Israel is considered majestic Tank Power: IDF tank fleet is one of the largest in the world — it is armed with 4 to 5 thousand tanks, built by Israeli tank Merkava tank factories, according to the views of many professionals to be the best in the world’s main battle tank, the Israeli tankers possess invaluable combat experience gained in numerous wars and armed conflicts.
Israeli military sample had a significant impact on the development of policies and strategies of Armored Forces: Israeli generals tankers Yisrael Tal and Moshe Peled presented in the hall Lofty Panzer tank commander in the center of U.S. troops im.generala Patton, together with German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel and South American General George Patton .
The emblem of the armored troops of Israel (and Heil-Shiron)
Create armored forces
Israeli tank forces, the main striking force of the IDF ground forces, were born in the battles of the War of Independence. In February 1948, was created Armored Service under the command of Yitzhak Sadeh, but the tanks themselves have not been — the main manufacturers of tanks — the U.S., Britain and France have banned the sale of arms to the Jewish state.
Already in the process of fighting the War of Independence managed to acquire 10 tanks Hotchkiss H-39, which together with stolen from the British M4 Sherman tank and 2 Cromwell tanks entered service first tank unit — the 82nd Tank Battalion. The commander of the battalion was the last of the Polish Army Maj. Felix Beatus, held from Stalingrad to Berlin. The crew consisted of the battalion were tankers — Jewish volunteers from different countries of the world, who fought against the Nazis in the ranks of the British Army and the Polish Army.
Israeli M4 Sherman tank. The War of Independence. 1948.
Among them were several former officers of the Red Army tank. They were called «suicide» — they deserted from the Russian occupation forces in Germany and the different ways to get to Eretz Yisrael. In the USSR, they were sentenced in absentia to death for «high treason.» They passed through death threats, that fight for Jewish government.
By the middle of 1948 were formed 7th and 8th armored brigades that took part in the battles with the Arab invaders.
Israeli General Moshe Peled tanker. Portrait gallery «Lofty tank commanders» in
Center of the U.S. armored forces im.generala Patton
In those years, began to form armored warfare doctrine, adopted by the IDF weapons. It is based on the following principles:
1st — «The totality of the tank.» This means that the armored units, due to mobility, armor and firepower are able to independently solve the main objectives of war on land.
2nd — «Bronekulak» as the main tank maneuver «, which consists in entering into the breach large tank forces capable of conducting coming at high speed, destroying in its path the enemy.
The main fighting force of the Israeli armored forces is a tank brigade. During the fighting of armored brigades formed armored divisions and corps.
Israeli General Yisrael Tal tanker. Portrait gallery «Lofty tank commanders» in
Center of the U.S. armored forces im.generala Patton
Analysis of tank battles showed the highest percentage of loss in the middle of the tank commanders. This is due to the typical requirements of the Code of Honor commander, adopted in the Israeli army:
«Follow me» — a core team in the IDF commander must lead by example for a slave.
In the battle tanks come with open hatches — the commander standing in the turret hatches with unfolded, controls the actions of the crew. This markedly enhances visibility and allows you to fight with «open eyes», but the commander is the primary purpose for enemy fire.
The formation of Armored Forces
First test fight of this doctrine was in operation Kadesh 1956. During the three day or 7th and 27th Panzer Brigade, interacting with the infantry and paratroops, broke the enemy’s defenses and, after the Sinai desert, and went to the Suez Canal. In the process of fighting were killed or captured 600 enemy armored units, the loss amounted to 30 Israeli tanks and armored personnel carriers.
Israeli tanks AMX-13. Operation Kadesh.1956g.
IDF tank fleet started to replenish modern military equipment. In the process of fighting perfectly proved purchased in France AMX-13 tanks — the first modern tanks, the IDF entered service. Only adopted the IDF then received about 200 such tanks.
First 60s on arms IDF tanks entered weave Super Sherman M-50 and M-51.
Israeli tanks Super Sherman
First 1960 U.S. finally agreed to implement the M48 tanks, Israel received the title of sorcerer But the Americans have tried to hide this deal from their own Arab friends. Because the transaction was concluded between Germany and the U.S. and Israel fomalno bought these tanks from Germany. Just part of the deal on arms IDF did Bole 200 M48 tanks.
