ZSU in the absence of air defense troops, one of the saddest moments in the history of the Red Army. After the end of World War II in the Soviet Union was engaged in serious error correction. The most famous in the world has become a ZSU Russian ZSU-23-4 «Shilka», but not many people know that she was stronger, the brother of ZSU-37-2 «Yenisei».
In place of Hopes ZSU-57-2, armed with 57-mm cannon with Hrabinska loading the oboymennym, April 17, 1957 the Council of Ministers Decree № 426-211 perceives the development of new rapid-self-propelled anti-aircraft «Shilka» and «Yenisei» with radar guidance systems. It was our response to the adoption service in the U.S. M42A1 gun mount.
Formally, the «Shilka» and «Yenisei» were not rivals because «Shilka» designed to provide
Air defense regiments of infantry to engage targets at altitudes up to 1500 m, and the «Yenisei» — for defense armored regiments and divisions, and operated at altitudes up to 3000 m
For the ZSU-37-2, the OKB-43 was developed by a 37-mm twin anti-aircraft gun «Angara». It used two machine 500P, developed in OKB-16. «Angara» was a tape system supply system of liquid cooling machines and electro-hydraulic servo actuators.
But in the upcoming planned to change their purely electronic actuators. The drive systems are developed guidance: CRI 173 GKOT Moscow (now the Central Research Institute of AH) — through the power servo drive of the guidance, and Kovrov subsidiary CRI-173 (now the Institute of «Signal») — to stabilize the band of sight and the band shot.
Guidance, «Angara» performed by pomehozashchishchennyh radar-instrument complex «Baikal», made by NII-20 SERC (settlement Kuncevo). PKK «Baikal» was working in the centimeter wave spectrum (about 3 cm).
I’ll tell you — on the tests revealed that neither «Tobol» to «Shilka» or «Baikal» to «Yenisei» can not quite fine without the help of other search aerial target. Because even in the Council of Ministers Decree № 426-211 on April 17, 1957 envisaged the creation and submission to the municipal tests in the II quarter of 1960 mobile radar complex «Ob» to control the ZSU.
Complex «Ob» included a command vehicle «Neva» with the radar target detection «Irtysh» and the PKK «Baikal», located in the ZSU «Yenisei». Complex «Ob» had to control the fire 6 — eight ZSU. Resolution of the Council of Ministers dated 4 July 1959 work on «Obi» were prekrasheny time to accelerate operational development of anti-aircraft missile system «Circle».
Chassis for «Yenisei» was designed in KB «Uralmasha» under the GS Efimova on the chassis most experienced self-propelled SU-100P. Making it planned to deploy at the Lipetsk Tractor Plant.
ZSU «Shilka» and «Yenisei» parallel tests are passed, though for different programs when testing.
«Yenisei» had the kill zone range and the ceiling close to the ZSU-57-2, and in accordance with the committee on the state tests «provide cover for armored forces in all forms of combat, in other words, means of air attack on the tank forces increasingly operate at altitudes up to 3000 m. «
Standard mode shooting (Tank) — continuous line of up to 150 rounds per gun, then a break of 30 seconds (air cooling) and repeating the cycle until exhaustion of ammunition.
During testing it was found that one SoL «Yenissei» exceeds the battery’s own performance shestiorudiynuyu 57mm guns from the battery 60 and SoL 4-57-2.
In tests ZSU «Yenisei» can fire on the move over the snow with a speed of 20-25 km / h. When driving on the highway tank (at the site) at a speed of 8-10 km / hour accuracy was 25% lower than with the place. Marksmanship guns «Angara» is 2-2.5 times higher than the gun S-60.
During testing of municipal gun «Angara» made 6266 shots. Marked by two delays and four failure, accounting for 0.08% and 0.06% of delays breakdowns of the number of shots taken, which is less acceptable on the tactical and technical requirements. During the tests, faltering CDS (protection equipment from clutter). Chassis showed excellent maneuvering characteristics.
PKK «Baikal» on the tests worked udovletvoritelnoi showed the following results:
— The limit of the work on the target speed — up to 660 m / s at altitudes greater than 300 m and 415 m / s at an altitude of 100-300 m;
— The average detection range of the MiG-17 in the sector without targeting 30 — 18 km. The largest range of support MiG-17 — 20 km;
— Maximum speed target tracking vertical
— 40 deg / s, the horizontal — 60 degrees / sec. The transfer to the embattled regime of preparatory
Preparedness — 10-15.
According to test results ZSU «Yenisei» was proposed to use it to protect the army anti-aircraft missiles «Circle» and «Cube», as the effective area of fire «Yenisei» overlaps the dead zone of the SAM.
After the end of the municipal trial «Shilka» and «Yenisei» state commission could see the comparative properties of both ZSU and gave the conclusion of understanding.
Here are some excerpts from the conclusions of the commission:
— «Shilka» and «Yenisei» equipped radar system and provide days of shooting and NIGHT MODE at least some weather.
— Weight «Yenisei» 28 tons, which is unacceptable for weapons and airborne infantry units.
— When shooting on the MiG-17 and IL-28 at 200 and 500 m «Shilka» effective «Yenisei» in 2 and 1.5 times, respectively.
«Yenisei» is designed for air defense regiments of tank and armored divisions on subsequent judgments:
— Tank units and connections are in the main apart from the main group of troops. «Yenisei» provides tracking tanks at all steps of the battle, on the march and in the field, provides an efficient fire at an altitude of 3000 m and at ranges up to 4500 m This setting virtually eliminates sharp bombing at the tanks, which «Shilka» fails to provide.
— There are quite a massive high-explosive and armor-piercing projectiles, «Yenisei» can lead a more effective fire of self-defense against ground targets on a journey to battle formations of armored forces.
Unification new ZSU with products consisting in mass production:
According to the «Shilka» — 23-mm gun and shoots him are in mas s production. Tracked base Su-85 is on the MMP.
According to the «Yenisei» — PKK is unified on the modules with the «Circle», based on the track — with the SU-1 PLO, the production of which 2-3 are preparing the plant.
As in the above extracts from the test reports and conclusions of the commission, as well as in other documents, there is no precise justification priority «Shilka» in comparison with «Yenisei». Even the price was comparable to them:
«Shilka» — 300 thousand rubles. and «Yenisei» — 400 thousand rubles.
The Commission recommended to adopt both ZSU. But the decision of the Council of Ministers on September 5, 1962 № 925-401 adopted adopted a «Shilka» and on September 20 of that year followed the order GKOT the cessation of work on the «Yenisei». According to some reports, to abandon the works of «Yenisei» NS Khrushchev’s son Sergei assured him. An indirect confirmation of the sensitivity of the situation was that a day or two at close of work on the «Yenisei» appeared on a similar order GKOT awarding organizations working on the «Yenisei» and «Shilka».
The performance data
Caliber, mm 37
The number of machines 2
Index artchasti Angara
Machine Type 500P
Shell weight, 0,733 kg
The initial velocity, m / s 1010
Ammunition, shot. 540
Total weight of machine, kg 2900
High-altitude interval of effective fire, m 100 — 3000
Slant range anti-aircraft firing at targets, m 4500
The highest rate of air targets, m / s 660
Range of fire on ground targets, 5000 m
Rate of fire, rds. / Min 1048
Length of the longest line of the 1st machine, rds. 150
Type the PKK «Baikal»
Target detection range of MiG-17, m 18000
Range of automatic tracking of MiG-17, m 20000
Limits of KRG target velocity, m / s 660/414
Angle HV guns, grad. -1 — 85
GN cannon angle, deg. 360
Type of chassis to 123
ZSU fighting weight, t 27.5
— length 6460 mm
— width, 3100 mm
Motor power chassis, HP 400
The highest speed, km / h 60
Control and guidance — radar sighting system 1A11 «Baikal» 1RL34 with radar and television-optical sight designed by NII-20 SERC. Standardized modules for equipment with equipment SAM «Circle». According to the results of acceptance tests of the experimental standard (completed August 10, 1961) noted that it is not debugged hardware protection against passive interference. When working at low-flying targets RLPK higher accuracy than radar SON-9A.
Target detection range of MiG-17 average in the sector 30 ° — 18 km
Range of target tracking MiG-17 overall — 20 km
The rate of target tracking vertically — up to 40 deg / s
Target speed overall:
— 660 m / s at an altitude of more than 300 m
— 415 m / s at an altitude of 100-300 m
The transfer to the embattled regime of preparatory readiness — 10-15 seconds
Time of continuous work without configuration characteristics — 8:00
While making the refusal radar — 25 hours (up to state testing)
While making the refusal RLPK — 15 hours (up to state tests, requirements TTT — 30 hours)
Shooting at moving targets in nazmnym likely using television-optical viewfinder, on the spot — with the introduction of the sight-doubler and hydro.
IFF equipment «Silicon-2M».
Resolution of the USSR Council of Ministers № 426-211 on April 17, 1957 provided for a mobile radar system to detect targets and target «Ob» with the transfer of the complex to the tests in April-June 1960 Complex «Ob» included in the part of the commander’s own car «Neva» with radar targeting «Irtysh» with the attached PKK «Baikal» ZSU. Complex «Ob» had to control the fire ZSU 6-8 «Yenisei». Develop a set of «Ob» discontinued USSR CM Resolution of 4 July 1959
The range of wavelengths — centimeter (about 3 cm)
Chassis — tracked 6 stoney «Object 119» Bureau of Plant Development «Uralmash» Chief Designer — G.S.Efimov. The chassis was created based on the chassis of SU-100PM (105M product). Mass was supposed to lead the creation of the chassis at the Lipetsk Tractor Plant. Suspension — personal torsional with telescopic hydraulic shock absorbers on the front and rear sites.
Road wheels — 12 x 630 mm diameter
Support rollers — 6 x 250 mm diameter
Engine — diesel V-54-105 400 hp
Book — Bulletproof (provides protection from placement of ammunition 7.62 mm bullet B-32 from a distance of 400 m).
Installation length — 6460 mm
Plant width — 3100 mm
Track — 2660 mm
Wheelbase — 4325 mm
Weight of the unit:
— 25500 kilogram (TTM)
— 27500 kg
Speed on the highway — 60 km / h
Travel speed when firing at air targets — 20-25 km / h
— on a dry dirt road — 33.3 km / h (during state testing, fuel consumption 158 l per 100 km)
— the muddy dirt road — 27.5 km / h (during state testing, fuel consumption 237 l per 100 km)
— on a dry tank track — 15.1 km / h (during state testing, fuel consumption 230 l per 100 km)
Progress in store (for fuel):
— 310 km (on a dry dirt road)
— 210 km (along the muddy dirt road or on the track dry tank)
Lifting — up to 28 degrees
Descent — up to 28 degrees
Funnel — diameter of 6.4 m, the depth of 1.4-1.5 m
Artillery unit — twin gun mount 2A12 «Angara» designed by OKB-43 with guns 2A11 / 500P belt-fed designed by OKB-16 (Chief Designer — A.E.Nudelman). Batch creation of machines 500P — Izhevsk plant.
The cooling system of trunks — liquid
Actuators — 2E4, electrohydraulic (planned later changed to electronic) development of CRI-173 GKOT, the developer of the stabilization system — Highland branch CRI-173 GKOT (now — Institute «Signal»).
