The family of WS
In the second half of the 80 company Sichuan Aerospace Industry (SCAIC) began developing rockets for multiple rocket launchers under the title Weishi («Defender»). Rockets from past they had a huge different caliber, longer range and enormous power. Tests of the first finished MLRS family entitled WS-1 began in 1990.
The basis of the complex WS-1 was titled missile caliber 302 mm. With a length of about 4.7 meters missile weighing 520-530 pounds, depending on the application head. Like all rocket salvo systems, WS-1 is equipped with a solid-propellant engine. The engine model FG-42 provides the highest speed of the order of 1300 meters per second. During the flight, the rocket ballistic line of traffic was rising to a height of 30 km. Firing range lying in the range from 40 to 100 km. WS-1 rocket delivered to the target fragmentation or submunitions weighing 150 kg. Stabilization was performed in flight by four planes at the tail end of the rocket. These stabilizers have been placed at an angle to the axis of the projectile, resulting in unwinding during flight.
Battle machine WS-1 MRL can be fixed on the basis of at least some of a suitable three-axle truck. The frame of a vehicle immediately after the nominal unit, installed additional storage for equipment, and over the rear axle — launcher. The latter is a block of 4 tubular guide (2×2) mounted on a swing-lifting device. Traversing it may be in the range of 30 ° from the axis of the machine in both directions. The highest elevation angle — 60 degrees. Turn and climb guides carried the hydraulics, but when necessary can be used with manual transmission mechanisms. Similarly, the situation was and with outriggers, keep the car at the time of the shooting. In the event of failure of the hydraulic system of the translation machinery traveling to combat significantly increased. Without any technical problems temper calculation of 3 people had to create this function for 18-20 minutes. Relatively great time of transfer to the firing or stowed position conditional on the complexity of all the action, long-range, which offered an opportunity not to hurry with the preparation.
Yet, for a huge range had to be paid by certain features of operation and shooting. In 1-x, fighting machine WS-1 had only four rockets that the stabilization of the rotation did not give the highest performance hit one shot. In-2, required a separate transport and loading vehicle by which to prepare the 1st to fire the projectile took more than 5 minutes. In the end, the need for a massive strike by several panels practically offset the large mass of each missile warhead. Even with the possibility of radial deviation of about 1 percent from the firing range dispersal of shells has a very huge for the effective destruction of targets. For these reasons, it was decided to limit the trial operation of several batteries. WS-1 MLRS officially adopted was not accepted.
Already in 1993, there was new version of MLRS family Weishi — WS-1B. The eponymous rocket got a new engine more power, by which increased the maximum flight speed (of the order of 1500 m / s) and, as a consequence, the maximum range. Go with this rocket potyazhelela to 705-730 pounds. MLRS WS-1B could hit targets at ranges of 80-180 km. In addition, a more powerful engine has permitted to make the head of the newest. Apart from the standard high-explosive fragmentation and cassette came with inflated number of ready-damaging parts. According to unconfirmed reports, developed FAE part. After upgrading a little aggravated accuracy specifications. CHED is now lying in the range from 1 to 1.25 percent from the firing range. With all this mass of the head part has remained the same.
Fully saying that MRL WS-1B differed from the unique WS-1 only longer range. No other innovation was not necessary, and of the accuracy worsened. For this reason, the PLA did not take arms WS-1B. But these machines are intrigued zabugornyh buyers. In the late 90s, Turkey has caught a few MLRS battery WS-1, have received local designation Kasigra. Not later than Ankara and Beijing have agreed on the deployment of licensed production systems WS-1B, renamed Jaguar. Other countries have displayed a personal enthusiasm, but to supply it never came.
The last member of the family now Weishi is MLRS WS-2. Once again, the increased size of the rocket, namely caliber up to 400mm. Flight range of new rockets had increased to 200 km. In addition, the subsequent development of WS-2C and WS-2D, the available data suggest equipping missiles with GPS-navigation, which allows you to bombard targets at distances of 350 and 400 km. Also strolling rumors about the development of MLRS WS-3 with another bolshennymi rates range shooting.
