In the middle there is a category of cool guns guns shock shatters act. It includes a variety of types of guns, which itself belongs specifically to the cool weapons to this day a matter of controversy among criminologists. This is due to the fact that many types of hard to separate from household objects destination. Apart from this, they often difficult to organize some. As an example, the so-called «combat scissors» SC-VI (ka wee), developed by a master of kung fu Dai Chun Song, and «hook» Szabo. Such a kind of shock weapons is more appropriate title of «combat squiggles» known to those in the field of martial arts and weapons historian K.? B.? Asmolova.«Battle scissors» SC-VI (ka wee) and «hook» Szabo
More well-known types of weapons of shock-fragmenting acts are clubs, sticks and brass knuckles.
Batons and sticks are widely used as special funds dosed in police departments around the world, and some of their species — as a weapon of self-defense civilian officials (see «Brother», № 9 and number 10 in 2010).
Knuckles definitely perceived as a tool of attack in the criminal environment and have a bad name. At the same time in the near future more information becomes available about the kinds of oriental martial arts and applied them to the types of instruments, including the impact type, which in appearance are quite different from traditional brass knuckles and the least traumatic. On the basis of their spices in the field of self-defense and martial arts to create new types of small personal defense, which are widely used as an auxiliary tool in the law enforcement and security structures, as well as tool Self people.
Systematization of tools
In this paper an attempt is made to compile information on the brass knuckles and kastetopodobnom (more Fisted) weapons. With all of this under the gun Fisted supposed gun shock shatters act which is clamped in his hand or worn on the fingers. It does not hit lugs carried by the front of the fist. In British countries this instrument is called brass knuckles («copper fist») or knuckle dusters («dirty fist»).
Types of guns are not considered a shock-fragmenting act which is clamped in his fist, and defeat the purpose is protruding parts such weapons from the base of the fist or the top of a fist (svinchatki, weighting, different types of palmar common form of sticks, etc.? Etc.). In Russia, such an instrument is often referred to as brass knuckles, though in appearance and method of attacking this tool significantly different from the fist.
The design of brass knuckles
It should be noted that the use of the term «weapon» in these subjects due to the presence of protective devices inside as usual systems of martial arts, and such systems for new types of tools made of self-defense, but in a legal sense, they may not apply to the cool weapons.
Fisted instrument is compact. Almost always, it can be done at home criteria. Many types of guns Fisted look quite harmless, in the form of household objects destination.
The merits of chemical industry in the creation of strong plastic Fisted possible to produce an instrument without actually conceding on the strength of the iron, but can not be found with metal detectors.
In order to streamline the forthcoming presentation of all types Fisted tools are grouped into three main groups:
— Brass knuckles;
— Kastetopodobnoe instrument;
— The combined instrument.
The Russian title of this instrument comes from the French word casse-tete, literally — «puzzle», «breaking down».
Knuckles made by artisanal
In GOST 51215-98 «Cold weapon, the terminology» is a subsequent determination of brass knuckles, «Contact shock and shock-fragmenting tool of a hard material that is worn on the fingers, or is clamped between them, with a smooth or spiked warhead.»
Knuckles is composed of the core with finger holes and lugs, stop and stand (or columns) that connect the frame with focus.
The progenitor fist plus Greek Bellion (from Latin cestus — piece of leather wrapped around something). In his own original form Bellion were a strap or straps that wound on his hand. They were used in fights in fighting and gladiatorial battles.
Unlike modern boxing gloves and bandages, the purpose of which — to mitigate strike to reduce the risk of injury to a competitor, Bellion were right back goal — to increment the effectiveness of strikes with his hand. First image Bellion found on ancient Greek amphorae III century BC. Gh.
Bellion then transformed into a longish leather glove from the forearm to the wrist with a fur-trimmed (fingers remain free) with a ring of 4 or 5 layers of thick leather, clasps his hand. Ring and the glove firmly on the arm straps.
Romans for gladiatorial battles altered leather belts Bellion, adding to it the iron parts, including steel plates and rivets, and in some models — iron spikes on the knuckles. In the upcoming appeared more lethal variants Bellion with sharpened blades — MIRMEKS (myrmex) and sphayrai (sphairai).
