For firing could be used explosive shells weighing 9.14 kg, (with all this firing range was 15.3 thousand meters), armor-piercing tracer, and cumulative-piercing projectiles. Armor-piercing tracer from a distance of 1000 meters at an angle of 30 degrees to the normal can penetrate 165-mm armor and armor Subcaliber width of 193 mm. In this regard, installation "Nashorn" was very unsafe for all enemy tanks in case of fights at great distances. With all this in close combat SPG lost dignity — affected the missing book. Batch creation of self-propelled "Nashorn" began in February 1943 and lasted until the end of the war. Produced about 500 self-propelled guns. These self-propelled guns were part of the languid anti-tank units.
After the invasion of the Soviet countryside and the impact of German armored units with KB Russian tanks T-34 and even the most optimistic German leaders realized that the mat. part of the previously undefeated "Panzerwaffe" is largely inferior to the new Russian-made tanks. Sometimes rustic, but has the best bronezashitu and massive weapons, equipment diesel engine B-2, Russian armored vehicles in 1941, "reigned" in the fields of labor. When dispelled the last hopes for a blitzkrieg, German engineers had to get to work to bring to production experienced machine.
Development of new medium and languid German tanks delayed. In addition, it was required to start batch creation of completely unique design. It was evident that the tanks "Panther" and "Tiger" will not soon become truly mass in the army. Those imposed upon the subsequent. Solution — use vserasprostranennye extensively in the army tracked base tanks to be installed on their massive artillery systems capable of solving different tactical puzzles. So Makar, the troops got a whole family of different self-propelled guns, which were related to the "class of field systems on the movable carriage." This technique is characterized by placing a semi-open cockpit instruments. Armor protected the settlement self-propelled harvesting only fragments and bullets. By such scheme framed up and built an anti-gun mount, which received the designation then Sd.Kfz.164.
Unified self-propelled carriage (caterpillar base) newest self-propelled artillery system was developed in 1942 by "Deutsche Ayeenverke." The database is widely used standard components running parts of tanks PzKpfw III and IV, the troops have received wide distribution. This chassis, the name "Geschutzwagen III / IV", was developed as a multi-purpose base for a family of self-propelled units: anti-aircraft, anti-tank, artillery fire support, etc. A feature of this design was the seating at the front of the box body and motor around the drive wheel. The fighting compartment has been shifted to the stern and it was spacious. This allowed us to install the system in the wheelhouse huge caliber artillery, including a strong anti-tank gun. And the anti-tank gun for self-propelled guns had to design for the latest.
First the idea of creation of self-propelled "tracked vehicle" for Rak43 were made even 28.04. 1942 at a meeting of the management of arms. Since the development of absolutely unique design would take a lot of time during the discussion put forward the idea of the ability of the development of a crotch standard with the introduction of mass-produced units of the machines that run in the establishment could be first in 1943 signed a contract to design with "Alkett-Borzingvalde . " In turn, the company took advantage of the development of "Deutsche Ayzenverke" to create a unified self-propelled carriage of nodes running parts PzKpfw III and IV. Demonstration of an experienced reference has been scheduled for 20/10/1942.
2 October 1942 at a meeting with the role of arms Reich Speer and Hitler made out ready chassis design from "Alkett-Borzingvalde." This chassis in the German documents received are usually longish title "Zwischenloesung Selbstfahr-lafette". Inspired by the high-spirited pace the design process, the Fuhrer began to make plans about what to 05.12.1943 industry will be able to create every month 100 self-propelled guns.
The company "Alkett-Borzingvalde" at the request of management of arms was designed housing, having the same width as the tank PzKpfw III. The components and aggregates the latest self-propelled artillery, including the drive wheels, differentials and the box were taken from the PzKpfw III. The engine with the cooling system, radiator, exhaust system — the average PzKpfw IV modification F. Supporting and track rollers, idlers caterpillar tracks, were also taken from the "Quartet". Engine "Maybach" HL120TRM (12-cylinder, the volume of 11867 cm3, V-shaped, the destruction of the cylinder 60 degrees, four-stroke, carburetor, power at about 3 thousand. / Min 300 hp) installed in the central part of the case. "Flooring" on the engine very best to accommodate artillery system around the center of mass self-propelled guns.
