Currently, pesticides are used so widely that they have become a very significant factor in exposure to natural systems. This raises a serious problem Wildlife poisoning by pesticides. The unreasonable use of pesticides may cause long-term consequences, which are now very difficult to foresee. However, it is now clear that all measures necessary to insist on a reasonable, careful use of chemicals, and only those whose action is not only thoroughly studied in laboratory animals, but wild. This is important because the reaction of wild and laboratory animals for the same substance may differ considerably. It should also be borne in mind that wild animals can not be isolated at the time of chemical treatments lands.
Central Laboratory for Nature Conservation of the Ministry of Agriculture of the USSR tried by questionnaires at least approximately, to establish the scale of death of wild animals as a result of the use of pesticides. Method Profiles, of course, does not accurately reflect the real picture of the death of the animals, it is significant element of chance, but with the lower bias, the information obtained is closer to «average sample». Due to the fact that we have a systematic account of animal poisoning chemicals, the information obtained can be considered as too low, as considered only those animals that happen to be in sight of the people. The animals weakened by chronic doses, gone in inaccessible places or become the reason why victims of predators, certainly the majority, but they are not covered, taking into account,
In 1969 he was sent to about 800 questionnaires to organizations associated with agriculture, forestry, hunting and fisheries. Returned 411 questionnaires with answers of the 69 regions of the Russian Federation and the 12 union republics, t. E. IE almost all requested administrative districts. More than half of the responses sent to persons associated with hunting. The responses to the questions reflected the specificity of institutions, but individuals and organizations that are directly relevant to the work with chemicals or face the consequences of their application (foresters, hunters, gosohotinspektory, hunters, fishermen, and so on. D.), Responded fully and specifically, most of their information confirmed acts of veterinary laboratories. The responses of individuals associated with hunting, information about the death of animals more (73-78% of the questionnaires) than in the responses, for example, forestry workers (25%). All of these points it is difficult to take into account, so the questionnaire method makes it possible to identify a general regularities effects of pesticides on wild animals.
Almost everywhere in field use chemical fertilizers. Herbicides are most often used as a way to care field and forest plantations, mainly in the European part of the USSR; arboritsidy — from forest land reclamation works in the north-western and northern regions; insecticides — in the southern regions, as well as forest area, in the natural foci of infectious diseases, to fight with their carriers; rodenticide used for mass destruction of rodent species in the steppe and semi-desert areas of the Southern Urals, the Volga region, Stavropol, Krasnodar regions and in Kazakhstan.
When accounting for the death of the fauna of the chemicals is very important that, in some cases, the animal could die immediately, the other — after a while. When small doses of substances animals can gradually accumulate them in their body and then die without visible reason. Set poisoning fertilizers or inorganic seed dressing, or rodenticide pretty easy on the residual quantity of the substance in animal tissues. When poisoning by organic compounds (organochlorine, organophosphate, derivatives of 2,4-D, and so on. N.) Traces of them in animals is very difficult to detect as being biologically active substances, they often form in the animal virtually undetectable metabolites. In addition, a technique detecting residual amounts of these substances are so complicated that almost inapplicable local conditions and veterinary laboratories.
Of the 266 cases, with the number of dead animals 36.1% of confirmed acts veterinary examination. Of the remaining posts 75% can be considered as reliable as they are confirmed in detail described the situation: finding dead animals near the openly lying fertilizers, mass death of animals immediately after the «dusting» or «spraying» the mass death of fish in ponds where washed apparatus for chemical processing, or are washed away by melt or rain water chemicals, lying on the beach, and so on. d. If we take into account only the deaths of birds and mammals (excluding fish and bees), the acts of examination confirmed about half posts. This gives reason to believe that the vast majority of animals actually died from poisoning by pesticides or fertilizers.
The responses indicated 78 correspondents pesticides and fertilizers, I applied agriculture and forestry for 1968-1969. Of these, 44 (56.5%) were dangerous to wildlife. Most poisoning accounted for chemical fertilizers (29,2%), herbicides (21.0%) and insecticides (18.6%).
The use of chemicals in agriculture and forestry is equally dangerous to mammals (38.8% of all reports of deaths), and for the birds (38%). Considerable fish mortality (13.2%) and invertebrates (9.9%), the vast majority of bees (9.3%). Reports of the death of amphibians and reptiles are rare.
For mammals in the industrial application of the most dangerous chemical fertilizers appeared (41.1% of deaths), in second place — Herbicides, especially 2,4-D (22.4%), the third — rodenticide (16.7%) . Birds often die from rodenticide (31.3%) and insecticides (24.8%). to a lesser extent — of herbicides (19.2%) and fertilizers (13.7%). The cause of death was primarily fish manure (58%) and insecticides (26.3%), and herbicides. For the invertebrate main danger insecticides (46%) and herbicides (36%).
