January 1996 With just 14 years old, the aircraft carrier «Novorossiysk» the South Korean company sold for scrap, led off the port of Busan and then dismantled for scrap.
The story of a third-Soviet aircraft carrier cruisers perfectly ordinary. First, it does not envisage construction. Moreover, along with the development of the project SIC 1143 in the Soviet Union carried out research on the development of traditional aircraft carriers with aircraft catapult launch and landing on the arresting gear (R & D «Warrant»). But with the mission in 1976 to the post of defense minister, DF Ustinov, a famous supporter of aircraft vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL), the main effort as before, it was decided to send «to the forthcoming improvement of ships — VTOL aircraft carriers.» Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers on February 1, 1977 was approved by the building of the third (deadline — 1979), also 4th RCC (deadline — 1982) with some izizmeneniyami (increasing to 30 the number of LAC, the rejection of torpedoes) and the largest introduction of documentation lead ship (project 1143M).
In the development of the project Acronym 1143M assumed that the third will be based anti-ship missiles have advanced VTOL Yak-38P (fighters), replaced underwater acoustics, and for the first time in the domestic fleet, will be foreseen accommodation on board the landing in simplified criteria (for 10 — 15 days), and also the possibility of receiving the runway and temporary basing on the upper deck languid transport helicopters.
The ship was planned to be called the «Baku», according to the tradition of giving names of aircraft carriers, destroyers, inherited from the favorites — in honor of the capitals of the Union republics. But at the suggestion of the Minister of Defense of the USSR Grechko cruiser was named «Novorossiysk». June 24, 1975 he enlisted in the list of ships of the Soviet Navy. In this case, there was no formal succession in title to the Black Sea battleship cruiser «Novorossiysk» (formerly «DzhulioChezare»). Apparently, the General Political Department, and other «authorities» were guided by Geographic «bound» to the name of the ship «Little Earth» — name widely promoted in the years of the then Secretary General of the book of the CPSU Central Committee.
Abridged Tekhproekt 1143M (chief designer — A.V.Marinich) was developed in January and approved the Navy and SMEs in July 1975. September 30 was accomplished laying ship (C-103) on the stocks of «0» CSY.
Provided basing on the cruiser 28 VTOL Yak-36M (Yak-38) and / or Ka-252PL and 2-rescue helicopters Ka-252PS. Fading «Orion» was replaced by an automatic sonar system (Agachi) «polynomial» and torpedoes abolished. By reducing the gap between the aircraft in the hangar of their number was increased to 24. 6 more cars were on the flight deck of a technical position (right side), the bypass bridge near the starboard side produced a 1.2 m lower in elevation than on the aircraft carrier project in 1143. If necessary, in the hangar with some restrictions housed all 30 LAC.
Given the substitution of hydro-acoustics and the abolition of torpedoes the ship was equipped with the latest anti-submarine weapon control system «Snowstorm». Navigation system «Salgir» was replaced by a more modern, streamlined standard — «Salgir-V». In addition, the project provides for the installation on board, already during the construction of the ship, the total spare radar detection and targeting «Topaz-IV» (at the end of its testing and refinement by DBK «mischievous»). The volume of space on the 5th deck, obtained as a result of failure of the torpedo armament, equipment used for additional tiered forecastles personnel and troops of 90 people with weapons and supplies.
The ship was equipped with CICS «Alley-2K» (collection, processing, storage and display of disk imaging in the framework of the flagship features a compound consisting of 9 surface ships) also experienced a prototype radar system, «GK», for the detection of small targets such as «cruise missile» with a small EPR, the following low-level (100 m) at a distance of 33.7 km (with automatic target tracking, traffic characterization, development and delivery of data to the targeting of the 15 anti-aircraft and aircraft carrier ships connection). This was to increase the ability of air defense, missile cruiser in the new criteria. In the end, the former active Stabilizers 89-1 replaced by more sophisticated 89-3 with extra space onboard the rudders.
Another difference «Novorossiysk» has become a form of the front edge of the so-called small sponsons disposed forward of the corner deck — it was missing for the corresponding «Kiev» and «Minsk» double shoulder that caused heavy splashing and the formation of vortex air flow over the flight deck. On the upper deck of the ship set (already in Sevastopol) smoothing (VU) — three vertical screen to straighten the air flow.
Complexes avionics, artillery and missile systems, as GEMs first supposed to be kept the same as in the 1143 draft. But in the process of building the ship decided to make a number of improvements. Thus, in connection with the adoption by armament U.S. Navy in the summer of 1977, the latest low-altitude anti-ship missile «Harpoon», Neva PKB on behalf of management of SMEs and the Navy command to urgently prepare proposals for the modernization of ships 1143 and 1143M projects in order to increase their operational stability. It was found that successful solutions intended purpose, you must first increase the depth of the zone defense ship connections with the strengthening of the ship’s anti-aircraft and electronic equipment. The possible amount of work on the 3rd and fourth «gyrfalcon», given the time to create new weapons and timing of delivery of the ships themselves, were discusse d at a special meeting with the Commander of the Navy. To strengthen the third defense of his aircraft carrier was intended to equip two new triple module SAM «Dagger» (instead of the SAM database «Osa-M»), rocket and artillery systems «Dirk» (instead of the AK-630M), as RFCs «GK» (instead of the radar » Topaz-IV »), was required to finalize the avionics and weapons, and communications ship — priemuschestvenno, due to the configuration of its aircraft and missiles and artillery. Volumes for the implementation of these measures received by excluding cellars spare ASM «Basalt». With the adjustment of the. project on the adopted amendments descent «Novorossiysk» tolerated by 1978.
But the configuration of the project have touched not only the air defense systems. Along the way, the decision was made to ensure the ship is basing 36 aircraft *, including emerging deck fighters VTOL Yak-41, Yak-38 ground attack aircraft and helicopters Ka-252 3-modifications (PLO PS and RLD), also equip the runway three gas-carrying device (OMG) — to protect the coating from the flight deck to 1200 ° hot jets of gas at the start of the vertical Yak-41.
In addition, the required increment of 50% of aviation fuel supplies. SEI Mines closed in the upper part of heat-resistant gas-dynamic arrays, provides a number starting positions 3, 4 and 5, had a varying diameter of 3 — 5 meters and passed down from the flight deck and on deck at the corner (sponson) overboard. There were difficulties with the elaboration of constructive solutions and choice of material for these lattices are also heat-resistant coatings flight deck. These modifications resulted in the postponement of delivery of the ship from 1979 to 1982 year.
Apart from a number of differences in the composition and placement of the radar antenna posts and electronic warfare, the appearance of aircraft carrier project 1143M changed slightly, though the redevelopment of the general location was very significant and spanned about 1000 (up to 40% of the total) rooms, in which the results of re-adjustment of the project was to to «live on» dismantling and assembly work.
Tekhproekt 11433 (initially 1143.3, chief designer Anikiev VF) was developed in December 1977 and approved in May of 1978, when the formation of the body «Novorossiysk» on the stocks have been completed — even assembled all the mines SEI, closing their grills. December 26, 1978 TAKR was officially launched and delivered on completion
Shooting SAM «Storm» aircraft carrier «Novorossiysk»
Meanwhile, the attitude to SEI continued to be diversified. The conducted experiments in Zhukovsky did not give grounds for optimism about the special implementation. In the end, according to a joint decision of the IAP, SMEs, Navy and Air Forces of the USSR from October 10, 1979, the mines and the lattice SEI, «it does not justify their own destiny on the results of the tests» were dismantled and the space through which they pass, recovered by the initial project, which also led to a lot of additional rework.
But this is not the end of prepyadstviya. Because of the backlog in terms of development and production of prototype model envisaged by the project SAM «Dagger» and SPAR «Dirk», «Novorossiysk» this gun is not received. Instead he mounted a proven 30-mm AK-630M, with all this to the staff for his predecessors SAM «Osa-M» decided not vorachivatsya — eventually left the ship without any short-range air defense systems!
Because of problems with the creation of new aircraft aircraft carrier air group had the third manned by Yak-38 (later changed to the Yak-38M). This is partly offset by the presence of more advanced second-generation helicopters Ka-27. In addition, to «Novorossiysk» could be based perspective LAC and helicopters weighing up to 15 tons, taken on the deck (no accommodation in the hangar) for timely delivery of goods or landing helicopters Mi-8, Mi-14 and Mi-6 even weighing up to 37 so also had the opportunity to start engines from the ship power system. Full in store jet fuel was 1500 tonnes, higher-up to 1650 m
Mooring tests aircraft carrier «Novorossiysk» (tail number 137) were held from September 1 to December 27, 1981. On 24 November, the settlement of the crew, formed on the basis of the 7th OPESK Severomorsk. January 5, 1982 the ship
went to Sevastopol, where until the 25th of the docking took place for cleaning and painting the underwater part and alignment equipment. From January 29 to April 12, «Novorossiysk» successfully passed factory tests running (chief executive deliverer G.I.Zhurenko, commander — captain of the Dark BP). Early tests of the ship has crashed turbonadduvochny unit THA-3 of the 1st of the main boilers, which posed a risk of disruption of timely delivery of the cruiser. Usually, the substitution of this unit asks a few months, but in this case, the plant workers have kept within a few days. Emergency TNA through temporary openings moved into the hangar, and then — on the upper deck. Unique operation ended when a was in the completion of aircraft carrier «Baku» in working order was delivered the same TNA-3.
State tests «Novorossiysk» took place at the sites of the Black Sea Fleet Combat Training from April 12 to May 28, with a break for a role in a parade of ships dedicated to the days of Victory. May 12, aircraft carrier entered the ground — was tested firing a single missile salvo and dvuhraketnym strike complex «Basalt-11433» (PU № 1,2 and 6). In both cases, the target — BKSCH (69×13 m), and so on target in 1784 were hit by direct hits at a range of 88 km. The Commission noted instances of damage to light structures on the deck of the ship due to the impact of torches boosters rockets.