But because of the new mission of the projected motivated self-propelled some units had to design anew. Design features described in the manual self-propelled artillery.
Duct ("Kuehllufifuehrung"): for engine cooling air is drawn through sampling window provided in the left side, and passing obliquely positioned on the left side of the motor radiator and the engine actually is output through the prepared hole in the starboard side. The air supply produce two fans are on the right side of the motor. The driver ACS adjusts their air duct openings.
The inertia starter ("Schwung-kraftanlasser") set to the left of the motor shaft contacted via mounted on the back wall of the firewall device ("Andrehklaue"). The inertia starter intended to start the motor ACS in emergency situations. The inertia starter was powered by the muscular force crew vehicle Placing Kick in the fighting compartment.
Fuel (diesel fuel and leaded octane number greater than 74) was a 2-tanks with
total capacity of 600 liters .. Tanks placed under the bottom of the crew compartment, and the filler open tanks inside out so makarom that refueling could be carried out even under fire. In addition, at the bottom of the hull was made special drain holes, through which the body of the self-propelled "findings" in the case of the tragedy of spilled fuel. Such devices are locked only in crossing the self-propelled artillery systems aqua-bottlenecking wading.
The cooling unit heater "Fuchs" ("Kuehlwas-serheizegerat Fauart Fuehs") was set on the left side of the hull ACS.
Unusually booking gun shield and cuttings. The thickness of armor plates at the rear and sides was 10 mm, which gave a self-propelled gun crew protection from small fragments and armor-piercing bullets. First sheet cuttings in feed and sides were made of 20-mm, and the frontal part of the 50-mm steel "SM-Stahl". But in order to save weight 30mm hardened armored plates used exclusively in the frontal part of the body self-propelled guns.
The bridge ACS with the top of the mast mounted 88-millimeter artillery system "Ranzerjaegerkanone" 43/1 barrel length of which was 71 gauge (88 cm Rak43 / 1 — L/71). Structurally, this artillery system was similar towed 88-mm anti-TB drugs Rak43/41. But the gun shield had a rounded shape that allows rotation of the system inside the cabin. Heat recovery unit was installed above the barrel and recuperator — below. Along the edges of guns were placed kontrbalansirovochnye cylinders. Sector guidance in the vertical plane — between -5 to +20 degrees. Pointing angle in the horizontal plane is 30 degrees (15 degrees per side).
As of 1944-1945. Data on self-propelled anti-tank guns were installed 88-millimeter guns from PTP Rak43 on the cross carriage manufacturing company "Veserhutte." But similar samples was relatively small — 100 pcs.
Regular ammunition 88 — millimeter antitank guns Cancer 43/1 and 43 Cancer:
— Pz.Gr.Patr39 / 1 — armor-piercing tracer;
— Pz.Gr.Patr.39/43 — armor-piercing tracer;
— Spr.Gr. Flak 41 — Frag grenade (an old standard);
— Spr.Gr.Patr.43 — fragmentation grenade;
— Gr.39 HL — cumulative projectile;
— Gr.39/43 HL — cumulative projectile.
So Makar, for a short term with the widespread use of serial panzer tank destroyer units made for the first time for the German tank building (together with "Ferdinand") kitted out a long-barrel (in 71 gauge) 88-millimeter gun system. This machine could from a distance of more than 2.5 thousand meters of hitting all languid and medium Anglo-American and Russian tanks, but because of the lightly armored and open cabin she was vulnerable in close combat, and of medium range Russian KB and "Thirty" left This design greatly little chance of survival. Such a self-propelled gun was some "ersatz", which is able to operate successfully only from ambush very distant positions. As it turned out, really effective tank destroyer bound to have massive arms, be well armored and have a little silhouette that makes it difficult to defeat a similar machine. This is a self-propelled gun last with 2 pros did not have.
Production plan for the fourth year money approved May 4, 1944 Company "Alkett" according to the document absolutely freed from the assembly ACS Sd.Kfz.164. So Makarov, head contractor data production company became self-propelled "Shtalindustri." Enterprises that company must have been in 1944 to hand over 100 cars in April — 30 May — 30 June and the last 40.
