There came a time when fingerprinting, retinal scan or voice features of spyware attributes passed to ensure the safety and comfort in different areas of modern life. It is a biometric technology.
ID cards to biometrics
Biometrics is a collection of methods and devices for human identification, which are based on its unique physiological or behavioral characteristics.
This type of identification can be used to prevent the forbidden access to buildings and to the computers, ATMs, mobile phones and so on.
Biometric features are:
- the geometry of the face;
- iris of the eye;
- Figure retina
- type on the keyboard;
- the pattern of veins in his arms, etc.
The advantages of biometrics
Biometric security is more effective than, for example, with the use of passwords, smart cards, PIN-codes, tokens or PKI technologies. This is due to the possibility of biometrics to identify not the device, but man.
Conventional methods of protection can be destroyed or stolen, which is vulnerable to illegal users. Exceptional biometric identifier, such as fingerprints, is the key, not subject to loss.
Classification of methods of biometrics
According to the type of information used biometric identification is divided into:
- Static methods, based on the unique properties, data from birth and inalienable from him. Physiological parameters (geometry of the palm or fingers papillary pattern) are the same for the man ‘
- Dynamic methods based on behavioral (ie dynamic) characteristics of the individual. These features are characteristic of unconscious movements when playing any action (of voice, signature, keystroke dynamics set). These behavioral characteristics are influenced by both managed and not managed mental factors. Because of the variability of their biometric samples should be updated when using them.
Further Ways to biometric identification, consistent with the types of processed information.
Methods of identification on biometrics
This method of identification is the most common. He uses a unique papillary patterns of fingers for each person. Receive a special scanner image fingerprints. It is transformed into a digital code and compared with the pattern entered.
Identifikatsiidlitsyane process more than a few seconds. Certain lack of constraints on the development of this method is to bias some people who do not want to leave the data on their fingerprints. Counterargument hardware developers is that the information on the papillary pattern is not stored but kept only a short identification code, built on a fingerprint and allows you to recreate the pattern for comparison. The advantage of the method is the ease of use, reliability and convenience.
Identification in the form of hands
This static method is based on measuring the shape of the hand. It is also a unique biometric person. A special device allows you to get a three-dimensional view of the brush. The result is a measure to create a unique digital code identifying the person.
The shape of the hand
This method is in its technology and accuracy comparable to the method of identification by fingerprint, although the device to implement the method takes place. Extremely low probability of having two identical hands, with the same geometry, at the hands of change with age.
Today identification by hand geometry is applied in the legislative bodies, hospitals, international airports, etc.
Authentication of the iris
The basis of this method is the exclusivity of the pattern on the iris. For its implementation need a camera to get the image of an eye with sufficient resolution and special software to extract images from the resulting image on the iris. On it and create a numeric code used to identify the person.
The advantage of scanners is that of a person does not need to focus on the goal, since the sample spots focused on the iris of the eye. Scanning is possible at a distance of less than 1 m This is useful for applications such as ATMs.
Identification on the retina
Retina scanned using low-intensity infrared light, which is sent to the blood vessels back of the eye through the pupil. Retinal scanners are common in systems of access to sensitive sites, as they almost never wrong permissions. The errors may be due to the deviation from the reference position of the head and look the wrong focus on the source of light.
Even twins differ capillary pattern of the retina. That is why this method can be successfully used to identify an individual.
The drawback of such systems include the psychological factor: not everyone can see in the dark hole in which the eye is something shining. In addition, these systems are sensitive to the incorrect orientation of the retina, so you need to closely monitor the situation in relation to eye opening.
Form person as an object for identification
This static method of identification is to create a two-or three-dimensional image of a human face. Camera and special software to enhance the outline of the face image of eyes, lips, eyebrows, nose, etc. Then calculate the distance between these elements and other parameters. According to this information creates an image, which for comparison is converted to digital form.
This method is among the most rapidly developing areas in the industry of biometrics. Its appeal is based on the fact that no special expensive equipment. Enough PC and video camera. In addition, there is no physical contact with the devices. No need to touch nothing, or stop, especially waiting for the system response.