The family of WM
Soon after the commencement of MLRS «Type-83» were launched work on the forthcoming improvement of this system. The military wanted to combat the growth of the existing features of the complex. After analysis capabilities, it was decided to return to the wheelbase. Tracked Undercarriage had the best characteristics of terrain, but in the case of multiple launch rocket systems were even excessive. For this reason, modern base for the MLRS, received the title of the WM-80, has a special eight-truck Shandong Taian TAS5380SQ.
The selected chassis was equipped with a large shower first, in what can be positioned even more than 5 people calculating setting. At the rear of the chassis positioned favorite launcher. Its swivel base spun 20 degrees to the side of the machine. The angles of elevation regulated between 20 and 60 degrees. As in the case of «type of the 83» small pointing angles in the horizontal plane is not allowed to lead to fire small elevation angle — towards the missile is machine cabin. The corresponding feature of the launcher WM-80 was the use of transport-launch containers. Prior to the position of transport and loading vehicle (the same chassis TAS5380SQ) with its own crane is installed on the trigger war machine two containers with four missiles each. Such a method of recharging was elected because of the relative simplicity and ease of use. The whole process of reloading combat vehicle took less than five to seven minutes.
For the introduction to the WM-80 were modified unguided rockets complex «Type 83». 273-mm ammunition weight by a few pounds 10 s. Warhead weight remained the same. For all this, thanks to the use of another type of solid fuel, the highest range has doubled. The spectrum ranges firing system WM-80 — 34-80 km. Rockets for this MRL were the first time that Chinese designers have tried to give this kind of opportunity to clear guns firing. In addition to conventional rockets was developed correctable. Trim System line of motion of flight, according to most sources, working with satellite navigation systems, but there are references to the inertial system, issuing commands gas rudders on the original portion of the flight. Data on the accuracy of the corrected munitions were not published. For the new 273 mm caliber shells have been three military parts: high-explosive, cassette and FAE.
Tests latest MLRS began in th e late 90’s. According to reports, multiple rocket launchers WM-80 were not accepted by PLA. Still, it took a certain number of complexes in the Third World. It is interesting that several military vehicles were then resold to the United States, where they are painstakingly researched.
Later, in the two-thousand years, a complex of WM-80 was subjected to severe revision. Modernization was designated WM-120. Change, at first, were rocket and guidance systems. After all configurations with a brand new missile system was able to adjust the trajectory to fly a distance of 120 km. Automatic control system guided not only renewed, and changed the composition of its own. In the staffing of the MLRS battery WM-120 became a separate meteorological reconnaissance vehicle, equipped with special radar. In addition, all the necessary calculations for the shooting is now run one hundred percent machine.
By the time the true there is no clear data on the production and delivery of MLRS WM-120. There are scraps of information about the negotiations with Chile, Jordan and other countries in the Third World, but the disk imaging confirmed so far not. Maybe WM-120 project is not yet ready for mass production: despite repeated demonstrations, brand new Chinese MLRS so far not entered service.
Failing to achieve the desired result with the first family of MLRS Weishi, and the Chinese military engineers started another project. Who decided to do the same, as well as the development of «Type 81», with the difference that the standard for backup was requested not to discourage in combat, and purchased from third States. In 1997, an unnamed country had purchased several complexes 9K58 «Smerch» of Russian production. They have all been transferred to the research company CALT for research and development on their basis of their multiple rocket launchers. On the development of the layout first told in 2000.
Fighting machine of the new complex A-100 significantly outside resembles a unique «Twister.» Thus, it has become a base for machine WS-2400 8×8, and the construction launcher is unusual nekordinalno recycled aggregate. In contrast to the Russian / Russian, Chinese MRL has little smallest volume salvo: launcher is equipped only with 10 tubular rails with U-shaped slot for the initial promotion of the missile. Gauge rails and missiles remained the same as the «Whirlwind» — 300 mm. Hold war machine in place during firing is carried out by 4 hydraulic outriggers. The same hydraulic system is used for aiming and power rails. All operations to make calculations MLRS of the cab. As required function of hydraulic cylinders can be made mechanics with manual transmission. After coming to the position of combat vehicles of the complex A-100 dissipate about 6 minutes on a shift in the firing position. After striking (volley lasts approximately a minute) for 3 minutes, the machine can take on techno position where freight-loading machines create their recharge.