This programm June 14, 1944 has been adjusted to make in April 1944 — 14 ACS Sd.Kfz.l64, in May — 24 June — 5 July — 30 August — 30 and September — 29. There should have been done 130 cars.
It should be noted that along with the creation of the epic unfolding for renaming this SAU, Sd.Kfz.164 reincarnation of "Hornisse" ("Hornet") in the "Nashorn" ("Rhino").
For the first time the idea to rename Sd.Kfz.l64 Hitler visited Nov. 29, 1943 New title self-propelled February 1, 1944 is already mentioned in the documents OKW (head OKW), and February 27 — in the orders of the OKH (Army Commander).
But in official correspondence dated in the summer of 1944 is still in An old name — "Hornisse" ("Hornet"), and only since September 1944 new — very concretized — the designation "Nashorn" was introduced in the workflow.
The motivation of this renaming remains unclear. Perhaps the "Rhino" in the German language sounds more menacing than the "Hornet", perhaps the entire "sub-class" new types of self-propelled guns (tankoistrebitelnye self-propelled guns) and tanks pedantic Germans wanted to identify with mammals (although in this case there is an exception — the tanks, fighter jets Pz IV/70 names have not received). Maybe there is a third option: self-propelled artillery "Hornisse" were to be equipped with a gun Rak43 caliber 88 mm, but in practice this has not happened. But in any case, the "reincarnation" is over, and in September 1944 the Wehrmacht appeared "new-old" self-propelled guns — Sd.Kfz.164 "Nashorn" ("Rhino").
Serial production of self-propelled guns of this type was delayed (of 500 planned to release a self-propelled "Hornisse" and "Nashorn"). But as the Anglo-American air forces, following the principles of General Douay — theoretical air strikes continued to methodically destroy weapons factories in Germany according to the program there next release of armored vehicles from the factories of 30.01.1945 "Shtalindustri" were ordered in January 1945 to pass nine cars, and in February — the last two.
March 14, 1945 at a meeting with Inspector-General of Armored Forces discussing operational issues, among which the question of the complexities of the start of series production of the new 88-mm self-propelled guns "Waffentraeger" and 150-mm self-propelled guns fire support "Hummel" ("Bumblebee"), the same type with "Nashorn" by track basis.
At this meeting, documented discontinued "Nashorn". In addition, the German industry has tried to start a high-volume creation of his "successor" Sd.Kfz.164 — crawler transporter "Waffentraeger" Curb 88 — millimeter artillery system Rak43.
560 th heavy tank destroyer battalion, took part in the 40 of the second army corps in Operation "Hold" and has not lost irretrievably any ACS. Battery Division supported the 282nd, 161st and 39th Infantry Divisions Wehrmacht. But in August 560-th separate division lost 14 machines, of which several self-propelled guns went to Russian troops as trophies. At filling losses came on September 3 5 cars, 31 October — 5, and the same on November 28. The latest addition to the real part — four ACS — held 03/02/1944.
According to the staff of 560 Squadron at the end of 1943 the crews of self-propelled guns for the fighting killed 251 tank.
February 4, 1944 Division received orders in the shortest time to retreat to the rear, where it had to transfer to Milan to re-new self-propelled guns "Yagdpa
ntera." According to a report from 01.03. 1944 Battle of the loss during the act of 50 Seventh Panzer Corps consisted of 16 self-propelled guns "Hornisse". 560 Second Division at the end of April, one hundred percent re-equipped tank destroyers "Yagdpantera."
On 11/07/1943 27/07/1943 521 on I-655 battery Battalion tank destroyers participated in defensive fighting east of Falcon. August 27, 1943 military experience summarized in special units. report.
The battery pack to the top of the fighting around the state had 188 fighter, 28 non-commissioned officers, 4 officers, 13 self-propelled guns languid Sd.Kfz.l64 "Hornisse", 3 anti-aircraft gun "Flak-Vierling". This division was the portion 30 of the 4th Army Corps, Army Group "Center". I-521 battery participated in the fighting from 11 to 27 July.