Israeli tanks sorcerer M48.
At about the same time on arms armored forces received several hundred British Centurion tanks that received the title Shot in Israel (in Hebrew — «stick»)
Israeli tank Centurion Shot.
With this refreshed tank fleet Israel had to wage a brutal battle in the tank
Six-Day War of 1967. and the Yom Kippur War of 1973.
In 1964, the commander in chief of armored forces was General Israel Tal. This experienced tanker, based on operational experience, developed a completely new tactics conducting armored warfare. Among them — sniping tower guns and tanks on the far ultra-long distance — up to 5-6 km, and even at 10-11 km. This immediately gave conspicuous advantages in combat.
Check the new battle tactics were in the «Battle of the water» in 1964 1966gg. Then Syria tried to divert the water of the Jordan River, and so deprive Israel aquatic resources. Syrians began to build a bypass channel, which Israel could not allow.
It was decided to fire tank shells kill earth moving equipment, tanks, and artillery batteries of the enemy, to cover construction.
To this end, the Israeli command units staffed Sherman and Centurion tanks prepared crews, with the gunner’s seat in one of the tanks took personally Gen. Tal, and charging — the commander of the 7th Armored Brigade, Colonel Shlomo Lahat
As the lure Israelis to let the neutral zone tractor. The Syrians immediately fell for the trick and opened fire. The objectives were to pinpoint immediately. Israeli sniper fire tankers were destroyed all of the favorites targets at a distance of 6 km, and then was moved to tank fire at targets which were in the distance is 11 km.
Such tank fire strikes were carried out at various times throughout the year. The Syrians have suffered loss and languid were required to completely abandon their plans to divert water.
The Six-Day War. 1967
The Six Day War of 1967 was the real triumph of Israeli armored forces. For the first time, Israeli armored units acted immediately on 3 fronts. They were confronted by superior forces repeatedly 5 Arab countries, and it’s not got the best of the Arabs from a complete rout.
The Six Day War of 1967. Israeli tank crew
On the southern front blow was struck force 3 armored divisions generals Tal Sharon and Joffe. In the offensive, which has been called the «March through Sinai,» Israeli armored units, interacting with the aircraft, motorized infantry and paratroopers made an immediate breakthrough defense and marched through the desert, surrounded by a group of Arabs killing. On the northern front by rugged mountain trails came the 36th Armored Division of General Peled, who after three days of fierce fighting started in the suburbs of Damascus. On the eastern front, Israeli troops vyshybli Jordanian part of Jerusalem and freed the ancient Jewish shrines of outlandish invaders.
In the process of fighting destroyed more than 1,200 tanks of the enemy, captured thousands of armored vehicles, the main Russian production. Captured Russian T-54/55 tanks were a major upgrade to the Israeli tank factories and entered service tank troops under the title «Tyrant-4/5».
Captured Russian armored vehicles captured in the Six Day War, at the parade in Jerusalem.
September 9, 1969 armored group consisting of 6 captured Russian T-55 tanks and three armored personnel carriers BTR-50, captured in the Six Day War, was secretly forwarded to the landing craft on Preserving the Egyptian Suez Canal. The primary objective was the liquidation of the Russian air defense system that prevented the actions of the Israeli aviation. In the course of this brilliantly executed zagadannoy and operations, has been called Raviv, Israeli tank crew during the 9:00 fiery shaft walked in the rear of the enemy, savagely destroying radar position missile troops and artillery, headquarters, warehouses and army bases. Successfully completing the raid without loss, Israeli armored group safely returned to the landing ships to its base.
Yom Kippur war. 1973.
The most languid test for Israel was the war Judgment day or, which began Oct. 6, 1973, in the 1st day of the Major American Jewish Happy holiday, when most of the soldiers were on leave. Israel was at one point attacked on all fronts repeatedly superior forces of aggression that included the armies of Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Morocco, Jordan, Libya, Algeria, Lebanon, Sudan, thousands of Russian «military advisers», Cuban and North Korean «volunteers.» In the vastness of the Sinai to the Golan Heights unfolded one of the largest tank battles in world military history — from both sides took part in it to 6 thousand tanks.