Used for firing rockets with the exchange rate adjustment. 840-pound munitions fitted with a warhead weighing about 235 kg. Comparable solid-powerful engine delivers loads at a distance of 40 to 100 km. The missiles can be equipped with high-explosive, incendiary and cluster warheads. Of particular interest is the system adjust the trajectory of the flight. The Chinese have made it a base nepoprostu specifically «Twister.» The fact that his highest firing range is assured by a system designed to keep the missile on the estimated line of motion. This system can not be called homing, but it provides quite a higher accuracy. Naturally, the right direction based on the target azimuth and elevation launcher. Own equipment missiles of A-100 for the first 3 seconds of the flight automatically determines the actual direction of motion, analyzes it and is associated with the calculated trajectory. If necessary, command the gas controls, allowing you to bring ammunition to the right direction. After this adjustment, the control system does not interfere with the progress of the flight, except when the missile armed with cluster warhead. In the application of such warheads control system at the estimated time commands the disclosure and release of tapes submunitions. Deviation from the stated goal of less than 0.5% of the target range.
Guidance is responsible for the accuracy of a separate set of fire control. Each battery imparted by a car with such equipment. In the machine control tasks comes determine the coordinates of combat vehicles battery, disk imaging guidance development and transfer of its missile control systems. The final step is the preparation of a volley of «mediated by» on-board equipment themselves fighting vehicles. All pre-start procedures associated with the creation of programs from the flight of missiles, occupy less than one and a half minutes of arriving at the position.
In 2002, the A-100 system was adopted by the Chinese army. The total number of complexes made small — less weave. Small volumes of proved, first, a great complexity and cost of production as combat aircraft and missiles. In addition, A-100, having a long-range shooting, is in a certain kind of special tool created to perform special tasks.
In 2009, the exhibition IDEX company NORINCO presented its latest development made, of course, in the middle of the two thousandth. MLRS AR1A is forthcoming development of the project A-100. Noteworthy that the Chinese now do not have to use other people’s experiences under the purchase method and the study of finished vehicles. Employees NORINCO quite legally and officially cooperated Russian SSPE «Alloy» — the head developer of the Russian multiple rocket launchers.
Now MLRS AR1A is put together the best possible development of the Chinese engineers. Fighting machine uses launcher, similar systems of family unit WM: its pdemnuyu boom set two separate containers at 5 missiles each. Noteworthy that in order to facilitate the construction of containers are designed as a frame chassis with tubular rails mounted inside. To increase the accuracy of the launcher has a rotary device, allo wing to direct the guide to the accuracy of the order of one-thousandth (about 0,06 °). In addition to the launcher at military machine is placed cabin for 4 people all calculations and equipment. This allows us to collect and process the vast majority of the required disk imaging. With the right selection of equipment, combat vehicle AR1A complex has the ability to self-fighting work.
It should be noted that the self-attack still is a means of «just in case». The main method of attacking is the work of a battery or battalion. Except machinery with a launcher in the composition of the compound includes command post and freight loading vehicle, a separate car with a radar designed to collect data on the meteorological situation.
Rockets 300 mm caliber were manufactured in accordance with the new gaze of the Chinese military in the form of these munitions. Various missile warheads involve not only different effects on the target, and the differing properties. Who looks range missiles followed by:
— BRE2. Proofread the projectile with a range of 60 to 130 km. High-explosive head portion weighs 180 pounds and hit targets within a 100 meters;
— BRE3. Adjustable lower range missile. Shooting is likely at a distance of 20 to 70 km. 200-pound submunitions loaded with 623-name shaped-charge fragmentation submunitions. Bomblets scattered within a radius of 160 meters and penetrate up to 50 mm of homogeneous armor;
— BRE4. Rocket with cassette battle and part of the greater range: 60-130 km. Loaded with submunitions, such submunitions BRE3, but at the least — 480 pieces.
To this day, made only a few complexes AR1A, which pass the tests. This system of multiple rocket launchers are not interested in the military once the various states, but the export is not yet offered. As for supplies for the Chinese army, they should be expected in the coming years.
According to the materials of websites: