I know almost nothing about the real arrows. But I know the folklore, some genres that literally filled with archery, for example, the epic, many arrows in plots, and it is not easy arrows of Cupid, a powerful fire attack passion, in the mythological and the songs of the South Slavs yunatskih Forks excellent command of the bow and arrow as Polanica our epic not only in one of the tales mentioned old wise woman who is able to be used in the event of military small arms. Just as there is still a pagan ritual of "Driving (funeral) arrows", which raised the question of online Perunitsa "burning" the topic collector arrows. I take from that spark, for several weeks, I feel hurt, pierced, burnt, as if someone in my party whisper conspiracy:
"… Pozryu, look at the clear sky
With a clear sky flying Firebolt;
That boom pray, give in and ask her:
"Where did fly Firebolt?" —
"In the dark forest, the shifting gate, is rooted in the raw" —
"About you, Ognjen boom gates and flying, which I will send you!
There are in Holy Russia …(Name),
Fly her zealous heart, liver, black,
In hot blood, becomes mine,
At the mouth of the sugar, the clear eyes, the black eyebrows,
That she missed, at dawn,
When Mladen month, with the wind-chill,
The profits of these days and declined … "(Ritual poetry "- Moscow, 1997; kn.2, № 67)
And here, in full compliance with the plot, in decreasing days of December, the long winter nights, the moon rising, I hear ringing, calling voice boom, I smell: the topic wants to manifest through me, and I obey.
<Part I. Boom in oral folk art Slavs.
-And it runs without any reason?
And that growing up without a root?
What is singing without a voice?
-Water running for no reason.
Stone grows without a root.
Boom sings without a voice.
In his dictionary V.Dal writes about the boom: "kopeytse, let the bow, straight, bark at (round) wooden needle, steel (the savages with a flint) tip and butt Perrin for straightness of flight, in the very heel zarubochka that placed on the bow, there are arrows without tips, such as a spatula, to fight the fish, and with a bone, horn tip. Vstar distinguished arrows severgi, shear, tomarki, tahtui and Other "(" Dictionary of the Russian Language "- Moscow, v. 4, 1995, C 344).
In the folklore of Slavic names such arrows do not. In the songs of the South Slavs arrows have strong epithets "thin", "tataranki" ie Tatar (often), as well as "white", "copper" and "gold" (rare). In East Slavic "roasted", "Thunder", "fire" (frequently), "muravchatye", "Perrin", "valiant", "sharp" and "Tatar" (rare). There are a few cases the name of arrows "bone" and "stone":
"And let (Samodiva) thin arrow
And hit yunak Rabro.
But he took refuge behind the shield,
Himself and his horse covered it … "("Rabro-yunak Samodiva and" / / "Song of the South Slavs" — Moscow, 1976, C 49).
"ZAP onion and two Bele boom
Jedna ud * When a grlo Milosz,
* When a friend beats a srtse j unachko "(AN Afanasyev "Poetic views on the nature of the Slavs", — M., 3, 1995, with 85. With reference to the Hammer. N. pjesme).
In East Slavic folklore preserved the memory that the arrows are related to white: one of conspiracy, Ratna man tears "powerful potions" — three blades of grass — white, black and red. With the red grass, he has produced a sword, with a black halter with a heroic knight, and "… a white blade will quiver with a stone arrow" "(" Russian people, their customs, rituals, traditions, superstitions, and Poetry "collected Zabylin M., — M., 1992; 299.So With reference to the "Tales of the Russian people," Sakharov).
Protective, camouflage pattern arrows have our epics, one of them says Dobrynya Marinka:
"Oh, give it to me so Kalen arrow,
As Kalen strelotsku muraftsetu! "
("Dobrynya and Marinka», № 249 / / Andrei Grigoryev "Arkhangelsk epic and historical songs," — St. Petersburg, v. 2, 2003, C 240).
"Muravchaty, herbal, zelenozlachny; melkokrapchaty"("Ant" / / B. Dal.Tolkovy Dictionary of the language — 2, pp. 359).
"He took an arrow Mihaylushko island …"("Michael (Kozarin)», № 84 / / "Arkhangelsk epic and historical songs" — St. Petersburg, volume 1, 2002, C 274).
The king's brother, Marco asked to name:
"Go thou to my farmstead,
Bring me tataranku boom … "("The king's son Marco and allyl-aga" / / "Song of the South Slavs" — Moscow, 1976, C 164).
In military conspiracy: "… in a patterned belt sewn, scrolled wrought with an arrow quiver, a grandfather, Tatar … so quiver with hardened boom, smash the enemy foe" ("Russian people, their customs, rituals, traditions, superstitions, and poetry" collected by M. Zabylin — Moscow, 1992; 299.So With reference to the "Tales of the Russian people," Sakharov).
The songs and epics described feathers arrows, it is always a feather birds of prey:
"And that boom in tataranki
Nine white feathers falcon "("The king's son Marco and allyl-aga" / / "Song of the South Slavs." — M., 1976, C 164).
"In the left-hand so it keeps a tight bow,
In the right-hand arrow is hot,
Yes Kalen streluchku, Perrin;
Not the same eagle sizokamskogo yes.
Not the same eagle that sits on the oak,
Yes, the same eagle that on the blue sea … "("Making the Warriors" / / "Epics" — Moscow, 1988, C 164).
The rich Galician Duke rare, precious arrows with feathers of donation of the same particular eagle, I would even say sacred, as it nest on the white-combustible stone Alatyr:
"A tocheny arrows twelve grains,
Yes tocheny arrows gilded
Pereny Siza were feathers of an eagle,
Not the eagle, Coy letat the fields,
And the eagle, Coy letat the seas,
Letat eagle but the blue sea
Hatches out …
On a white Latyre to stone.
They traveled guests, sailors,
Found three eagle feathers,
Duke brought in gifts of a feather "
"He shot the day, at night collecting arrows;
Where the arrow is like fire burning "
"A second three arrows prices I know not …"
(Byliny. M. 1988. № 49. "Duke Stepanovich Churila Plenkovic." S. 365-366).
There are probably talking about the "features" eagle, eagle, golden eagle Golden Eagle. During the flight of the bird with golden feathers on his head, literally breaking out in the sun, there is the phenomenon of a halo or crown, crowning a bird's head (Kulakov, Markovets M. Bird satellite Germanic gods and heroes. / / Balto-Slavic studies XVI, — Moscow, 2004).
It is known that the falcon and the eagle was "totemic" birds of many Slavic tribes:
"Turn around to Xia yes my dear father
Migratory you, so clear hawk … "(Russian people, their customs, rituals, traditions, superstitions and poetry collected by M. Zabylin. C 112).
Their murder was forbidden. In the song of Sekule to talk about it directly:
"Well shoot me a gray falcon
If I kind of Sokolov himself? …
According to ancient legend, the Polish, the men of the kind Gerburt death turned into eagles … "(NN Veletskaya "Slavic pagan symbols archaic rituals", — M., 1978, p 37).
In Polesie, near the Russian-Belarusian-Ukrainian border, which are "reserve" Slavic archaic, carols to keep a lid on hunting these birds, and performs the ban increases their social status:
"And the police dalyako flock Visak oak,
Holy vechar good people!(Repeat after each line)
Hay on the oak syadeu syzy (a) rel,
Ai amplitude ishou Paulichyk friend,
Arla hut kill cottage ruin,
Wait, AE biy Arla and ydi yes king
Hay Dusty tabe king monitors canoes,
Ai tsareuna Dusty zyaleny zhupan,
Our waking Paulichyk malodenky pan "(Russian folklore XXX.Materialy and research. C-P. 1999. Yu.I.Marchenko. "Winter prazdnochno-congratulatory song in areas of Russian-Belarusian-Ukrainian border». № 35. C 367).