In particular, the terrible situation in the Golan Heights — there are only 200 tanks of the 7th and 188th Tank Brigades opposed to the 40 km stretch of almost 1,400 Syrian tanks. Israeli tank crews fought to the death, showing heroism.
The names of the heroes of tankers, stopped the enemy, entered the history of Israel. Among them, the platoon commander Lieutenant Zvi Gringold, the company commander Captain Meir Zamir, nicknamed «Tiger», the battalion commander, Lt. Col. Kahalani.
Lieutenant (pictured already captain) Zvi Gringold — tank commander who has made an unprecedented feat: in the course of the battle, which lasted for about a day, he had destroyed 60 Russian tanks
Tankers fought to the last bullet, the survivors of a battle tank, has just left the blazing tanks, here formed new carriages, which again went into battle on the repaired military vehicles. Lieutenant Gringold three times went into battle on new cars. Being wounded and injured, he did not leave the battlefield and destroyed 60 Russian tanks. Israeli tank crew survived and overpowered podospevshaya 210 Panzer Division under the command of Gen. Dan Laner graduated from the defeat of the enemy.
Israeli tanks Centurion. Yom Kippur War of 1973. Sinai Desert
Israeli tank Tsenturion.Voyna Yom Kippur 1973. The Golan Heights
During the fighting was defeated and Iraqi armored corps thrown to the a id of the Syrians. Israeli troops have defected to the offensive and 14 October were in the suburbs of Damascus.
The destroyed and captured Russian armored vehicles — tanks T-62. October 1973. The Golan Heights
More brutal battle tank went in the sands of the Sinai, where the Arabs managed to oust the first part of the 252 th Panzer Division, General Mendler. General Mendler died in battle, but suspended the promotion of the upcoming enemy. October 7 the battle joined 162 Panzer Division under the command of General Bren and 143rd Armored Division under General Ariel Sharon. During the languid tank battles were destroyed the main forces of the Arabs.
The commander of the 162nd Armored Division, General Avraham Adan (Bren)
October 14 naikrupneyshy occurred since the second world war encounter battle tank formations, «tanks against tanks,» in what had been destroyed 260 enemy tanks. Israeli tank crew had lost 20 of their own military vehicles.
October 16 Israeli armored forces fled the offensive. Tankers General Sharon broke through the front, set the pontoon through the Suez Canal, and the African-sparing gushed Israeli tanks. In the ensuing battle was surrounded by the Egyptian army, destroyed all of its reserves, has opened a smooth road for the advent of Cairo.
Video of the 14th Tank Brigade that fought during the War of Yom Kippur in Sinai
The war of Yom Kippur. October 1973
During the brutal tank battles of the war Judgment day or Israeli armored forces again justified its advantages: in the fighting have been destroyed over 2,500 enemy tanks (T-62, T-55, T-54) and thousands of other AFVs. But for the victory had to pay the ultimate price — were killed in the fighting heroically fought over a thousand Israeli soldiers.
One of the results of past wars was the creation of its own tank, in which a lot of the requirements have been implemented to combat Israeli tank car and taken into account their combat experience. Another premise that prompted the creation of an Israeli tank, steel embargo on military equipment imposed zabugornom producers every time the war began. This situation was intolerable, since the Arabs have always walked a continuous flow of Russian weapons.
At the head of the Israeli tank project arose General Israel Tal, a military officer, trooper, past all the wars. Under his direction, almost a couple of years, the project was created by the first Israeli tank ‘Merkava-1 «, which in 1976 was put into mass creation by Israeli tank factories. Such rapid creation of the tank industry still did not know the history of world tank.
Commander of the paratroopers brigade, Colonel Rafael Eitan, and the commander of Panzer General Israel Tal. 1967. The Six Day War
Newcomer tank Gen. Tal gave the title «Merkava», which in Hebrew means «chariots.» This word comes from the Tanakh, it is mentioned in the first chapter books of Ezekiel as a sign of movement, strength and sustainable foundation.
