Denisova Cave— Natural and archaeological sites. Located in Soloneshensky's Altai region.
The cave is located at the right side of the valley of the river Anuj 6 km downstream from the village of Black Anouilh, 1.8 km below its left tributary — p. Karakol and 40 km from the district center Soloneshnoe Altai Territory. Altitude 670 m above the present river level — 28 m entrance to the cave is exposed on the south-western and western parts of the foot of the mountain pine (Grandpa), composed Anuyskogo Ridge. The cave is horizontal type, with a wide entrance, located close to the water — for thousands of years served as a safe haven for people and animals. The cave is easily accessible person without special speleological or mountaineering skills, contributing to the popularity of the object with the tourists.
Caves area 270 square meters, the length of 110 meters. Of greatest interest to archaeologists is predvhodovoy grotto. Its entrance is oval, the average size of 32 * 7 meters, it has a southwestern exposure. The width and height as the distance from predvhodovoy of increase and in the widest part is approximately 10-11 m Mainsail has several branches, two of which are a direct continuation of the cave. At the top of the cave is through-hole with a little more than 1 meter. Thanks to him, the central, most extensive and convenient part of the cave is lit, this opening also provides excellent winter traction smoke. Grotto throughout the year is dry, but the air temperature is close to the outer. He was always a good natural shelter for humans and animals, protection from wind and rain.
There are two versions about the name of the cave. The first is that at the end of XVIII century, lived in a cave holy man-Believer Dionysius, who led a solitary life. According to another, not far from the caves were grounds shepherd Denis, shelter here during the bad weather.
In the indigenous population (Altai) cave called Au-Tash (Bear rock).
Information about the Denisova Cave already found in the publications of the XIX century: the cave as no interest object wrote missionary V. Verbitsky. In 1926, during a trip to Altai cave visited outstanding Russian artist and archaeologist Nicholas Roerich. For archeology cave was discovered in 1977 by Nicholas Ovodova who laid the first two exploratory pits and made measurements of the cave. In 1978, a tour of the cave archeology team led by Academician Okladnikov. In 1982 he decided to start a comprehensive study of the monument IIFiF forces of the USSR. From that time to the present time in the cave are conducted archaeological excavations. Near the cave is built stationary archaeological site of the Archaeological Institute of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
During the excavation of the cave to more than 20 cultural layers of different ages. Collected more than 80,000 items, which are kept in museums of Novosibirsk, Biisk, school museums Black Anouilh and Soloneshnogo. It implements, weapons, ornaments, remains of animals and plants. At present in the sediments of the central hall contained the remains of at least 117 species of Pleistocene animals (Korsakov, steppe polecat, small cave bear, cave hyena, woolly rhinoceros, Pleistocene donkey, yak, prehistoric bison, dzeren, antelope, argali, wild horse, the red wolf , deer) and tundrotaezhnyh species (fox, ermine).
Thanks to the excavations revealed that thousands of years ago were the foothills of the Altai area of deciduous forests: here oaks, hornbeam, Manchurian walnut, and even the northern species of bamboo.
In this cave is about 280 000 years ago, started living Neanderthals
Denisova Cave excavations have allowed for the first time to set a strict chronological sequence of development and change in the ancient cultures of the Early Neolithic to the ethnographic present.
Representatives of Afanasiev culture (IV-III centuries BC) used the cave as a shelter for shepherds and cattle. For cattle in the cave walls off unnecessary niches and caves. Shepherds ate mainly meat of wild animals, the meat of the sheep herd ate, when the hunt was unsuccessful. This is evidenced found arrowheads and spear. The ceramic vessels, fragments of which are found in great numbers, kept liquid and cook. Stone tools needed for butchery and processing of hides, produced immediately — kept the waste. Preserved, and other things that are lost Athanasian shepherds: a bronze knife, Celt, bone buckles, pendants, vessels that were used as fat lamps.
The cave was used as the Huns and Turks, including — for the ritual ceremonies.
* Despite the fact that people were living in a cave for hundreds of thousands of years, during the excavation of up to 2008 in all the cultural layers of the tooth found only 2 adults.
* An interesting finding is the suspension of the shells of ostrich eggs. Maybe someone brought them here for the beloved of the ancient "guided tour" in warmer climes.
* In the cave were found tools made of very solid mineral — rock crystal, and even from meteoric iron.
In 2008, the cave was found fossilized phalanx, presumably the child. Of found phalanx managed to extract DNA sequences which revealed that the remains belong to mean people, are of special branch in the evolution of Homo and distinct from Neanderthals and modern humans. Articles devoted to the discovery, published in the journal Nature March 24, 2010
Tavdinsky cave (or Taldinskaya caves) — an array of a large number of caves (about 30) on the border of karst origin Maiminsky district of the Altai Republic and Altai Krai.
Cave received its name from the name of the village Tavda (second
name — Talda), previously located close to these places.
The length of the cliffs and caves of about 5 km. The cave entrance
found in the cliffs and rocks, most of which are easily
available. Due to the popularity and the large attendance of this place
tourists, some entries even have wooden steps, in
the most visited tourist cave held the light. Many caves have at
multiple inputs and connected to each other, forming a large
interconnected system. Entrance to the cave is equipped with easily accessible
turnstiles and is paid.
Most Tavdinsky cave
The cave is called "Big Tavdinsky" (Another name for this
Cave — "Maiden's Tears", "Tavdinsky-1") — is the most visited
Tavdinsky tourist cave in the array. The lower entrance to it is in
70-80 m from the road and are visible in the gaps between the trees. Home gallery
quite spacious and gradually rises. Difference from the lowest
Higher input is 23 meters. In the last 40-meter stretch,
before the higher entrance gallery, towering, twisted spiral
cutting off its bottom and forming a ledge.
During excavations in the cave were found objects
pottery, fishing accessories. Also found
objects belonging to the Bronze Age.
Tavdinsky karst arch
Tavdinsky unique karst
Arch. It is a rare form — the remainder set of karst tunnel
or caves, which had initially form a wide span — the bridge, and
later — the arch. Tavdinsky arch is at a height of about 80 meters above the
the water level of the river Katun.
The width of the through-hole arch ranges from 3 to 13 meters in height —
from 3 to 5 meters. Arch arches, a thickness of 5 m, covered a rare herb
vegetation and pine trees. Since 1996, the arch has Tavdinsky karst nature monuments.