Launching a cruise missile with Basalt aircraft carrier «Novorossiysk»
Artkompleksy AK-726 and AK-630M were tested by firing MKSCH, target of RM-15 mock-ups floating mines and simulated aerial target, and installation RBU-6000 — at extreme angles guidance on running the ship practical torpedo 53-56. Successfully passed the tests and shooting were also taken Commission 140mm complex staging false targets PC-2 and anti-PKK-1 complex.
20 — 27 took place on May 11 shooting UZRK «Storm» by parachute target M-6, maritime targets (BKSCH) and radio-controlled target La 17M. However, the descent in 3 cases were marked departure from the facts of the line of traffic and falling into the water released from the nasal missile launchers — as a consequence of the general lack of constructive. The Commission recommended an increase in the sectors of fire, especially in the «low-flying t arget», why was increased SAM launch angle in the vertical plane. Re-shooting after these works has been credited.
During state testing VTOL Yak-38 and Yak-38U performed with 112 ships, helicopters Ka-27 — 108, the Ka-25 — 51, Mi-6 — 10 and Mi-8-139 flights, including those contained for testing. Unfortunately, not come without tragedy — in April fell to the deck of the Ka-27, one sailor was killed by shrapnel screw.
May 28 «Novorossiysk» arrived in Nikolayev and was delivered to the embankment of the Great Bucket CSY for audit and color. At the conclusion of the commission, the program state testing has been performed well, as a supplement only recommended to find a way to take off and land at night the criteria of a group of four helicopters
a rate of air flow up to 20 m / s rolling of 10 ° and pitch-to 3 °.
In addition, the Commission was not accepted Agachi «polynomial» (his acceptance was expected only in December 1982 to head the nuclear missile cruiser Project 1144 «Kirov» construction of the Baltic CVD). On the ship, also has not been established complex charging landing aircraft «Drive NE» (later to install it on the «Novorossiysk» opt out). The Commission noted that the draft of the ship stern least 8.8 m lift-sliding device POU-3 does not provide a reliable selection of «towed body» (the lowered antenna) to fade. Even in the absence of sea conditions, this operation required a lot of time. It also noted that the work on the radar «Tackle» negative impact causes such as shading zones of visibility TAKR ins, interference due to multipath signals and distortion patterns located on both side walls of the superstructure antennas.
Among the least important, but quite curious and funny remarks were such as, for example, the installation on the tank of fresh water shut-off valve, which is why there have been cases of flooding cabins with water (to avoid this was recommended to further establish self-closing valves — so by the way, was made at the last ship).
August 12 was completed removal of comments, and day or two after the signing of the act of receiving. Since the bookmarks before putting the ship was 6 years, 10 months and 14 days.
August 15, 1982 at the aircraft carrier «Novorossiysk» solemnly raised the Navy flag, and ship defected to Sevastopol. November 24, aircraft carrier was assigned to the Pacific Fleet and began preparing for the transition to the Pacific Ocean (with prior stops in Severomorsk for a role in the celebrations of the 50th anniversary of the Northern Fleet). In one of the days of autumn, while parked at the Coal walls, «Novorossiysk» at one point hit a strong squall — managed to keep the ship in place only through the help of the tug approached. It later emerged that the tug damaged titanium dome fade away «polynomial», and the aircraft carrier had to be put in the dock for repair. By December 24 crew passed all coursework tasks, and «Novorossiysk» was accepted into the permanent readiness of the ships.
Here is important to note that during the tests the cruiser began the Anglo-Argentine war, and her first lessons experts have confirmed the correctness of the need to strengthen the air defense missile-ships. «Novorossiysk» then concede even the «Kiev» and «Minsk». Despite the possibility of using the radar «Tackle» in advance to detect air targets, particularly attacking cruise missile cruiser had firepower to defeat them — remained only to transmit the acquired data is output on the escort ships.
«Minsk» and «Novorossiysk» based on the Pacific Ocean. In 1991, the «Minsk» began to prepare for the transition to the Nikolayev shipyard for repair (not working 50% of the propulsion system of the cruiser). August 31, 1992 at «Minsk» and lowered the flag of the Navy in October cruiser came to the place of conservation (in the sediment) into the bay Postovaya in Russian Harbor. October 20, 1995 «Minsk» sidetracked tug to South Korea for cutting on metal. In 1998 the aircraft carrier «Minsk» oversold Chinese company, and after a range of works from 27.09.2000 was used as a museum and entertainment center in the port of Shenzhen (near Hong Kong). 2nd Chinese Museum of the Navy! Remember replica of the 1st of the top in the «days of radio,» facing the hallway?
According to the «Novorossiysk» 1990 passed a two-year renovation;
January 28, 1991 — passed tests after repair, sdela certain tasks, but one hundred percent return ship to service after repairs failed …
May 1991 — the ship launched in sludge solution Commander of the Navy of the USSR. Point.
January 1993 — while in the sludge in the ship engine room fire broke out.
June 30, 1993 — aircraft carrier «Novorossiysk» disarmed and expelled from the Russian Navy.
January 1996 — aircraft carrier «Novorossiysk» the South Korean company sold for scrap, led off the port of Busan and then scrapped …
The Last of the Mohicans:
Left — «Riga» (the «Varyag», sold to China), the right «TBILISI» (the «Admiral Kuznetsov»)