Mariana Trench in the western Pacific is the deepest trench of any known on Earth — about 11,000 kilometers below sea level. It stretches for a thousand miles along the Mariana Islands. Perhaps there inhabited by representatives of extinct species in the world. No wonder this place is also called the womb of Gaia.
The basin was opened in 1875 by the crew of the British three-masted corvette «Challenger». Then with a deep lot was first measured its depth — 8367 m. In 1951, in the Mariana Trench area departed British research vessel, also called the «Challenger». At this time, maximum depth sounder recorded 10,863 meters.
And in 1957, the crew of the Soviet research vessel «Vityaz» headed by Alexei Dobrovolsky said number — 11 023 meters. Subsequently, the data is often specified. The last value — 10 994 ± 40 meters.
One of the most interesting research Mariana Trench was held in 2010 oceanographic expedition of the University of New Hampshire (USA). As a result of a detailed study of the bottom with multibeam sonar was determined its area — 400,000 square kilometers. And on the bottom of the trough were found in at least four oceanic ridges height of about 2.5 kilometers, crossing the surface of the cavity where the Pacific and Philippine contact lithospheric plates.
Another Soviet «Vityaz» it was found that at the bottom of the Mariana Trench marine life exists in the form of colonies barofilnyh bacteria able to survive only at very high pressure. Previously existed the idea that at a depth of 6000-7000 meters life can not exist.
The first dive to the bottom of human Mariana Trench on 23 January 1960. It took place on the bathyscaphe «Trieste» U.S. Navy Lieutenant Don Walsh and Swiss oceanographer Jacques Piccard. Researchers was amazed that in the vast depths were carried flat fish body length which is up to 30 centimeters, resembling flounder.
And in the sludge and soil samples, obtained with the maximum depth of the Japanese probe Kaikeyi March 24, 1995, were found 13 species previously unknown to science-celled.
In 2003, the basin surveyed scientific vessel «Glomar Challenger». When was lowered down the «hedgehog», the receptionist sounds suddenly started to transfer to the surface of strange noises resembling saws grinding on metal. But the monitor will dim shadows 12-16 meters in height, similar to the fairy dragons. Each of them had a few heads and tails. Do scientists stumbled on the local «residents»?
Lifting up the design, the researchers found that the strong steel beams on which it is held, twisted, and a 20-inch cable, also made of steel, sawn in half …
Something similar happened with German machine «Hayfish.» Going down with the crew to a depth of seven miles, he suddenly refused to emerge. To find out what the problem, the researchers turned the infrared camera. And we saw a creature that looked like a giant prehistoric lizard that his teeth in the bathyscaphe! I had to activate the so-called «electric gun». After receiving the discharge current, the monster has gone into the abyss.
May 31, 2009 at the bottom of the Mariana Trench dives automatic underwater vehicle «Nereus». He implemented the photos and video, and collected samples of bottom sediments. «Nereyu» managed to take pictures of the so-called fotoftornyh fish whose bodies emit a glow …
March 26, 2012 held a sensational dive to the bottom of the Mariana Trench famous American director James Cameron. He exercised his underwater journey to single bathyscaphe «Deepsea Challenger», equipped with the latest equipment. Cameron managed to take samples from the bottom of rocks and living organisms, as well as conduct filming 3D-cameras. Subsequently, these images were the basis of scientific and documentary, aired on «National Geographic».
As it turned out, at the bottom cavity inhabit the most diverse species of living organisms. In addition to bacteria, there are found invertebrates with chitinous carapace, rhizopods, crayfish, snails, and fish … However, recent amaze viewers terrifying appearance: they have huge teeth, eyes, rotating in opposite directions, and instead of fins — spikes … And here live two-meter worms lacking the mouth and anus …
Within the trough also found a 10-centimeter giant shark teeth — Megalodon. It is believed that these prehistoric monsters were 24 meters long, 2 meters wide mouth, and weight — 100 tons … Although they had become extinct even 2-2.5 million years ago, the age found the teeth of 11 to 24 thousand years. So, they continued to live in the womb of Gaia? How many mysteries she still harbors?
Category: Chupacabra and unknown creatures