With the increase combat effectiveness Bellion gladiator fights became more bloody before the time, until the 1st century BC. Gh. Bellion are banned.
Modern heirs Bellion can be considered «gloves-weighting» or how else they are called «jammers Gloves» (weighted-knuckle gloves or sap gloves). First samples of such gloves were a glove leather with stitched into their plates of lead in the joints of the fingers.
For the production of current models except the skin use different synthetic materials. Cavity-pockets in the joints of the fingers, the outside of the fingers, and from time to time and the inside of the back of the fingers and palms are filled with lead or metallic powder, at least — a small fraction.
In some swatches of gloves, these cavities pronounced, while in others they are inconspicuous. These gloves difficult to distinguish from ordinary.
These gloves can be used for both offensive and defensive actions. Offensively, the weight of iron powder increases the weight of a fist, and therefore increases the kinetic energy of the blows with his hand. In contrast to the fist, in which the impact energy is concentrated on a small area and cause damage to the tissues and bones of the body, the impact energy glove-weighting is distributed over a large area, which reduces the chance of injury.
The main purpose of gloves-weighting is considered to be hand protection when hitting. Strikes an unprotected hand to the head or face of the enemy often results in injury to the attacker’s arm and punches in the mouth can lead to peeling skin on the hand from contact with the teeth. A layer of metal powder protects hands from those injuries without reducing the effectiveness of the applied strokes.
Besides gloves provide extra protection against shocks inflicted on the enemy, and allow to block blows inflicted with a blunt instrument, such as batons or sticks. They can prevent the sample released from capture enemy, inflicting blows on the back of the hand. Modern standards of gloves can be made of kevlar or have a protective insert made of this material. In this case, hand firmly protected from knife cuts.
These gloves are used employees of security agencies and the security forces, who are faced with the need to implement physical violence. Previously, these gloves have been used extensively by the police, but the public outcry against the «Gestapo» methods of forced to abandon them in almost all countries of the world. During the second world war gloves with lead tabs used in the interrogation by the Gestapo officers and officers of the SS for beating prisoners in the concentration camps.
The legislation states of the world in different ways refers to gloves-weighting agents. In some countries, they are listed as a cool gun and wearing them illegally. For example, in Australia, some U.S. states. In a number of states allowed their free sale and wearing as a weapon of self-defense. With all of this is prohibited by their wearing in public places (England), and should be a formidable punishment for their illegal use of (New-york).
Presumably brass knuckles in its present form emerged in Europe in the XIX century. As noted earlier, traditional fist an iron plate with holes for fingers, and the stopper projections shock.
Types of brass knuckles
Different versions of fist different form finger holes, ridges and sea combat stops. More vserasprostranennoy order to strike a head. The result of the enemy’s attacks are often languid, including the deaths and injuries. It is associated with significant weight and having knuckles striking projections which lead to a concentration of impact force on a small area. Apart from that the presence of the stop transfers the energy of impact on your palm, because no pain when struck consequences for the attacker does not happen. Brass knuckles are one of the favorite tools of criminal and extremist groups. In most states, their creation, circulation and carrying prohibited by law.
Knuckles handicrafts, usually of low quality and are made from available materials — lead, plexiglass, PCB, wood, etc. In a simple case, it may be a rectangular steel plate with holes for the fingers.
Industrial establishment fist currently being concentrated in South-East Asia. In order to circumvent legal restrictions on export to countries in Europe and America, they are often produced in the form of a belt buckle and have the smallest thickness. Often, these are decorated with brass knuckles decorative elements in the form of dragons, skulls, dice, and so on.
Brass knuckles in the form of buckles for belts
In addition to traditional brass knuckles at the end of the 1990s. There are mini-cassettes covering 3, 2-or even one of the first finger. These knuckles from time to time called polukastetami, they have a variety of forms.
Compared with the traditional brass knuckles, they have the least weight, size and the least traumatic. They are widely used as a means of personal self-defense civilian population. This is the first treat brass knuckles with one or 2 holes for the fingers.
To this type belong fists are popular tools of self-defense under the title «Wild Cat» and the so-called «openers».
