How? After extensive research it turned out … quite simply.
Right on the mine site or quarrying lignite can pulverize a powder, to saturate the air and water, add fertilizer — potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen and trace elements, and then the «pour» in a local best strains of soil bacteria. Next, the powder is plowed into the surface layer aligned or terraced «desert», which is then sown crop. In «Matraayi» for the role selected winter rye, in other places — oats and barley.
So the «desert» begins to live, and so active that the next year it is possible to sow everything — wheat, alfalfa, corn, sunflower, vegetables. All they give usually a decent harvest, but after four or five years, the territory of the former «Industrial Desert» goes into the category of not just the fertile and arable highly productive! Excellent results give her planting of conifers and fruit trees and vineyards.
Over the past seven years, the department of coal reclamation trust in collaboration with scientists tested the technology of «revival» of the earth 76 42 varieties of plant species. Conclusion: all that allowed in the zone climate conditions, growing fine! The effect is amazing — the restoration of soil fertility takes only three to four years, at the same time requires only ten percent of the funds required under the old, traditional method of soil remediation using the capacity of humus. At the World Congress of mines in Dusseldorf, held in 1976, the Hungarian method has been recognized as the most promising, and the CMEA Standing Commission on coal mining recommended its wider use in development of lignite in the socialist countries.
— We continue together with scientific research laboratories. By the way, we are cooperating in this field with Soviet counterparts from Tula and Perm. We improve and improve the individual links of the new method — told us during our tour of the unique agricultural enterprise colliery agronomist Janos Silvashi. — At the same time an accelerated pace enliven «a desert». To do this in the trust, a special mechanized detachment of forty men. Every year he recultivated 150-200 hectares. It is now restored to agricultural use nearly a thousand acres. On the flat part, they are mainly engaged in vegetable and grain crops on the slopes — forests, orchards, vineyards.
Special joy Janos Silvashi, experienced grower with many years cause by on-site workings plantation «solar berries.» He is proud to announce that they are now mine issue «on the mountain» is not only lignite, but also 300-350 hl of wine, and a great many tons of fresh grapes.
Completing our tour, Janos Silvashi kindly invited us to the wine cellar, where bottles of wine treated with green label. I will keep the label on the memory, as proof that the person is able to not leave behind on earth «industrial deserts» preserve the nature of live and grow an amazing diversity of flora and fauna.