Self-propelled guns in two weeks of fighting killed one tank KV-2, 1 M3 "General Lee" South American production, 1 MLRS crawler, 1 T-60, 3 trucks, five tanks T-70 tanks, 19 KB, T-30 tanks 34, one tank MKII "Matilda II" knocked out.
German loss mat. were one of the Kfz.l and "Maultier" two tank destroyer "Hornisse". Killed — one gunner and a vehicle commander, were missing — a vehicle commander, were wounded — 20 fighter, 6 non-commissioned officers and two officers.
For self-propelled guns "Hornisse" in battle was more effective follow-up tactic: self-propelled artillery Sd.Kfz.164 must operate from camouflaged positions, reflecting the coming of the enemy armored vehicles.
A good example is the fight, held July 13, 1943 a platoon of ACS 521-th battery. Then the platoon "Hornisse" with perfectly camouflaged positions knocked out four T-34 and 12 KB. The platoon suffered no losses even in spite of the fact that Russian troops stormed the ground and air.
When motionless tanks were used as artillery emplacements, of success can be achieved only after painstaking exploration and walking only unexpected fire from the rather short distance to which ACS "Hornisse" went out secretly. After high-speed self-propelled gun "fire attack" once again retreated to the shelter.
An example of such action was the battle battery, held on July 23. During a very unsafe promotion enemy infantry and tanks to the rear and flank of the Grenadier Regiment, the battery moved to the valley, and after walking intelligence took up firing positions. With the recent position was hit by one of the T-34 and KB. So Makarov, Russian troops were stopped for a time.
Overall, in the period from 1943 to 1945. of 500 cars scheduled to be built by the German data did 494 cars. We can say that program from the release of "Nashorn" substantially completed. The troops to 1 February 1945 was still 141 machine of this type, but by April 10 have only 85 ACS Sd.Kfz.164. "Nashorn".
The performance properties of the self-propelled artillery "Hornisse" / "Nashorn" ("Hornet" / "Rhinoceros")
Combat weight — 24 tons;
Crew — 5 people (commander, radioman, loader, gunner, driver-mechanic);
— full length — 8440 mm;
— length, excluding the trunk — 6200 mm;
— width — 2950 mm;
— height — 2,940 mm;
— strip height of fire — 2360 mm;
— base track — 2520 mm;
-length of the surface of the track — 3520 mm;
— clearance — 400 mm;
Specific pressure on the pound — 0.85 kg/cm2;
Progress in store:
— the lane — 130 km;
— on the highway — 260 km;
— overall — 40 km / h;
— Cruising on the highway — 25 km / h;
— the lane — from 15 to 28 km / h;
— slope — 30 degrees;
— trench width — 2.2 m;
— wall height — 0.6 m;
— fording depth — 1 m;
The engine — "Maybach" ("Maybach") HL120TRM, output at 2.6 thousand revolutions per minute 265 hp;
The supplies of fuel — 600 l;
Box (of early / other):
— forward speeds — 10/6;
— back — 1/1;
Management — differentials;
Chassis (on one side):
— Located in front of the drive wheels;
— 8 doubles rubber rollers assembled in four carts diameter of 470 mm;
Suspension of rollers — leaf springs;
Shoe width — 400 mm;
Number of trucks — 104 in the caterpillar;
— for linear machines radio Fu.Spg.Ger. "F" or FuG5;
— ACS commander for batteries — FuG5 and FuG8;
— intercom system;
— gun shield — 10 mm (May 1943 — 15 mm);
— head-chopping — 15 mm;
— chopping board — 10 mm;
-6opta case — 20 mm;
— head-case — 30 mm;
— roof of the case — 10 mm;
— feed the body — 20 mm;
— bottom of the case — 15 mm;
— 88-millimeter cannon Rak43 / 1 (L/71);
MG-34 machine gun 7.92 mm;
two submachine gun MP-40 caliber 9 mm;
— shots — 40 piece.
— rounds of 7.92 mm — 600 pcs.;
— rounds of 9 mm — 384 pcs.