Installation of the first experimental solar cell developed by experts at Bell Telephone rural telephone and telegraph lines, Georgia, USA. October 4, 1955.
Stocks of non-renewable natural energorusursov on our planet has been steadily declining. Think about it — a year humanity uses the volume of oil that was formed over 2 million years old! From using them consistently polluted environment. These global problems facing humanity put the question to find alternative, renewable energy sources is desirable. After all, people's need for energy is growing. Today there is little doubt of the need for alternative energy sources. They are different: the sun, the wind, gidroresury, biomass (biomass). Here more about solar energy in general and the new is already on sale in Russia "solar" split-systems MDV Solar power DC-Inverter in particular.
February 24, 2012
Solar power for nearly 50 years has been used by people in space — for vehicles in orbit. And on the ground level of "involvement" of the Sun to the production of electricity increases. Today, however, mankind uses in the "energy" to no more than one ten thousandth of the energy that the Sun "delivers" on Earth. Suffice it to say that if the figure was at least 1% — about the energy problem, lack of energy, you could forget for many years, decades, or even centuries.
For the year humanity uses the volume of oil that was generated for about 2 million years. And above all this the sun is shining …
From the history of the issue
Grandfathers, fathers of solar energy on our planet should be considered as French physicist Edmond Becquerel Alexander, electricity-inventor from New York, Charles Fritts, and the famous Albert Einstein, Nobel Prize winners. First, back in 1839, said the photoelectric effect, which is the emission of electrons under the influence of sunlight. Second, 44 years later, created the first solar module — covered with a thin layer of gold selenium. Efficiency of the first solar cell was very low — approximately 1% (of total "captured" module sunlight energy converted only 1%). But it would be the first step. In 1905, Einstein received the Nobel Prize for just refine ideas Becquerel. In the 30-ies of the last century our scientists headed by Academician AF Joffe created the first solar sulfur-thallium items. Their efficiency was too low. However, work on solar panels continued. In the early 50-ies of XX century, in the USA, in the laboratory of Bell Telephone, Gerald Pearson and his associates found that the distributions of silicon coated with a markedly more sensitive to sunlight than selenium. The result is a solar-cell battery with an efficiency of about 6% — the era of the development of solar cells.
In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite with the photovoltaic cells, and in 1958 the U.S. produced the launch of an artificial satellite Explorer 1 with solar panels. Since 1958, the silicon solar cells have become a major source of energy for spacecraft and space stations. And to this day space — one of the main areas where the solar panels are used (now, of course, more advanced designs than in the last century). During the oil crisis of 1973-74. Several countries have launched programs to use solar cells that led to the installation and testing of over 3,100 PV systems in the United States. Many of them are still in operation.
The first U.S. satellite Project Explorer. Launched in 1958. The design of the spacecraft solar panels included (battery).A major positive development in solar energy development was the creation by the Americans in the 90-ies of the last century tsvetosensibilizirovannyh special types of solar cells are more efficient than those used previously. Etotnovy larger batteries is cost effective, and to make them easier. To date, the bulk of the produced solar cells has an efficiency of just over 20 percent. In 1989, a prototype device that works with an efficiency of over 30%. In 2010, Boeing announced the achievement of its remaining laboratory Spectrolab — creating mass-produced solar panels brand C3MJ +, has an effective 39.2%. Among the first buyers of these batteries were received in January 2011.
Since 2011, the sale of developed laboratory-controlled Boeing Spectrolab solar cells with an efficiency of 39.2%. Spectrolab Studies show that the solar cell in theory capable to convert current of 70% of the incident sunlight, and in practice should recognize technically achievable rate of 50%. That number is the benchmark for the industry in the near future.
Solar Present and Future
Today, solar panels, solar energy, though still not a leading power industry on the planet, yet is used in so many areas of our lives. The basic material for the production of solar cells still remains a fairly common chemical element — silicon (Si), almost a quarter of the mass of the Earth's crust. Energy conversion in the solar cell occurs due to so-called photovoltaic effect in heterogeneous semiconductors when exposed to solar radiation. According to its structure solar cell resembles a sandwich, which consists of two semiconductor wafers. The outer plate contains an excess of electrons and the inner plate — lack. Contact photon of light causes the outer plate of the electron ejection from it and transfer it to the inner plate, which creates an electric current.