Tank first generation Merkava Mk1
Second-generation tank Merkava Mk2
Tretkgo generation tank Merkava MK3
Tank fourth generation Merkava MK4
The first tanks «Merkava» was equipped tank Battalion, commanded by Gen. Tal offspring. Tank «Merkava» recognized as the best tank in the world for the Middle East war theater. Israeli engineers developed the world’s first dynamic armor, the application of which is much reduced possibility of defeat tank shells and guided missiles. Blocks of dynamic protection «Blazer» were installed on Merkava tanks on, and on most of the «Centurion», M48 and M60, the IDF remained in service
.Currently available is the fourth generation of tanks «Merkava» tank and the Israeli industry has become one of the largest in the world — more than 200 businesses employ 10’s of thousands of engineers and workers.
The war in Lebanon. 1982.
«Shlom a-Galil» (Peace for Galilee) — so the IDF General Staff referred to the Israeli invasion of Lebanon, which began on June 6th 1982. in response to attacks by Palestinian terrorists operating from Lebanese areas.
At the Lebanese border, Israel has concentrated 11 divisions, the unification of three army corps. Each housing has been allocated its own area of responsibility or direction: West of Lieutenant-General Ekutiel Adam, Central direction — Lieutenant-General Uri Simhon, an easterly direction — Lieutenant General Janusz Ben-Gal. In addition, the Golan Heights, in particular close to Damascus, have been deployed two divisions under the command of Lieutenant-General Moshe Bar-Kochba. As part of the armored divisions had 1,200 tanks. Overall command of the operation was entrusted to the Chief of the General Staff, Colonel-General Eitan P. and Commander of the Northern Military District, Li eutenant A.Drori.
Panzer divisions were advancing towards the seaside and has already entered on June 10 to the suburbs of the capital Beirut, Lebanon. Later Beirut was completely captured by Israeli troops. In the process of coming naikrupneyshaya was conducted amphibious operation, when the enemy’s rear with the Israeli Navy amphibious ships were planted tank and mechanized infantry section.
In particular, heavy fighting began in the East, where the goal was coming strategically fundamental Beirut-Damascus highway. Under the terms of the cease-fire, Israeli tanks were stopped about 30 kilometers from the Syrian capital of Damascus.
Israeli tanks and infantry are street fighting in Beirut. 1982.
The operation in Lebanon. 2006.
During the operation in Lebanon in iyude-August 2006. IDF is working out completely new ways of waging war against terrorist groups.
The terrorist organization Hezbollah did in southern Lebanon in depth system of fortified areas, which included a huge number of camouflaged underground bunkers connected by dozens of kilometers of tunnels. Tools and equipment, and accumulations of militants, according to their plans, should be enough for many months the defense, during which they are expected to cause the loss of languid Israeli army.
Increased attention has been paid terristami anti-war — on tank hazardous areas they performed a continuous mining, including favorites 10 s with a hundred square meters of land mines kg of TNT in each. The terrorists were armed with the latest Russian anti-tank gun: ATGM «Baby», «Viola», «competition», «Metis-M», «Kornet-E», and RPG-7 and RPG-29 «Vampire».
Despite the so imposing training militants, the IDF unscathed successfully solved all assigned tasks and completely eliminated the terrorist presence in the border areas.
According to Israeli data in the process of fighting the militants carried out hundreds of anti-tank missile launches, but their effectiveness was quite small: there is only 22 breakout variant armor of tanks, tanks warped back into service after repair still in the process of fighting in Lebanon. Sunk loss amounted to only 5 tanks, two of them stepped on a land mine. In the process of fighting killed 30 Israeli soldiers.
Israeli armored forces
All military experts at the highest point vitality of Israeli tanks, especially the most modern tank Merkava 4.
The experience of fighting in Lebanon showed that despite the small loss of armored vehicles during combat, the decision of the difficulties survivability main battle tank and its crew on the saturated antitank battlefield sverhtehnologichny is the introduction of advanced active protection, provide changes of the line of motion or loss of all types of flying up cumulative ammunition.
In Israel, the development of means of active protection of armored vehicles is the military-industrial concern RAFAEL, amidst numerous projects should emphasize active protection systems and Iron Fist Trophy. Israel leads in this direction — Trophy active protection system was the first in the world, established on a mass-produced tank Merkava MK4.
Israeli tank forces were glorious path and rightly listed among of strongest in the world — open data it is clear that at the moment is in service with the IDF and 5000 tanks. It’s more than, for example, in countries such as England, France and Germany. But the main strength of the Israeli armored forces lies in the people whose invaluable combat experience and courage are the guarantor of Israel’s security.