«Wild Cat» — keychain and self-defense weapon
«Wild Cat» — a key ring made of plastic (less often metal) which initially produced in the form of a stylized head of a cat. With all of this «eyes» were finger holes, while the «ears» — lugs, and the «lower jaw» — makes the role all the way into his palm. Over time, the scene of a number of mini-fist considerably expanded. At the current time they are made in the form of a head of a dog and jackal, skulls, etc.
Opener Keychain can be used as a mini brass knuckles
«Opener» is a small iron stick in the form openers for beer bottles. Specific form of a keychain allows you to use it as a mini brass knuckles for self defense.
In contrast to Europe and America in the martial arts of Asia knuckles are used more sparingly. At the same time, this region has a bladed weapon vserasprostraneno Fisted grip. An example of such tools is an Indian dagger catarrh or dzhamahad (Blade of death), and various «claws» from the arsenal of ninja who dress or clamped in his hand.
Brass knuckles, claws
Yet the conventional instrument of Indian martial art Vaira Mushta («Diamond Fist») is a self-titled brass knuckles, which is also known as the «chorus.»
Choir is made of buffalo bone and in its traditional form has seven triangular protrusions shock. 5 of them on the front surface and one on the lower and upper part of knuckles.
Indian martial arts weapon — Vaira Mushta or choir
The most famous Japanese brass knuckles certainly is Tekko («Iron Fist»). He is also known as Tikki Tekko. Tekko comes to the arsenal of percussion instruments of Okinawan karate. Like other types of Okinawan weapons (tonfa, nunchaku, etc.), Tekko transformed into an instrument of the items of agricultural utensils.
Most experts believe that the prototype was Tekko ordinary horseshoe that Okinawan farmers and peasants, if necessary, used as improvised weapon.
Japanese brass knuckles Tekko («Iron Fist»)
In this case the same title have two different shapes of the object. More vserasprostranen Tekko a pen, to which a curved strip of iron — frame with 3 drums projections or spikes, the length of which was about 2.5 cm
The flowering of art combat with Tekko (tekkodzyutsu) is at the end of the XIX century. Technique Tekko perfectly superimposed on the main hand strikes and blocks are used in Okinawan karate, and most of the Okinawans long possessed this effervescent percussion instrument.
In traditional European brass knuckles of finger motion is limited openings for them. In Tekko same plate covers all the fingers are completely or restrict their mobility. This allows you to not only strike, and a capture hand in what is brass knuckles.
At the current time working with Tekko practiced only in a few schools of karate and dziu-jitsu.
In the 1970s. renowned master of martial arts Takayuki Kubota attempted creation based Tekko new means of self-defense «Bo Kwon Do». It was a smaller version of Tekko the plate-frame without protrusions. But unlike other invention Kubota — kubotana, Kwon Bo did not commit to a widely known.
Even in our days are to be used in special poli ce unit has been designed sverhtehnologichny tactical tool-knuckles of titanium in the form of TECO.
It is interesting that at the end of the first decade of this century was created the original instrument of self-defense, repeating the shape of a horseshoe. It bears the title «keyp safe» and made of durable polymer material in the form of a horseshoe.
«KEYP SAFE», self-defense weapon in the shape of a horseshoe
Another less well known is the type of languid Japanese brass knuckles «Tekkan» (piercing steel). It is a powerful languid iron plate with a huge hole for the hand. Tekkan was used to pierce armor in close combat, attack the enemy’s hands at the time of exposure of the blade.
Together, it is worth noting that the brass knuckles never were in service with military connections. There is a perception that they are operated by the SS units during the second world war. Most likely this myth stems from the fact that the SS officers were ordering in person with embossed brass knuckles on their SS symbols (oak leaves, the swastika, the SS lightning, etc.).
«Benefit-hand combat techniques based on the British street fight», 1940, the
In the web links can meet the brochure «Abwehr Englischer Gangster-Methoden», published in Norway in 1940., Which Tipo is a manual on hand to hand combat with the use of brass knuckles for the Abwehr units. But the contents of this brochure, the title of which the Russian language can be translated as «manual on hand to hand combat techniques based on the British street fight», any work to the use of fists, nor has the Abwehr. The reason for this confusion was the first word in the title of brochures — Abwehr, «protection», the second value is — the Abwehr — German military intelligence in the years 1919-1944.