A manuscript handwriting recognition
The basis for identifying the handwriting is the uniqueness and stability of this factor for each person. Are measured, converted to digital form and are subject to computer processing. That is not to compare the selected message as a product and the process.
Two common methods of data processing: the usual pattern matching and dynamic verification. The first is unreliable, because the signature is not always the same. This method results in a high rate of errors. Dynamic verification is more complex calculations. This method are recorded in real time the parameters of the signing process: the speed of movement of the hand in various areas, the pressure force and the duration of different stages of the signature. This eliminates the fraud as it is not exactly copy of the hand’s signature.
Handwriting recognition on the keyboard
This method, in general, similar to that described above, but it is replaced by the signature of a certain code word, and of the equipment needed only a regular keyboard. The main identifying feature is the dynamic keyboard dialing code word.
According to current research, a keyboard writing has a certain stability, so you can uniquely identify a person. The initial data is the time between pressing the buttons and hold them down. Note that the time between when the shows pace of work, and retention — work style that is smooth or press a sharp blow.
At first stage filter removes data on the «official» keys — functionality, cursor control, etc.
Then allocated by the following characteristics:
- the number of errors in the recruitment process;
- the time between pressing the button;
- speed dial.
- time to hold the keys;
- arrhythmia in the recruitment.
The voice recognition
Voice biometric identification method is easy to use. The reasons for its adoption are widespread telephone and embed microphones in computers. The disadvantages can be considered factors that influence the recognition: noise in microphones, ambient noise, errors in pronunciation, different emotional states in the identification, etc.
Important in the construction of authentication devices by voice — choice of parameters, it is best to describe individual voices. These parameters are called the signal characteristics of individuality. Such signs, in addition to data on the speaker’s voice should have other properties. For example, they must be easily measured, and little dependent on noise and interference. In addition, they must be stable over time and resist simulation.
Systems have been developed using the method of combined voice and facial expression analysis. It turns out that the speaker’s facial features just him and will be different from uttering the same words of another person.
Thermographic monitoring of the facial artery and vein
Identification of the human face are greatly simplified, by switching to infrared light waves. Thermography identifiable person identifies the unique location on the face of the arteries that supply the skin with blood. Highlighting the issue for these biometric devices do not exist because they see only the face temperature changes and the light they do not need. Recognition efficiency is independent of the heating or cooling the person, natural aging personality, plastic surgery, as they do not change the internal situation of the vessels.
Arteries and veins
Facial thermography method can distinguish twins, facial blood vessels are very different.
This identification method takes an infrared video camera long range.
Identification of the veins hands
On the market there are biometric devices, which are based on the analysis of the individual location of veins in his arms. Taken into consideration in drawing veins located on the back of the hand clenched fist hand. Monitoring the pattern of veins carries a television camera with infrared illumination. If you enter the image until it binarization distinguishing veins. Such equipment is the only British firm produces Vinchek.
Venous system hands
Prospects for biometrics
Dominant mode of identification is still fingerprint recognition. For this there are two main reasons:
- in many countries began the transition to biometric passports;
- development of new models of scanners fingerprints for use in small devices (cell phones, PDAs, laptops).
Significant expansion in the sector can be expected to identify the signatures due to the widespread introduction of digital electronic signature. Voice recognition could also gain momentum due to the implementation of major projects in the construction of intelligent buildings.
Key forecasts are reduced to that of biometric security devices in the near future will become an avalanche character. The fight against global terrorism will require the use of any practical achievements in this field. Due to intensive development of multimedia and digital technologies and their further depreciation will develop and implement a completely new system of identification.
Certain biometric technologies are now being developed and some of them are considered promising:
- thermogram of the person in the infrared;
- characteristics of DNA;
- Spectroscopy skin of the fingers;
- palm prints;
- your ear;
- parameters of human gait;
- individual human odors;
- salinity level of the skin.
These methods of biometric identification to date can be considered formed. Maybe soon they will move from research to commercial technologies.
Category: Scientists, experts, science