The angles of vertical guidance — from -1 +85 deg
Deflection — 360 degrees
Traversing speed gun — 0.6 deg / rev (hand-operated, for TTT — 1-1.5 degrees / rev)
Weight machines — 2900 kg
Initial velocity — 1010 m / s
Blank range — 1200 m
A destructive oblique aerial targets — 4500 m
Range of fire on ground targets — 5000 m
Height destruction — 100-3000 m
Maximum target speed — 660 m / s
Rate of fire — 1048 rounds / min
Continuous line — 150 rds / barrel (firing mode «normal» with a break line after 30 seconds with the cooling of the air)
Delay (based on the tests) — 0.08%
Breakdown (based on tests) — 0.06%
The possibility of defeats the purpose of the MiG-17 at a speed of 250 m / s at different heights (obtained by calculation errors that are accepted by the developer for the series of manufacturer):
Flight altitude targets Ability damage (%%)
200 m 15
500 m 25
1,500 m 42
3000 m 30
3000 m 60-75 battery in 3-4 ZSU
Penetration at normal at different distances:
Range Penetration (mm)
According to the results of tests ensured the defeat armored ground targets with a reservation of 50 mm at a distance of 100 m and a book of 40 mm at a distance of 500 m at an angle of projectile hitting the armor of 60-90 degrees. Recommended to maintain effective fire bursts of 3-5 rounds. at a distance of less than 600-700 m
During the tests, that ZSU-37-2 at shooting burst of 140 shells at targets such as IL-28, a gun mount in the near field and 4 ZSU in the far zone on the target at an altitude of 2000-3000 m on the combat effectiveness of the equivalent battery 6 to 57 mm guns, C-60 PUAZO-6-60 and CPA-9 at a rate of 264 rounds, and exceeds the battery in 4 ZSU-57-2. ZSU «Shilka» effective «Yenisei» when firing on targets such as the MiG-17 at altitudes of 200 and 500 m, respectively, in 2 and 1.5.
Accuracy when driving a tank firing range at 8-10 km / h is 25% lower than when firing from the spot. Accuracy is 2-2.5 times higher than the gun S-68.
Price ZSU-37-2 — 400.000 rubles (in 1961 prices)
Ammunition: 540 rds. (600 rds. On TTT). 500P machines were a unique 37-mm machine guns and ammunition are not compatible with others on the 37-mm guns (not including commercially available off-memory «Squall» — 37-mm anti-aircraft gun quadruple «Squall», 4 500P machine. «Squall» was developed by OKB-43, and after his elimination — CDB-34. Gun «Squall» is adopted for series production CM Resolution № 116-49 of 09.02.1959, the Automatic 500P manufactured Izhevsk plant, and the gun — the plant number 525. Creating a gun «Squall» was terminated by Decision CM N ^ 156-57 of 02.11.1960, the).
— high-explosive tracer
Weight — 733 grams
Equipment: power is supplied by a gas turbine electric generator design NAMI, provided spirited willingness to work at low temperatures, there is no anti-nuclear defense of the crew. Radio Station — P-113. Night vision devices commander and driver — TKN-1 and TVN-2.
ZSU-37-2 / to 119 — factory standard (1959)
ZSU-37-2 modified — revised design of the facility began in 1962, changed the chassis with the addition of the 7th rink applied Melkozvenchataya brand new track with RLL and step truck 110 mm, manufactured housing configurations. A set of documents deposited.
The distance between the centers of the top rollers — 6195 mm
Wheelbase — 4705 mm
ZSU to 130 — technical project development bureau ZSU-3 plant «Uralmash» Chief Designer — P.P.Vasilev. The project was completed in 1960 powerpack compartment ZSU unified with tanks T-54 and T-55. Placing the motor cross. Experienced model was not built.
A. Bobkov, «Yenisei» — forgotten by history. / / M-Hobby. Number 10/2009 Note
Self-propelled anti-aircraft gun ZSU-37-2 «Yenisei». Website, «Journal of Defense», http://pvo.guns.ru, 2010
The history of modern anti-aircraft defense of. Website http://www.sinopa.ee, 2010
Shirokorad AB, «Shilka» and other Russian self-propelled anti-aircraft gun. / / Bronekollektsiya, № 2/1998 yr