The most widely used solar panels are in the United States and European countries, Japan, Korea, and China. In Europe, for example, where environmental issues are given very much attention, there are special state program to support solar energy. For example, in some areas, homeowners with solar panels give worked out for a day of solar energy to the grid, for which he received benefits in electricity costs. In Germany, the excess electricity generated by private summer solar panels, buy energy-efficient company, despite its slightly higher cost compared to "normal" in order to support the development of "green technologies." Thanks to the state program that compensates for up to 70 percent of the cost of the so-called "solarization" of houses and facilities for payment, in the Federal Republic of Germany on the "sun" electricity goes up to half a million square meters. meters of roofs per year. The first such government financial support for the project owners 'solar' homes was adopted by the Germans in 1990 and was then called "1000 solar roofs". After Germany such a project, but under the name "100,000 solar roofs" was adopted for all EU member states (EU). In Japan and the United States similar projects were called, respectively, "70,000 solar roofs" and "one million solar roofs". Even Mongolia joined the new movement: "100,000 solar gers" — was the name of her
In Mongolia, the solar panels are the electrification of the yurts. There is a special program on the development of solar energy.
Construction of "solar" homes in the West have long been a sign of respectability and, despite the long period (7-10 years), enjoys wide popularity. New homes in Spain is also under a state program are built with solar panels on the roofs. In the Netherlands, near the town of Heerhugowaard created experimental area, called the "City of the Sun." Electricity is generated by solar panels installed on the roofs of houses. On average, a house in the "City of the Sun" produces up to 25 kW of power. In the future it is planned to increase the total capacity of "Sun City" to 5MW. And these are some facts to promote the use of solar energy at the state level.
In Europe, not uncommon entire villages, towns, using for their needs energy from the sun. In the photo — installation of solar panels in the "City of the Sun", near the Dutch Heerhugowaard.
According to the European Photovoltaic Association * (EPIA), by 2020 the cost of electricity generated by "solar" systems reduced to less than 0,10 € / kWh for industrial plants and less than 0,15 € / kWh for installations in residential buildings. According to the forecast EPIA, 2030 solar panels will produce up to 2646 TWh of electricity, meeting from 8.9 to 13.8% of the world needs. The annual volume of PV market will reach € 454 billion by 2025, thanks to photovoltaics will be reduced environmental emissions by 353 million tons. This figure is equivalent to the amount of emissions in Australia and New Zealand, or 150 coal-fired power plants.
In Russia, unfortunately, things are not so sunny. Significant support for the solar industry at the state level do not. In addition to several declarations on the importance of this industry, but last year's executive order (see below). This can be explained, and the presence of large reserves and the fact that the cost of solar electricity in our country is significantly higher than "normal." But in the EU, for example, because of the quality of solar energy can cost this consistently and fairly rapidly reduced. Now it has to compete with the cost of traditional electricity.
It is clear that Russia is not too sunny country — this efficiency "solar" technology is lower than, for example, somewhere in Spain. Hence the extent of the territory of the country below. And yet, the prospects for the solar industry is obviously in our country. They are the greatest, of course, in the south: in the Krasnodar and Stavropol territories, Astrakhan, Volgograd and Rostov regions, other regions of southern Russia. However, there are regions in the country even more suitable for the development of solar energy than the traditional "South". Studies conducted Renewable Energy Laboratory of the Institute of High Temperatures, showed that in Russia the most "sun" are regions of Primorye and southern Siberia. In some parts of Western and Eastern Siberia and the Far East, the annual solar radiation is 1300 kWh/m2, exceeding the value of the southern regions of Russia. Here, the use of plants that convert solar energy, perhaps for the year. The very first solar power plant appeared in our country for less than two years ago — September 29, 2010, in the Belgorod region (power — 100 kW). While this is an experimental pilot project. In general, the projects related to solar energy in our country, but they are still unsystematic. The share of energy from renewable energy sources (RES) in the fuel balance Russia mildly modest — about 1%, and most of the energy needs are covered by thermal power plants. In the executive order, signed in January last year, spelled out the intention to increase the production and consumption of electric power using renewable energy to 4.5% in 2020. Wait and see. In the meantime, Russia is not mentioned in any of the analytical reviews of the UN regarding the state of photovoltaics in the world.
In 2009, a Russian open solar power plant in the Belgorod region (power — 100 kW). By 2013, plans to open a solar power plant with the same capacity in Olkhon oblasti.Tam Irkutsk region, in the Irkutsk region now soda-tech production facility for the production of polysilicon, enterprise-based company «Nitol Solar». The amount of money invested in this project, "RUSNANO" — 7.5 billion rubles.
"Solar" technologies are now used in various spheres of human life and activity. In particular in the area of climate change. This is not about global climate on the planet, although there are eco-friendly solar energy, which is called "a horse" — no harm, dirty emissions, depletion of the ozone layer. It is still about the climate in a single apartment, home, office. Since 2012, the world's largest manufacturer of HVAC equipment — GD Midea Holding Co., Ltd (brand MDV) — will supply in our country their new split systems Solar power DC-Inverter.