Out of game animals in the forest area most affected moose and hare. The main danger for the moose are open lie in the fields of fertilizer that moose mistaken for salt licks. Most of these animals (86 of 118, or 73%) were poisoned with urea, potassium and ammonium nitrate. In many cases, I have a source of poisoning known as chemical fertilizers, without specifying a particular drug. The deaths of game animals accounted for 28.0%.
In 1968-1969. 15 cases of mass death of game mammals, found more than 475 corpses.
In the forest zone of the European part of the USSR, where as in the fight against arboritsidov shrubs and lightening mixed forests used 2,4-D (amine salt and butyl ether), often dying moose and hare eating twigs and bark of deciduous trees shrubs.
In the steppe zone of the hunting of animals suffer the most hare and fox: the first — feeding on poisoned grain zinc phosphide baits, seeded with the aircraft for combat ground squirrels, the latter — who died from eating the poison rodents. Information about the mass deaths of hares and foxes came mostly from the south of their range (Krasnodar, Stavropol, Rostov, Orenburg, Volgograd and some other areas). Quite generally poisoning hare chemical fertilizers (urea, ammonium nitrate and potassium), herbicides winter when processing (amine and sodium salt of 2,4-D), insecticides from the group of organochlorine compounds, especially hexachlorane. As a result of improper use of fertilizers and pesticides hare disappeared into Lenin-grad region, Arzamas area Gorky region, in some regions of Ukraine and Kazakhstan.
The questionnaire reported 30 bird species, which adversely affected pesticides or fertilizers, about 221 cases of poisoning (23 of them mass), and in 1965 found the corpses of birds. The most common victims are the birds in the areas of rodent (partridge, bustard, little bustard, quail, cranes, geese, Goose and others), grain farming (rooks, starlings, larks, buntings and other) and among the forests, which held chemical treatment (pesticide) against wood pests or carriers of dangerous infections (black grouse, capercaillie, hazel grouse). Among the dead animals hunting and fishing types account for 27.5%.
Especially dangerous for animals organochlorines as accumulate in the body, they reduce reproductive capacity and weaken the vitality of future generations.
In the 10 years that have passed since the first questionnaire, there have been significant changes in the chemicals used in agriculture. A much wider and more were used mineral fertilizers and chemical methods of care for forest and field crops. In connection with this change and their role in the life of wildlife. If the 1959- 1960 biennium. most dangerous were in rodenticide baits poisoned grain (54.5%) and insecticides (26.5%), in 1968 — 1969. most animals died from fertilizers (29.2%), and almost equally — from rodenticide (23%) and herbicide (21%). The number of cases of poisoning herbicides increased 10 times, fertilizers — more than 2 times, and harmful effects rodenticide decreased 2.5 times and insecticides — 1.5.
«Press» chemicals on wild land animals in recent years has not diminished, but has changed the relative importance of different drugs. However, the cause of death of wild animals often lies not even in the toxic properties of chemical compounds. The most common cause immediate death of terrestrial animals and inhabitants of water bodies is a violation of chemical treatment. Among the questionnaires with reports of animal deaths 44.5% contained information about violations of manufacturing instructions, which in most cases coincides with the mass deaths of animals. With the death of individual animals of information on violations usually do not result in 19.8% of the questionnaires correspondents reported that the animals were killed, despite compliance with all established rules for the application of pesticides.
The most frequent violations in the storage (54.3%) and the use of pesticides and fertilizers. Often fertilizers for a long time and uncontrollably under the open sky in the fields of railway stations or in areas not suited for storing and near water. In the process of chemical works the most frequent violation of the rules — Rinsing containers from the chemicals or operating units in the reservoirs of common areas, including closed. Quite often do not comply with the aviaobrabotkah and safety (eg, treatment without prior warning).
In accordance with the nature of the violations correspondents suggest measures to prevent the poisoning of wild animals. Foremost among these proposals is to ensure strict control over the storage and use of pesticides and fertilizers, broad promotion of knowledge about the chemicals used in agriculture, replacing dangerous drugs less toxic, and the introduction of personal responsibility for the damage caused to nature as a result of thoughtless or careless attitude towards the use Chemicals.
Thus, the active public participation in the survey results revealed the most significant moments in the ratio chemicalization agriculture and forestry, and the welfare of wild animals, to identify the most dangerous animal products in respect of which it is necessary to carry out urgent studies or make a radical improvement in the practice of their use.