Millions of years ago, they lived on the land. And then went to sea. Nobody knows the reasons which have pushed them on this step, which was only the first link in a chain of mysteries enshrouding the animals. «Wonderful dolphins are no creatures on the Earth, — wrote the ancient Greek poet Oppian — for a truly once they were people, but at the behest of the gods changed the land to the sea and took the form of fish.» So says the ancient manuscripts.
Since time immemorial, people are trying to unravel the mysteries of these mammals of the suborder of toothed whales, the number of species reaches fifty: bottlenose dolphins, pilot whales, killer whales, porpoises, and so on. D. Researchers primarily affects the brain of a dolphin. It weighs 200-250 grams more than the weight of the human brain. As in nature, as a rule, there is a direct relationship between the level of intelligence of the volume of the brain, a reasonable question arises, long-tantalizing scientists: what are the real brains of dolphins, where their limit? There are different perspective. Noting the striking ability of dolphins to learn, their memory, high contact and a variety of other factors, the famous scientist John Lilly, who gave the study of these animals most of his life, believes that «the Dolphins have the same intelligence, the same ethics and as sensitive as well as people. «
However, this view is not widely used in scientific circles, but it contributed to the outbreak of a kind of «dolphin boom.» In different countries are having research centers, laboratories, dolphinarium, where people had the opportunity to become better acquainted with these surprisingly friendly, smart animals. Demand creates supply. There was a huge number of poachers who caught dolphins for sale to private zoos, laboratories, collections, aquariums. It’s hard to imagine the number of dead animals!
The boom led to the market filled with trinkets depicting dolphins appeared books, movies. Virtually all countries bypassed serial television movie «Flipper» on the funny adventures of bottlenose dolphins. Science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke wrote the book, and then screen adaptation which appeared on our screens called «Day of the Dolphin.» There were even a dolphin monuments and memorials. The world press wrote about one such monument on the island of Ica in the Korea Strait. Silent mockery looks like he hoisted on the spot where, according to conservative estimates, from 1959 to 1981 killed about 10 million dolphins.
Along the shores of the island are the way migration of these animals. And here also thousands of them brutally destroyed by Japanese fishermen because they supposedly eat all the fish in the strait.
Meanwhile, the Dolphins were interested not only biologists and zoologists, but also engineers, designers, specialists from other branches of engineering. The reason for this were many. So, back in the thirties, the English scientist James Gray, based on the calculations showed that the muscular effort of dolphin cover only 10 percent of the energy required him to move at high speeds. There was another mystery: the expense of what is flying on the waves of a dolphin? Only recently found that «guilty» in the special properties of the skin of a dolphin performing the role of water in the absorber resistance movement. Using similar in structure to cover the sides of the ships produced brilliant results. Interested in Dolphin and aircraft designers. Contrary to the usual notions emerged that an optimal ratio between the length and thickness of the aircraft fuselage will like what exists between the length and thickness of the body of a dolphin that is familiar cigar-shaped aircraft is not the best in terms of aerodynamics.
However, not always the fruit of dolphin watching proved harmless to them. For example, experts have noticed that in the Pacific yellowfin tuna move, usually with dolphins, which seemed to lead the pack. So, a new method of fishing. Discovering dolphins, fishermen would gather them into a pile and covered with nets. The dolphins are then released from the nets into the ocean, the fish goes to the destination.
But the trouble is that it is technically very difficult to carry out this seemingly simple operation without harm to the animals that are dying, getting tangled in cell networks and choking. Specialists of the National Marine Fisheries Service of the United States have estimated that for the year in the networks of the fishermen find their death more than 240 thousand dolphins! But how many millions of victims piled up over the years ?!
His contribution to the study of unique animals and decided to make «delfinologi» from the Pentagon. According to the West German magazine «Stern», a series of programs on the implementation of the US Defense Department is working hard underwater research center dedicated naval forces in San Diego (CA).
The first experiments on marine animals the US military held back in the 60s. How to recognize employees Pentagon during the Vietnam War, «for various tasks of observation and control» has been used dolphins. In the following years in the laboratories of the Ministry of Defence engaged in improving military drill Animal — bottlenose dolphins, pilot whales and sea lions. One of the programs in San Diego, called the «Quick Search». Its purpose — to teach pinnipeds find «specified facilities» and able to «treat» them.
In fact, it looks like this. «Marines» go on a mission in special muzzles that animals are not distracted by the pursuit of a fish swims, and in harness, which is attached to the various instruments. Barrazhiruya rapidly under water, the animal is the goal and approaching it closes in a convenient place special mechanical capture of an explosive device. Then it rises and returns to the trainers. Using gripping the animal can raise the surface of the water detected object. But this is only part of the program. Dolphins and sea lions learn to recognize the sounds of ships and submarines, and inform about it their masters, to the goal of delivering a mine, a kind of lasso to capture torpedoes and guide them towards the issuing of the ship. Particular attention is paid to the method of disabling the enemy swimmers and scuba divers. In short, these are trained rangers submarine bombers, who will give their lives for the Pentagon.
Noteworthy is an interesting phenomenon that requires a retreat. The friendliness of the dolphins is well known. In the history of no cases of attacks on humans. Moreover, it registered many cases when the dolphins come to the aid of man. For example, the American magazine «National Geographic» talked about how during the Second World War, the crew of the American plane shot down over the ocean, had the power to drive away from the raft uninvited helpers — dolphins, who enthusiastically pushed the raft to the nearest beach, busy … adversary.
Dolphins are very attached to the people and are extremely reluctant to part with them. So when John Lilly and his aides released the observed animals on their freedom, they always come back to the people.
A different picture is revealed in the naval center in San Diego. To harness the animal’s ability to train always attached a nylon rope, the other end of which is the instructor. This is done to animals … I do not run away. Dolphin worth at least once to go to sea without a rope, as the number of «deserters» from the US Army increased by one.
More recently, all the vessels that were in the vicinity of Vancouver Island in Canada, received an unusual warning: «Warning! — It reads as it is. — The appearance of a white beluga immediately inform the authorities. » The cause of the alarm was the «escape» of a mammal of the family of dolphins located on the island of the Canadian Naval Base. Told reporters in the city of Bremerton (WA), the representative of the US Navy, US experts trained there belugas military affairs: the rise from the seabed torpedoes and other «things». Existence of the program became known after a group of unidentified persons entered the territory of the base at night and cutting the protective net, he tried to free the animals. However, only one will burst «student» …
Thus, contrary to the usual notions, dolphins still moving away from people who feed them. It seems that the dolphins do not want to go against his nature and learn the art of killing. Faced with people in military uniforms, they go into the sea, never to return to them …