"The Pan Siarhei Yawar on dvare …
Young Syargeyka onion (s) zaryadzhaya …
Onion (s) zaryadzhaya in ap (s) ly stryalyaya …
Young Syargeyka, AE stryalyay in ar (s) la … "(Further advice is given to shoot at the king, followed by marriage to the princess. YI Marchenko. "Winter prazdnochno-congratulatory song in areas of Russian-Belarusian-Ukrainian border" / / Russian folklore XXX. Materials and Research — St. Petersburg, 1999; № 35, with 367
And the question arises how these esteemed extracted feathers of birds? Probably the same as the girls gathered feathers (swans, "Pavilion") to decorate hats and stuffing pillows:
"Flew peahen raspavistaya …
Dropped her Perrier podlapistoe
Perrier dropped her in the green grass.
There is just ishlo Knyazevo wee.
It is not so ishlo — feathers collected,
Perrier collected in rukavok laid,
Small pen — in podolochek,
A pen — in rukavochek …
With hem take — put her in a pillow,
With sleeves took — vyanochek weaving. "("Once Upon a Time. Russian ritual poetry" C-P. 1998. № 113. S. 61).
Just get feathers from birds of prey in captivity.
Feathering arrows played up in the Russian enigma: Boom describes birds:
"Crow flies, nose Bound: where sticks, ore sink"(Proverbs of the Russian people. V.Dal collection in two volumes. Volume Two. M. 1996. S.387. To this conundrum leads Dal otgadku "gun", apparently referring to the "bullet", but it is clear that this is a secondary rethinking otgadki "arrow").
"Flying winged bird,
No eyes, no wings,
She whistles, she gushes.
No wings, and birds,
Like flies — because whistles
A sitting — so silent "((A.N.Afanasev "Poetic views on the nature of the Slavs", Volume 1, M.1995. S.249. Citing Sakharov).
In an old hunting conspiracy meet the hero who makes himself a pole arm of birch:
"… In the eastern side is a tree — white birch;
Chopped, isschepayu, vystruzhu distant arrows
Shoot thoughts, the thoughts of his traps in the dark forest … ".("Ritual poetry, Book 1" Moscow, 1997; № 1391 "On the successful hunt for animals and birds").
Here are the manufacturing stage shaft ancient weapon: cutting wood, chopping it into wood chips and shavings of vystrugivanie circular in cross-section arrows. In another PATH plot, which lacks the word "boom", it is still easy "read" its presence: it describes the sorting of dangerous items into components, that is, is the transfer of things, it is composed of (iron, wood, feathers, isinglass), which gives us an idea about making booms:
"Mother of the damp earth, you're a mother to every gland, and you go and iron in their mother land, and you're the tree, go into their mother tree, and you pens, Go to your mother bird, and bird flight in the sky, and glue shoots in fish and the fish swim in the sea, but I would slave (this is) would be spacious throughout the land. ("The Russian people, its customs, rituals, traditions, superstitions, and Poetry" collected M.Zabylinym. M.1992. S.298. Referring to the "Tales of the Russian people," Sakharov).
But the information for the production of arrows is not relevant to the general population for several hundred years, as long as the gun finally replaced bows. However, bows, crossbows and arrows for a long time coexisted and competed successfully with a firearm, the first species of which were bulky, heavy and awkward to use. The historic 17th century song "The Messenger Razin in Astrakhan '(1669) is referred to boom:" Oh, to-morrow to you (to the governor) will he (Razin) shoot arrows … ". ("The old historical songs." M.1971. P.34). In the noble tradition of Slovak Jánošík robber, who was born in the early 18th century (v1711 year), says of him and his comrades: "They wore green shirts with a belt, gray ports, belt sandals … their weapons were crossbows and axes" (Slovak tales . M. 1955. "People rumor about Jánošík." p.35).
In the epics can be found bows, arrows and silicon guns were in service at the same time:
Volh turning ermine in the enemy camp
"The tight bows tetivki nakusyval,
In red-hot arrows zheleztsy povynimal.
The one with the gun after fire
Flint and ramrod povydergal,
And all he had buried in the ground. "("Epics", M. 1988, "Volh Vseslavevich", p.23).
Interestingly here the name of the arrowhead, which is called the generalized V.Dal "sting", which can be metal, bone, wood, here is translated: "zheleztse" of iron. In an ancient conspiracy "to boom" find the image of bone arrows, that is, apparently, with a bone-tipped, "flight you Kastsyan boom, the old master, a wizard and witch. Chip it, and go and customs "(.L.Seryakov" Book of Doves. "Moscow, 2001. S. 486). And as with a stone, "… white blade will quiver with rock boom. '" ("The Russian people, its customs, rituals, traditions, superstitions, and Poetry" collected M. Zabylin. M.1992. S.299. Referring to the "Tales of the Russian people," Sakharov). In the same plot, this boom is called "grandfather, Tatar"!
Another young man, dressed himself arrow on the forced leisure during a long voyage for "Danube", that is, to Byzantium, to brutalize a boat similar to the Scandinavian Viking ship whose "nose, feed it to an animal, and sides is reduced to Turin," we found in the archaic wedding glorification young:
"It was good on the ship is constructed:
A conversation is arranged like a tooth rybey(In the sense of a carved ivory)
In besedushke sat Yes Delete done(Name),
He's whittling struzhechku of hardened arrows "("Novgorod epics", M. 1978. "Zdunay / Three perch zlatoperye /. S. 238).
The ship fired at army Saltan Saltanovicha Ilya:
"Ilya Muromets pace of the ship,
His taut bow strings are
Kalen boom puts … "(Byliny. M.1988. № 27. S. 203).
Road to Byzantium (now Turkey and her neighboring countries), first on the river, and then along the coast of the Black Sea, took a few weeks, it's how many arrows can and should be vystrugat! But many do not vystrugivay, arrows will not be enough. In one of the tales it lacks three thousand arrows:
"He's yih nachel then shoot the arrows,
They are in fact … it was something after all three tysechi,
Sighted … he's red-hot arrows,
He just wanted to … oglenutisya,
Is a three-Silushka tysechi;
Here Borisushko Prince prirosplakalsya … yes. "("Epics MS hook. Volume Two", M. 1941. "About Boris Ivanovich." S. 19)
Understand what the number of arrows was not much of an exaggeration, you can read the testimonies assault Slavs in Byzantine Thessaloniki nachaleVII century: "Slavic ships sailed two miles away from the wall every day, looking for an easily accessible place … On the fourth day, the sun rises at the same time all the barbarian tribe gave a cry and attacked from all sides to the wall: some threw stones of cooked kamnemetov, others dragged the ladder to the wall, trying to grab a tray fire to the third goal, the fourth wall were sent to boom like snow clouds. And it was strange to see this set (stones and arrows), which eclipsed the sun's rays, like a cloud, carrying hail, so (barbarians) closed firmament flying arrows and stones "(Body of the oldest written form of the Slavs. Volume II (VII-IX centuries .) M.1995. "Miracles of St. Demetrius" p.129).
Fight a later time, but the overall appearance is similar to the description of the siege of Thessalonica.
Traveling by land, heroes Slavic folklore at leisure effortlessly manipulated arrows: they have changed, they were caught hands:
"From the log, the log went boyars strelyaemchi,
Bows and arrows all menyaemchi;
One tolkoVanyushka unchanged.
"What are you, Vanya, do not change?" —
"Me, my friends, do not wait for me:
I now have in God's justice,
In God's court, in the holy wedding. "(Ritual poetry. M. 1989. "Arrival wedding train the bride's house and leaving the crown», № 586).
"A ride track so poteshayutse:
A Vasilyushko strelotsku postrelivat,
And yes Dobrynyushka strelotsku podhvatyvat "("Nikitich and Alyosha Popovich," M.1974; № 15, "Vasily Kasimirovich drove the tribute Bateyu Bateevichu", pp. 87).
Similar games workout heroes saved lives in this battle. Rabro-yunak (cf. Old Russian Brave), fighting Samodiva:
"I caught it thin arrow
Broken down into smaller parts
Once again, the horse is. "("Song of the South Slavs". M. 1976. "Rabro-yunak and Samodiva." P.49).
In the epic "The signing of Ilya Muromets" Dobrynya catches an arrow from Ilya Muromets, which reads the request for assistance and rescued a comrade.
With such dexterity and arm strength, hero could throw an arrow without a bow, like a spear toss, for example, in extreme circumstances, when the bow is broken:
Dobrynya began pulling taut bow,
And roared taut bow as savage beasts,
And breaketh Dobrynya taut bow in two.
And he snapped taut bow of damp earth,
He sent forward Calen arrow sting
And he threw an arrow for two miles … ".
("Nikitich and Alyosha Popovich," M.1974; № 14, "Vasily Kazimersky." P.83).
Photo: Ermak. Throwing Sula — a short spear.
Lightning in a thrower Sula. "Bozya svaritsya"
The distance that the average could fly an arrow, was a measure of length:
Dobrynya jumping on a horse, "the three shots he threw back the stones." ("Nikitich and Alyosha Popovich," M.1974; № 1. "Dobrynya and Snakes", p.13)
But back to the manufacture of arrows. Ferrules "zheleztsa" did artisans in the epic "Youth Sokolniki" find a description of the order of metal weapons, including arrows and a blacksmith:
"Come nun Sokolnitsek in Nova Forge:
"Hush you oh thou, but the young blacksmith!
Ush you skuyte me a minute palotsku buoys
SHIELD … skuyte-TCR strelotski Cullens … ".(A.D.Grigorev. "Arkhangelsk epic and historical songs. Volume 2", C-II, 2003; № 288, S. 390).
In the Bulgarian enigma of the rainbow meet metal boom:
"… The B tochi COPPER arrow
Yes, I let go a long Mishin »»(A.N.Afanasev "Poetic views on the nature of the Slavs", Volume 1, M.1995. P.178).
Often referred to in conspiracies "iron fence" — impenetrable fence and charm, perhaps thought of making of such copies or forged arrows stuck into the ground:
"Obstructed his daughter Mila
Yes, all stamens iron … "("Once Upon a Time. Russian ritual poetry" C-P. 1998. № 216. P.115).
"… Fenced around me (name)
And my squad with Eaglets
Iron fence … "("Wedding. From courtship to prince's table," Moscow, 2001, p.222).
Amazingly beautiful Belarusian conspiracy cows:
"/ Cars / zagavarivayu, harbors,
Drobnymi zvezdami absypayu,
Zhaleznym tynam abstaulyayu … "(Arnamentom Padnyaprouya. Minsk 2004. S. 367).
In Kupala song sister asks her brother to make her tomb as follows:
"Put me / the fence,
Obsadi I / Strelitz
I hung / basting,
Obsey I / vasilechkami! "(L.S.Lavrenteva, Yu.I.Smirnov "Culture of the Russian people." C-P. 2005. S.419.).
In this case the "birds of paradise" can be understood as a plant, and as a real boom, however, take them to the grave of a man, and all the rest — women:
"… Well done to go — / Strelitz tear,
Grannies go / Basting take,
The girls go — / vasilechki tear "(Ibid.).
As you know, picking, picking plants in the Slavic tradition prerogative of women, not men, so there is likely a reservation within the meaning of the proper replacement "fellows Strelitz taken" to "well done Strelitz tear."
"… Podpoyashus light dawns, obtychus Some stars that pricked arrows — from every evil disease" (A.N.Afanasev "Poetic views on the nature of the Slavs", Volume 1, M.1995. P.212). From this plot we can see that the circular obtykanie sharp objects, including arrows serve as protection.
Fence (fence) of arrows stuck in the ground, we find not only in verbal charms, but in the actual ceremonies: Constantine Porphyrogenitus (X century) in his book "On the control of the empire," wrote in the tenth chapter of the sacrifices of the Slavs: "… Strengthen they reach around oak … ".
Image oak fenced rows of arrows so far can be found on the Belarusian Podneporovya towel, on the former territory of the tribe Radimichi (where still "lead the boom", and carols are prohibited to shoot an eagle)
Planometrichnoe oaks image (top view), a number of arrows separates them from the other patterns.
Arnamentom Padnyaprouya "Minsk.2004. Catalog towels, № 392, pp. 588.; № 395, S. 589. Fragments.
To "linen folklore," as there is a radar image of eight sockets with points in each petal obtykannye four arrows:
"Arnamentom Padnyaprouya" Minsk.2004. Catalog towels. № 55, pp. 476. For clarity, arrows on a black and white photo I highlighted in red.
The fact that such outlets are relevant to the Thunderer, prove excavations in Novgorod Peryn Tracts: "… As a result of the excavations revealed a circular area, … in the center of which is a round hole with traces of wood in it. Researcher rightly believes pit the wooden idol of Perun. Around the site, temple was dug a shallow ditch with eight extensions on the sides of the world, in every extension on the bottom of the pit showed signs of campfires. Temple was illuminated by eight fires "(B.A.Rybakov" Paganism Old Russia. "M.1988. S. 255).
And as the image on the towel in central Russia, where a similar eight petal rosette with "Ohnište" in each petal and crossed diamond-mark of plowed land in the center, located at the foot of an oak tree. To all of this is a direct route through the exuberant forest:
Fragment towel "Oak", private collection website.
Tula region, Suvorov district.
We estimate the depth of the tradition: Belarusian towels early twentieth century "reaffirm" the message of the tenth century Byzantine emperor, and the Russian towel the same time — the archaeological excavations of a cult object in force for a thousand years ago!
Protect the boom is the motive in the design window casings (the central figure):
"Strahl, Pavin raskvitnet. Lishtva have to. Karma. In 2002. " From "arnamentom Padnyaprouya" Minsk.2004. Fig. 51. S. 268.
Interestingly, the magic of arrows were used as a medicine in potions, "In nagovornuyu water use against the evil eye, horutane with coals or put an arrow key" (A.N.Afanasev "Poetic views on the nature of the Slavs", Volume 2, M.1995 . S.208). Here we see a direct reference to the fact that the boom and the — objects interchangeably. At first glance, this interchangeability in materials manufacturing both — iron, which in itself is considered a strong talisman. However, the widespread use of metal keys to padlocks and iron arrowheads does not fully coincide in time: Boom existed before, and metal locks with a bow at a later time. Most likely, this interchangeability, originated in ancient times, before the padlocks (with bows) with keys "Classic View" (from one end of bulging discs beard, the other end of a round head). The first key is not open and close the locks, bolts, latches and had a view of long thin rods, which are inserted into the slots on the door and locking, and the movement "back and forth" to move slowly in the lock tabs on the wall (locking) or ears ( unlocking).
In the illustration, the "transition" from the ancient to the "classical" form of the key: it's still a long stick to open the bolt, but Metal "beard" of the nails.
These locking devices, of course, is more to protect the premises of the entry of wild animals, not people, because such "sagittal" key could make myself any person. In connection with the association arrow = key water sources, "open" lightning, thunderbolt, the key of God, called "Gremyacha keys."
Subsequently, the rumble of metal keys "classical" view of the bunch, has continued the associative array key as a subject related to the Thunderbolts.
The theme of "lock and key" in folklore is inextricably linked with love, loyalty, eroticism: "Here's the answer! — She said (wife Beauty) suitors — homemade Casket — I, and the golden key — this is my faithful husband "(A.N.Afanasev" Poetic views on the nature of the Slavs ", Volume 2, M.1995. P.209 ). It turns out that the famous medieval historical character Roly-housekeeper was not accidental hero-lover in folk songs, not to mention Malusha housekeeper, mother of the notorious "robichicha" position, as they say, "binding."
The same erotic symbolism had folklore image arrow shot into a ring or an apple. Accordingly, "St. George" song, a song of the day Yarilin "Yar (variants: Ure, Juraj), get up early, / Take the keys / Otmkni Earth / Let the grass …" meant "shot an arrow into the Earth, disintegrant, for easy vskhozhdeniya grass, "or language prichet:" split-to you, Thunderbolt, another mother earth. " Despite the fact that in mythology boom is undoubtedly attribute Perun, we see that Yarila had to them, and after him, and earthly love young men, lovers and suitors. About Arrow in love lyrics and wedding ceremonies described below.
Now, comparing the data of science and folklore, we see that the intuitive way of knowing, as reflected in folklore, in many cases, very accurately conveyed the essence of the case, it suffices to compare the photo target pierced by an arrow and an egg with sperm.
Egg and spermatozoidy.Illyustrator N. Lukiyanova.
In the semantics of the Belarusian patterns identified MS Katsarom, Thunder sign depicted as a diamond (common name: circle, Colo), repeatedly crossed horizontally (that is, just as the goal, pierced by arrows)
And "rnamenty Padnyaprouya" Minsk.2004. Catalog towels. № 80. 484 (and many others in the same place).
The pattern is made with red thread on a white background.
N.Pyatkova from Mogilev said to him: "Granny May Audotstsya Gapeeuna, yakaya pomnila frantsuzau 1812, it seemed, INTO eight getaya figura in vyglyadze diamond s garyzantalnymi adrostkami-pramyanyami — geta I ests Gramaviamnichnik himself. Geta taki tsi holy God. "(M.S.Katsar. Belaruski arnamentom. Tkatstva, vyshyuka. Minsk. 2009. 128-129 C).
Unfortunately, only 30 years after the expedition art Katsara, ethnographers, who examined the same region, has found no such knowledge, and this element of the pattern informants called by another name, "Jaws", "splitting". I believe that the information can be trusted Katsara because, despite the fact that the fantasies of Slavic mythology flourished precisely in times of granny, "remembering the French in 1812," yet it was "armchair" speculation that among the peasants hardly penetrated. By contrast, modern name of the pattern but not tell us about the Thunderbolts right, yet are relevant to its aggressive characteristics.
In addition to the arrows in the "apple" — goals that are associated with the key in the lock, the arrows are aligned with the snakes, and in appearance:
"And it flew (Basil) strelochka hardened,
Exactly like a snake but the grass "(A.D.Grigorev. "Arkhangelsk epic and historical songs." Volume 3. C-P. 2003. № 324 "Vaska Butyga drunkard", p.117).
Of course, the text of the boom and the snake can be interpreted as a metaphor for a surprise attack one or the other but not both equal sign arrows and snakes in their forme.V dictionary Dahl shown saying: "As an arrow from a bow (suddenly)." However, "It is believed that the snake — sucker (or copperhead — from the word copper) a year are blind and only on Midsummer receive sight, and then, rushing for human or animal breaks its prey through — just like an arrow" (A. N.Afanasev "Poetic views on the nature of the Slavs", Volume 2, M.1995. S.268). Sucker gets its name because it looks like the cast of copper. On the other hand, the South Slavs all sharp objects, including arrows, associated with the snake in the stable expression of the "edge (a, s) as a snake."
In Montenegro, the long-nosed viper called "Poskok» (Vipera ammodytes), her head is very similar to an arrow (Figure A), according to popular belief, it jumps from tree to tree.
In real life, smooth snakes and poskok not jump or fly, stretched out like an arrow. Despite the fact that we are used to the perception of a snake in a wavy line, in nature there are subtle snake, attacking the victim with the trees, and in the air pulls the string. These snakes are found farther south boundaries of the medieval settlement of the Slavs. But we know that in the first centuries AD the Slavs large amounts of living in Syria, the Caucasus and Transcaucasia, and participated in these areas in the wars with the Arabs. It is here that the Slavs could get acquainted with thin snakes, throw down the tree stretched "boom."
Just maybe, these beliefs are echoes of the memory of the ancient use of poisoned arrows. Boom equipped with snake venom used in the days when I was not yet invented "tight" dalnostrelny bow, giving the arrows remarkable power:
"Ripe tetivka at Tuga onion —
Stanishniki fell from their horses;
Dart landed in cheese kryakovisty oak
Of broken oak in black with knife '(A.N.Afanasev "Poetic views on the nature of the Slavs", Volume 1, M.1995. P.155).
"And hit the raw oak kryakrvisty,
At the ring Zolochiv,
Scatters raw oak on dranochki … ".
("Nikitich and Alyosha Popovich," M.1974; № 14, "Vasily Kazimersky." P.83).
Of course, this is an exaggeration, but the penetration power of arrows — a fact well known, during the First World War, this property has been used successfully arrows: from airplanes, to get a certain height threw off arrows at the enemy infantry, arrows, vertical dive due to heavy tip, gaining a speed it's easy to break through the enemy's helmet.
In East Slavic folklore celebrated ability bow string and arrow to make sounds: Onion "buzzing" bowstring "sings" that evokes assumptions about the origin of stringed musical instruments of this type of weapon (or vice versa).
Boom and a hoot and whistle and sing:
"Oh, INTO Well then yes rastse first without the Quran?
Vechar holy! (Prypeu nightshade kozhnaga Radka)
Oops. INTO garyts Well then yes without first frying pan?
Oh, INTO Well then Gujo without raging wind?
— Sini stone rastse yes nd no Quran,
Zorachka garyts so without first frying pan,
Strelachka Gujo without raging wind "(Kalyandarna-abradavaya paeziya. Minsk. 2001. P.125).
"… As flies — as whistles
A sitting — so silent "((A.N.Afanasev "Poetic views on the nature of the Slavs", Volume 1, M.1995. S.249. Citing Sakharov).
In the Serbian song boom "singing":
"Get out of here, Uhryniv Janko!
I then your tent is not needed;
Sing my arrow,
Ustrelit you, Janko "(A.N.Afanasev "Poetic views on the nature of the Slavs", Volume 3, M.1995. S. 84. My translation).
Ability of arrows "to sing", to whistle, hum "native" to the human voice. For example, wedding weeping bride speaks of his voice as follows:
"Oh, I'll sit down, sirotinushka,
The oak on the bench,
That by the bright window,
With Comin something otgolosochki
With lower light white
Taller dark forest. "(L.S.Lavrenteva, Yu.I.Smirnov "Culture of the Russian people." C-P. 2005. S.430).
That is, in terms similar to the traditional description of the "transmittance" boom:
"Fly to the heavens yes,
Fly below the cloud are you walking,
You fly above the forest so dense all "…"(Epics M.S.Kryukovoy. Volume Two. M. 1941. "Pereschotov nephew went to Ofrak River." P.86).
As a popular saying of the word is an empty negative, but the comparison with the arrows, "The word is not an arrow, and most of the boom (stink)" (V.Dal).
The real boom stored in bags, which had the name "napernik", "quiver", "kolchanochka" and others.
"Archer". Photo: Ermak
"He takes the old vet (Ilia), its brightness taut bow,
Ishsha tough-on bow of nAutsya yes FSE (case for a bow)
Calen-tu da boom of naperniki … "(A.D.Grigorev. "Arkhangelsk epic and historical songs. Volume 2", C-II, 2003; «№ 232« Ilya Muromets and outlaws ").
"Taking the Dobrynyushka taut bow
And myself and a quiver of arrows roasted "(Nikitich and Alyosha Popovich. M. 1974. № 28 "Three years Dobrynyushka stolnichal." S. 159).
"There Alyosha Popovich young alike
Put a bow on a mighty stiff shoulders
Put an arrow in kolchanochku … "(Nikitich and Alyosha Popovich. M. 1974. № 55 "On Alyosha Popovich." S. 227).
Way to carry a quiver of arrows without. Mezoneolit (VIII-VII tys.do BC). From the book M.Gimbutas "Tsevilizatsiya Great Goddess: The World of Ancient Europe," Moscow, 2006. S.204.
Arrows and bows, heroes and villains are sometimes described their enormous:
"- What beats? — Asks the king.
— Homemade bows Arrows and so killing.
— Where, show me your bow and your arrows?
-Come, let's go show.
And they've done it was their weapon: the arrow — is whole club, you can kill a man, and onions — Yassin, looped straps raw as will be stretched tighter, so she, the mother, is a mile and a half. Moose could not go — through a single shot, so on zem and collapsed "(Russian tales of Siberia and the Far East, and the magic of the animals. Novosibirsk 1993." About three heroes — Vechernike, Polunoshnike and Svetovike "p.56).
"His taut bow are nine Tatarinov
Kalen boom are six Tatars "
("Nikitich and Alyosha Popovich," M.1974; № 14, "Vasily Kazimersky." P.83).
Elijah asks Dobrynya:
"Soon-Borzoi endure my taut bow,
My taut bow at twelve pounds,
Kalen arrow in her hair seven feet! "(Byliny. M.1988. № 27. S. 203).
And, of course, arrows heroes were very valuable for their fighting qualities.
Ilya Muromets boasts before the villagers:
"Ishsha first arrow is petsot rubles
Ishsha fluorine-ta da-boom ka is so f tysitsu,
Ishsha third to a boom in prices so hyar no:
Where the arrow is directed, then fly it
And who'll have to beat, injure, to kill it! '"(A.D.Grigorev. "Arkhangelsk epic and historical songs. Volume 2", C-II, 2003; «№ 278" Ilya Muromets and outlaws ").
Here with an arrow will become the hero of this "boom Brahma" Brahmavanu, mythical boom inevitably lethal enemy, in what appears common Indo-European roots of Russian epic and Indian mythology.
Seem mysterious double and triple arrows mentioned in the epic, as the southern and eastern Slavs
"And he said Samodiva:
"Look you, Rabro-yunak,
I will send another arrow
Another arrow, double,
Many wives this arrow
Widows turned into fuel;
Send, and the third arrow
The third arrow, triple …! "("Song of the South Slavs." M.1976. "Rabro-yunak and Samodiva." P.49). In a footnote to the text suggested that this meant boom, fastened together or have increased magical powers. But archeology gives us examples of double and triple arrowheads:
Medieval arrowheads, including double and triple.
True, these arrows can hit a single target twice or thrice in one go, or nearby objects. A Villa in the Serbian song strikes yunak two arrows in the throat and the heart at the same time:
"ZAP onion and two Bele boom
Jedna ud * When a grlo Milosz,
* When a friend beats a srtse j unachko "(A.N.afanasev "Poetic views on the nature of the Slavs." Volume 3. M.1995. P.85. Referring to Hammer. N. pjesme).
Or in the Russian legend:
"He (the king) imposes two arrows hardened vet,
He hotset strelet yes bluish doves (two at a time) "(A.D.Grigorev. "Arkhangelsk epic and historical songs." Volume 3. C-P. 2003. № 375 "Little Vanya", S.410).
Therefore, here we used two separate arrows issued together or one after another.
In Slavic folklore additional force arrows betrayed by "nagovarivaniya", that is, before turning to an arrow shot with the request, telling her the task, and the arrow to "listen":
"Where the arrow is directed, then fly it
And who'll have to beat, injure, to kill her! "(A.D.Grigorev. "Arkhangelsk epic and historical songs. Volume 2", C-II, 2003; «№ 278" Ilya Muromets and outlaws ").
"Kalen boom puts / Ilia /
To the pointer says:
"Flight, my kalena arrow
Above the forest, above the forest on the sky,
You fall down, my kalena arrow
In the Turkish city of, in the green garden …
Saltan himself in Belo chest … "(Byliny. M.1988. № 27. S. 204).
Pereschotov "own nephew," shooting at the snake, saying:
"Fly, fly, my arrow Cullen,
Fly so high to the sky,
Fly below the cloud are you walking,
You fly above the forest so dense all.
A and you do not lose, my arrow, not at sea,
You're not on the sea, not on the mountain,
Paddy …, arrows, snake heart with very zealously yes! "
And boom runs the job:
"She has fallen arrow-snake is the zeal of heart with very …"(Epics M.S.Kryukovoy. Volume Two. M. 1941. "Pereschotov nephew went to Ofrak River." P.86).
In these texts, it is important to define "my" boom, because the alien boom "listen" to the hero it will not be "mended" only to the owner:
"At one point, Ivan Tsarevich was bored. He was like amplitude-syudy nowhere to go. Walked into the office of his father and saw the bow and arrow. Took the bow and arrows, went to the balcony and shot an arrow in one direction — it does not fly, took in the other side is empty — does not fly. And so it started up a few times — not flying anywhere. He said ahead of oaks, a grove of oak trees at twelve, and they let the amplitude etu arrow. Arrow soared and flew away. He syal on his horse and rode there for the boom. Kovda got there, between two oak trees found a hole where the left arm to the ground. UTB place he began to dig. There he found — cast-iron stove. So … under the slab was a hole is under the ground. I saw an old man … shackled in chains himself to his elbow, beard nokot. Arrow is before etim old man. Kovda came in, greeted old man, wanted to take the arrow. This beautiful old man said:
-No, do not touch it, Prince Ivan, etu boom: ETA my arm.
Prince Ivan said:
— As Jo UTB your arm: I took this beautiful bow and arrow in his office. How could she get to you? In addition, you are sitting shackled in chains, how could you hold etim bow and arrow? …
— I've been sitting here for twelve years — the old man — your father's aunt planted his power of sorcery. And if you now go home and find his father in the office of the cabinet and the golden key otomknesh me these chains tovda I'll give you a bow and arrow and you will shoot tovda anywhere tovda ONET will fly "(Russian tales of Siberia and the Far East : vodlshebnye and animals. Novosibirsk in 1993. № 18. "Bulat-done." S.196).
"Disobedience" and return to the owner is not the worst option "behavior" of another boom. Sometimes a boom there is an ability to go back and punish "false master." Nastassja delivers Koscheyu strange arrow, and:
"Enough Koschey tugy bow
Tetivochku pulled silk,
Imposes the arrow Cullen,
Arrows in the Black Crow,
BOOM — missed his.
(High-boom then yes podnimalase,
Yes back then-boom vorochalase).
So that arrow drew back,
Fell into his exuberant head … "(B.A.Rybakov. "Paganism ancient Rus'. M.1988. S. 327. Citing Rybnikov and Hilferding).
A fragment of a silver edging turego horns of black graves, X century. According to the academician B.A.Rybakova here shows the plot of "Death of Koschei from his arm."
A similar text is found in the relatively recent song Bulgarian partisans during the Second World War:
"Stepped Hitler, Hitler stepped
On Russian soil.
Was aiming right, was aiming directly
In the Kremlin stars.
Did not get it, did not get it
In the Kremlin stars,
And he came, and he came
Directly into his heart "(M.L.Seryakov. "Book of Doves. M. 2001. Pp. 486-487).
But here at the weapon "boomerang" is attributable to contract violations by Hitler, that is a kind of "oath" company. Counted out a thousand years of 1945 and look at the agreement of Russia and Byzantium mid-tenth century, which stipulates the death of his weapons: Russ Pagan, If they break the treaty "… so no shame help from God or from Perun, but not uschityatsya their shields, and may be posechenny their swords from strel and other weapons from their … "(M.L.Seryakov." Book of Doves. M. 2001. S. 486).
Return the arm to the owner it was possible with the help of plots: "" … the gate, zhelestsa (iron arrowheads), to the one who shot you … "(Siberian military conspiracy XVIII century)," the gate you zheleztsa, on the edge of the old Emperor … " (Veliky collection XVII.) "(M.L.Seryakov" Book of Doves. "Moscow, 2001. S.486)
The arrows do not always speaketh the words with a request to hit someone, sometimes contained a "good" to their masters. In the Serbian tale, "Celik Bash" (similar to our Koschei, literally "iron chump"), the wife of the villain three times elicits from him, where his "hero." He tells her first false options: "- a bad little wife, believed at once! My hero is not a sword, and then boom … My wife started (falsely) to pray to God at the end of the stele "(" Language Society usyago zhyvoga. "Serbskiya narodnyya kazki." Minsk. 2007; "Bash Chelik." P.48. My translation) .
Occasionally touring with a religious purpose, the hero refuses to bloodshed, "leaves the command" on your weapon:
"A nd me a minute to go to the road — not expensive (n) Ichetu,
Podorozhnitset not, go — no krovolitnitset,
And th … he vet zapovet something put itself a great
And to the de-ka on the bow, the arrow Calen … "(A.D.Grigorev. "Arkhangelsk epic and historical songs." Volume 3. C-P. 2003. № 360 «First trip Ilya Muromets", S.298).
But if necessary, this commandment is a hero, "removed":
"And I'm sorry, Ospodi in such guilt;
Nontse onions … yes, to whoever would
Ponuzhnee do this kalena boom! "(Ibid, p. 305). This is followed by a traditional plot up to, asking Nightingale hit in the eye.
"We are betrothed saber sharp,
Put to sleep kalena Arrow "
Contrary to conspiracies "to boom" to defeat the enemy, there were texts protection from arrows:
"… Fenced around me (name)
And my squad with Eaglets
So no one could shoot it … "("Wedding. From courtship to prince's table," Moscow, 2001, p.222).
"… As the water otpryadyvayut stones and bubbles jump, it would have on martial implements pryadali past me arm …" ("Tales of the Russian people gathered Ivan Petrovich Sakharov." Conspiracies military for weapons. Online version at biblioteka.ru).
In addition to plotting the real combat arrows, in folklore there are texts in which the person making the request to the air, "thunder", flaming arrows.
In love conspiracies:
"About you, fire arrows, and turn again to fly, which I will send you!
There are in Holy Russia … (name)
Fly her zealous heart, liver, black,
In hot blood, becomes mine … "("Ritual poetry, Book 2," Moscow, 1997; № 67).
"Smashed-ka you, Thunderbolt,
Another mother but his mother — the land of cheese!(Russian people, their customs, rituals, traditions, superstitions and poetry collected M.Zabylinym. P.112).
Moloney sverkuchaya, Ognjen boom
And most Thunderer — Skylords arrows:
"- Goi Thou, Father Elijah the prophet,
Otshibay thunder rattlesnakes,
Shoot an arrow of fire
In every evil person
Shoot … zealous heart
In hot blood,
In the liver, the lungs, the duck … "(Russian family ritual folklore of Siberia and the Far East. Novosibirsk. 2002. № 268. S.277).
We see that the construction of magical texts with references to real darts and arrows of the divine, are similar: both, and the other person tells you where it (arrows) Fly ("above the forest below the cloud"), which did not fall ("not on the ground not on the water "), and where to get (the" split zealously heart "). Perhaps due to this equation, which tells us that any boom — a sacred object, shooting Elijah (character named Thunder) to churches in the "special status" of anger, yari (analog nature of Thunder, comparable to the proverbial storm, "Bozya boil "that is, God is angry), the epic is not condemned and punished:
"I'm done now angry,
I'm done now irritated. "
As it is something to it here povydumal,
Arrow-it according to God's churches
For the shooting at the wondrous cross
For those on a gilded domes "(Byliny. M.1988. № 20. S. 146).
Why not, because sometimes the real lightning hit the church. And the Balkan Slavs one of many ways of distillate Rain from the village and the fields is shooting clouds man with a gun, and in a more ancient period, of course, with arrows. Moreover, in different parts of the Slavic world recorded texts in which man shoots better than God. Horutanskaya (Slovenian) legend «Lugar sv. Iliji vraga strelil »: Hunter (" Lugar "compare with our" Polyanin ") during the storm hid under the tree, and I could see what that ugly mug in which and shot, considering it a beast. Then the old man came up to him and announced that he — St. Elijah, seven years could not kill the devil, and he was shot by a hunter. For a hunter was rewarded with happiness and a good match. "Such is the legend known in Little Russia, but instead of Elijah it displays God" (A.N.afanasev "Poetic views on the nature of the Slavs." Volume 1. M.1995. S.240). The Ukrainian version of God persuades man to swap weapons (!): "'Thy will be translated ruzhzho ottih curse scho mene draznyut." Changed, and once it is used to shoot a man in God's Arms — once the thunder and thunder in the sky "(ibid.).
Very bright "theme boom" appears in the texts of the wedding and lyric songs:
The best man whispers in the horse's right ear:
"… I'll put you on a good horse,
Egor Brave and the servants of the mighty,
Arrows with red-hot! … "("Ritual poetry, Book 2," Moscow, 1997; № 148)
Or on the bachelorette party sing:
"Because of the forest horse runs
The horse runs, the earth trembles
On horse bridle … thunders
The horse arrow flies,
After arrow done running;
At the gate is a girl …
"Maiden, Pereima ICDO horse!".(Ritual poetry. M. 1989. "Hen», № 530).
We went dark forests,
We were beasts … then attacked,
We all arrows
All plates in them poraskidali! "("Ritual poetry, Book 2," Moscow, 1997, pp. 180).
In the spring of Belarusian song fellow bride sends to a remote Danube arm, telling her of his imminent arrival and courtship:
"- Swim, arrows, up to my girls, Falcon,
Falcon bright, young red, Ivan.
Let my girl gifts cooks Falcon … "(Kalyandarna-abradavaya paeziya. Minsk. 2001. № 446. S. 129. Belarussian Translation — mine).
"We came two men in the yard,
Shoot an arrow through the window.
— Arrow mine. Boom
For you to come?
… — Not for honey, not garilku,
A girl on the red "(Folklore in zapisah Ian Chachota i bratou Tyshkevichau.Minsk. 2005. P.190. Translated from Belarusian mine).
In winter ritual texts the theme of love, courtship and marriage is intertwined with the theme of the arrow:
For the acquisition of the boom and fellow maids can sell a horse
"- Oh, you're my horse, a horse, I'll Prado, …
I'll rub for pradam for strelku …
Behind the red … deuki,
I strelku zlamlyu I deuki vazmu … "(Russian folklore XXX.Materialy and research. C-P. 1999. Yu.I.Marchenko. "Winter prazdnochno-congratulatory song in areas of Russian-Belarusian-Ukrainian border». № 33.S 366).
"Young (young) na sudzenyshku pahadzhae,
Kalyanu natsyagvae Strahl,
Strahl punish himself.
INTO lyatsi, lyatsi, kalyanaya Strahl,
INTO ubi, ubi …
Sulfur vutsitsu beragu on a steep,
Krasna dzevitsu on at a high Ceram.
Krasna dzevitsa — May nyavesta(T.I. Kuharonak. "Masks have kalyandarnay abradnastsi Belarusau." Minsk 2001. P.136).
Obviously, in a certain historical period ability to shoot arrows, was mandatory for the groom quality:
"Kali pavyrastali sons, But father dau IM pa bow I Strahl I said: — vyydzitse, children, s hut I pustsitse strely pile. Kuzia palyatsits Strahl, where I shukaytse zhonak sabe. "(Charadzeynyya kazki. Minsk. 2003. № 13," Tsareuna Frog ").
And if a girl likes and agrees to marry, she returns arrows owner.
Attachment to the spouse shows readiness to submit boom:
"- But my dear, my dear,
Take me with you (to war)
You will … strelyate,
I podbirati arrows,
Figure out your hands. "(Folklore in zapisah Ian Chachota i bratou Tyshkevichau.Minsk. 2005. № 225. P.115. Translated from Belarusian mine).
Loving husband, a woman tries to smack him more arrows:
"And ask de Danilushko Peremyakin son
Asked Nastasyushki three strelotski.
Yes, they gave him Nastasyushka devet strelotsek. " '(A.D.Grigorev. "Arkhangelsk epic and historical songs." Volume 2. C-P. 2003. № 275 "Danilo Peremyakin", p.329).
In the epic of Dobrinja and Marinka situation is the opposite, the situation is not "love", but also have a place to be and arrow and a window into which it was put. Dobrynya accidentally gets an arrow in the box to the famous Kiev Putana Marinka, and requests to return the boom in terms that clearly give it clear that he did not propose to her came:
"Oh oh Thou, Marynushka-fierce storm!
Oh, you fucking atheist eretitsa you!.
And you let me give you an arrow Calen … ".
Marina also take this opportunity that just looks like a pre-wedding situation (see above), agreed to give an arrow if Dobryni marry her.
Dobrynya refuses Marina in revenge turns him into a horned animal (round, deer). Mother Marinka Dobryni promises that her son, if she raskolduet, to marry her. So it happens, but this is not a real wedding, not sanctified love and acceptance, a "naked" sex:
"Onex zhenilisya in the open field,
Circle broomstick marry.
He took it to the city to Kiev,
And following him Marinka raskoryaku … "(Nikitich and Alyosha Popovich. M.1974. № 28 "Three years Dobrynyushka stolnichal." S. 164).
Dobrynya home finds a way to get rid of "wife":
And then put it on the gate Marynku,
And he rosstrelyal Dobrynyushka her to death "(A.D.Grigorev. "Arkhangelsk epic and historical songs. Volume 2", C-II, 2003; «№ 249." Dobrynya and Marina ").
In the folklore of "shooting at the gate" is the stable form of eliminating villains, indicating a ritual, not just murder, but penalty sanctified tradition, which is based on probably some unknown until a myth, as the gate — the border worlds . We can also add a description of the three-fold elevation over a certain type of gate structure, the wife of the deceased Virus before her swearing in sacrifice. Perhaps there was the perception of the value of the bow, "priest", and boom, "Mother":
"Ivanushko Godinovich a cheese-Dubai says:
"Oh you, my friend, my taut bow,
Since you, my dear, kalena arrow
Do not fall down-arrow to you or on the water,
Do not fall down-arrow to you or to the mountain,
Do not fall down-arrow to you either in raw oak …
Wrap, an arrow in the chest of the Tatar … "(B.A.Rybakov. "Paganism ancient Rus'. M. 1988. S. 326).
Heroes of the epic describes the different arrows:
"During that time, his favorite nephew-by
Pulled the arrow heat.
His hand perestrelushki did not,
Just dropped him so zealously in the heart … "
("Epics MS hook. Volume Two", M. 1941. "Pro-rosshey rosshey Rosshibi cap, his nephew." Pp. 78).
"There shoots Dunayushko Ivanovits —
He vyship woodpile used sedelyshka "(A.D.Grigorev. "Arkhangelsk epic and historical songs." Volume 3. C-P. 2003. № 309 "Danube", p.38).
This ability helps them to epic heroes in shows:
"A Nuti, — said the king — hto then let the arrow? Pobral Bratovo their bows. Povyshli a clean place. The first was Vechernik, took aim, shot an arrow — the arrow flew at half a mile, followed by a second brother, Polunoshnik — flew arrow on kissing a mile, after all Svetovik out, he pulled his taut bow, as he sent out arrows — roared at three miles left, and can not see where the disappeared "(Russian tales of Siberia and the Far East, and the magic of the animals. Novosibirsk 1993." About three-Vechernike heroes, and Polunoshnike Svetovike "p.56).
In the competition, in which life is at stake, the heroes of the long-range shooting skills to help:
"Turks came out with the first arrow,
Shot and measures the yardstick,
Shot one hundred and twenty yards.
Marco went to the first arrow —
That arrow flew two hundred.
Turks came from the second boom —
That arrow flew three hundred.
Marco went to the second boom —
That boom five hundred flying.
Turks came with the third dart —
That boom has flown six hundred.
Here at Yunak sister comes
And boom brings tataranku
Let him … As Marco tataranku —
In the dust and darkness sped tataranka,
Before her eyes, and can not get,
And not that smeryaesh yardstick!
Burst into tears allyl-yeah,
Mark doth sister:
"… I give you my farmstead,
Give you Luba-Turkish woman,
Just me, miserable, and love! '"("Song of the South Slavs." M.1976. "The king Marco and allyl-yeah." P.166).
Compete in accuracy, to come in the ring, the position of the head, the knife's edge, and others:
"And he spoke with a minute king Batey Bateevits:
"Hush you oh Thou, son Kasimirovich Vasilej yes!
A ect le your things are Sagittarians
And yes my Sagittarians postreletise
And during that where in metochku in Polish
And in fact in nozhovoe vostro yes?
A second esli no you let those of Sagittarius
And … not to see those Vasilyushko, white light! "
Dobrynyushka … And boom — yes FSE in metochku:
A kalena something strelotska roskololase. '(A.D.Grigorev. "Arkhangelsk epic and historical songs." Volume 3. C-P. 2003. № 358 "Vasily Kasimirovich", S.285).
Nastasya-korolevichna Danube offers:
"In fact, your valiant little head
I put my kolechiko silver;
Three times the arrow from the bow Kahlen povystrelyu,
Miss something skroz kolechiko silver
And not something I SRON kolechika with little head "(A.N.Afanasev "Poetic views on the nature of the Slavs", Volume 2, M.1995. P.115).
In general, a lot of women around the Danube good to shoot with bow:
"And I saw stack of the Danube —
A nategivala it taut bow,
A second would put the arrow de Calen:
It is an arrow into the Danube son I. —
A hit in the right voice Dunayushku "(A.D.Grigorev. "Arkhangelsk epic and historical songs." Volume 3. C-P. 2003. № 309 "Danube", p.38).
That ability brought up from childhood:
"Not uchilase Nastasyushka not weave, not Prest,
Yes uchilase Nastasyushka bow shoot
Yes utsilase nastasyushka own horse "(A.D.Grigorev. "Arkhangelsk epic and historical songs." Volume 3. C-P. 2003. № 345 "Danube", S.213).
militant Vila single called Samoviloy
Such training was given, apparently, according to personal inclination girls as well as the sister of Nastasia, Oprakseya, described by the usual beauty, indifferent to the heroic feats.
South Slavic Forks offer a girl, met on the lake:
"Listen, sister Yaw,
You let's go, Jovan, with us,
Trays … we'll bows
Bring bows and arrows! "("Song of the South Slavs." M.1976. "Yaw and samovily." P.36-37).
In one epic about Marinka old Muscovite with Vshivaya Hills Dobryni helps mothers find it, turned into a stag Marinka by nagovorennoy arrow shot from a bow Dobryni it at random:
"And tell her (the mother Dobryni) grandmother zadvorenka:
— Bring to you dobrynyushkin taut bow
And bring to you-yes Kalen arrow.
And the old woman pulls taut bow,
And leaves old Kalen arrow,
And the pointer itself to saying:
— you fly, to my arrow, the open field,
Doischi-to you Dobrynyushka Nikitich
Ryskuchego deer in a field:
Let flees to mother into stone Moscow
On the other there on the hill on the lousy … "(Nikitich and Alyosha Popovich. M.1974. № 28 "Dobrynya and Marina." S. 159).
Also here again we find a situation like "boom seeks master", the same as in the fairy tale "Bulat-boy" (see above).
General theme of "old woman with an arrow" is not a unit in folklore, in one embodiment of the fairy tale "The Frog Princess" with the telling title "Princess-old woman," are fairly comical situation:
"Vanya arrows. His left arm is unknown … That Vanya went through the world suffer … Vanya walks in this beautiful palace. In etim palace sits on the porch of an old woman paratnim dryaklaya — lips hung itself as black as coal, holds Vanyushkin arrow …. — Hello, my dear friend, Vanya. I am your destiny! "(Russian tales of Siberia and the Far East: vodlshebnye and animals. Novosibirsk in 1993. № 12." Princess-old woman ». № 12. S. 169).
In one embodiment of the old Marinka grandchildren lead to his grandmother-beggar deer "Golden Horn, Silver kopytushka", met on the streets of Kiev. The old woman immediately recognizes Dobrynya deer, and in gratitude for what Dobrynya well give her, takes his spell, and it is costly:
"Yes, now nadot Dobrynyushku lapel me,
Need a health priubaviti,
Century because of its several nadot me because sbrositi.
Good pay for good you need! ".(Epics M.S.Kryukovoy. Volume Two. M. 1941. № 70 "About Marinku Beauty" S. 131).
After Dobrynya again became a man, "vochudilsya," he asked the rescuer:
"Oh you, my grandmother, my dear,
Do you have heavy tight bow-tu?
Do not you let yimeesh arrows roasted, then? "
And all this to be a poor widow Kiev (!)
"Serve while tight-grandmother of onions,
She said shsho "he mnya yes he's a married was —
Mnya husband but he was also the hero-story '"(ibid.).
With small arms deceased hero saves Dobrynya Kiev from the evil sorceress, and in this case another good bow and arrow is quite docile character.
In the Serbian song St. Mary (Mother of God) "in charge" arrows:
"And they parted, they (the saints) the gifts of the Lord,
… Saints Peter and Paul
Vzyasha grapes and wheat.
Elijah holy thunder of heaven,
But Mary arrows and lightning. "(D.Shepping. "Myths of Slavic paganism." M. 1997.S.75).
In the Russian conspiracy arrows are related to Mary:
"Stop, boom, do not go to me, Come, boom, through the Virgin Mary …" (EL Berezovich "The language and traditional culture", Moscow, 2007. C 287. Citing E.N.Eleonskuyu 1917).
February "Gromnitsy" — this is the day of the "fiery" Mary, and therefore all women using firearms.
In one of the Russian martial plots we find a girl who is related to the military case: "In the high teremu in Ponizovsky, beyond the River Volga, is fair maiden, worth pokrashaetsya, good people boast, Ratna thing beautiful. In his right hand is holding the bullet lead, copper in the left, and at the foot of the stone. You, fair maiden, pick gun: Turkish, Tatar, German, Cherkassy, Russian, Mordovia, all sorts of languages and villains "(Sakharov).
According to Slavic folklore, the ability to shoot not only have St. Mary, Polanica, forks, old women, heroes, yunak but small children: "And grew (the son of a merchant), and goes on nadvoryah onion, arrow shooting and playing with the children" (Russian Tales of Siberia and the Far East: the magic and the animals. Novosibirsk 1993. "Podsolneshna Beauty." p.79).
The song "Samovilskie captives" kidnapped child that forks are made to work, his wit and ability to shoot makes all full:
"Babies gather herbs (Fork)
Fine … Said Stan:
"Oh, my child klyatoe Rada
Collecting herbs and grasses not. "
And her child answered:
"Expressions,, slender waist,
Do not curse the child,
Curse … Mother and grandmother,
You see, I do not belted,
I fall grass
Give me a bow and arrow,
I will go to our village
I'll kill you … my mother and grandmother. "
Believe slender waist,
Expressions,, slender waist,
Gave him a bow and arrows,
Child did not go into the town,
Slay his mother with an arrow,
And … he killed slender waist,
All prisoners … parted
Returned home from captivity! "("Song of the South Slavs." M.1976. "Samovilskie captives." P.38-39).
A very strong episode, because in the Slavic tradition of honoring ancestors were forbidden not just blame the parents, but also to think about it, "ottsya-matyr nalayala not nalayala-thought" (Ukrainian Shchedrivka. Living Antiquity, 1902, vyp.IV, p.25 ), and then plan the murder! But the child, uttering this horror is not the belt, and it is this "raspoyasannost" allowed him to lie so blatantly Vila and the opportunity to voice killing his mother and grandmother.
However, the traditional inability to "raise their hand to parents" does not mean that all the parents were presented to the creators of folklore "ideal." The songs and stories there type "criminal mother," and she is punished, but not by his son, but by the will of the gods with an arrow, "Prince Ivan takes a taut bow and arrow and Kalen is with her mother in the open field, drew his bow, placed at a distance and says: "It is becoming, Mother, next to me, one of us is guilty of hardened boom itself will! 'mother held him close-close, but the arrow found guilty, stripped bow and landed her in the heart" (A. N.Afanasev "Poetic views on the nature of the Slavs", Volume 2, M.1995. S.3120).
In addition to its main task to be combat weapons at a live target arrows were other features, such as boom served as a means of communication, communication.
In addition to the above examples of arrows transmittance of the window and on the water (to the girl), as a sign, just "talking" about the upcoming wedding, boom brought the letter:
"Oh, as to you tomorrow(To the governor)he will be(Razin)shoot arrows
On arrows, then it will be for you to write a letter. "("The old historical songs." M.1971. P.34).
Wrote the message to themselves arrows:
"He(Ilia)where the vet put strelotsku Cullen,
Ishsha he strelotski potpisyval on …
Flew his strelotska hardened …
Ishsha here de Dobrynka pick up an arrow.
Yes on the boom would be signed:
"… Benefits discourage me by the wrong …"(A.D.Grigorev. "Arkhangelsk epic and historical songs. Volume 2", C-II, 2003; «№ 267" Conclusion of Ilya Muromets ").
Flew in from the other arm itself could serve as a sign to begin what the heroes had agreed, a kind of "alarm":
Danube warns squad that remains in the field, and he is going to "Kingdom lehovinskoe" "The first strelotsku I shoot —
Awake, squads from sound sleep;
SECOND strelotsku shoot —
Sit down, guards, on good horses;
I strelotsku third shot, —
Yes strike force in the mountains bezposhadochno
And do not leave power on Semeno! "(A.D.Grigorev. "Arkhangelsk epic and historical songs. Volume 1", C-II, 2002; «№ 37" Danube ").
In the epic "Ilya Muromets and Kalin-king" Ilya asks boom:
"A fly-TCRs, arrow, in white tent
Yes symi-TCR cap with white tent
Yes honeydew-TCR, the arrow on the white chest
To my father to to cross,
And progolzni-TCR on the chest you are white,
Do-you to scratch so small,
Little stsarapinku so small.
He sleeps there, hangs,
And to me this is where one can so little ". (Byliny. M.1988. № 18. S. 134 et seq.)
The same is found in the folklore of another no combat use arrows: as climbing equipment. In the story, the brothers must save his sister, who was in a tower, "The sons had to sacrifice a stallion — he killed it, skinned, cut shleyu, tied to an arrow, shot her a bow and she got caught on top of the tower." Hero Tales climbed the tower for these belts. ("Language Society usyago zhyvoga." Serbskiya narodnyya kazki. "Minsk. 2007;" Tower HI in the sky, HI on zyamli "C.14 my translation).
Arrows were the first choice for the man of destiny, shares: "King and said:" Children! Make yourself for the crossbow and shoot: Cocoa woman will boom, and that the bride, if no one will bring, what, then, do not get married. '"(Russian folk tales A.N.Afanaseva. Volume 2." Frog Princess », № 267).
Arrows used for dispute resolution:
"Are the three brother divide the cap of invisibility. "INTO you doing here?" — Said Nikita. "Why, cap divide." — "I'll let rozdelyu." Nikita Zered in a bow an arrow (first bows were essho) and let her go, "hto Peresh run so far, and the hat er" (D.K.Zelenin "The Great Tales Vyatka province." C-P. 2002. № 4 "On Nikita red tape" . P.58)
Arrows will act as a conduit of higher powers: "Blahoslav already close to the wonderful deer, shot an arrow at him, and the arrow has pierced it! But in an instant, the deer with an arrow was gone! When Blahoslav went to the spot where the deer was, what did he see? The arrow pierced him in some kind of a board on which was written, that he his horse to the stable set of the black, and he would have risen to the upper chamber, and that there will — would have taken themselves without fear '"(Slovak tales. M. 1955. "Zlatorog deer." P.65). We can also add the above examples of the execution of the "criminal mother," and the search Dobryni boom turned into the tour.
We see that in all genres of folklore Slavs mythological songs, fairy tales, epics, ritual poetry, riddles, historical songs, song lyric, bylichkah and sayings was a vast array of information on the arrows, the subjects of long-extinct life of the people, that they do have wide application and great magical meaning in people's lives, and based on these data shows that the use of bow and arrows were able to all age-sex and social categories of the population. This is quite an important finding, because to date, many researchers believe the issue that in the Middle Ages and bows and arrows were the privilege of the nobility.
For example, F Nesterov, analyzing Mamay writes: "… the Tartar horsemen, excellent archers, had a decisive advantage over the Russian, that is, the prince vigilantes, maybe shoot a bow and no worse than the nomads, but they represent only a minority of the Russian army, but serfs and artisans, the majority, of course, could not be with the steppe inhabitants "(F.Nesterov" Link of Times "historical experience of journalism. M.1987.S. 31). Slavic folklore suggests otherwise.
Finally, we present Russian proverbs of arrows:
King, that the bow and arrows are true ambassadors
Sang a string — hit boom
Like an arrow from a bow spryanula
You have an arrow in the heart
Cullen arrow between the eyes go (giant hero)
The curve boom God rules
In foes boom that in the stump, and in the other, that in me
In stone fire — only to lose arm
Shot an arrow, can not be undone, and the spittle off the ground without raising
("Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language", Volume 4. M. 1995. C 344).
Part II. Manipulation of arrows in the rites and rituals.
a) Making sacrifices.
In the first part we gave examples of plots that describe obtykanie arrows object to be protected, and images of the results of such action on the Belarusian towel. Obtykanie sacred object carried arrows and real military ceremonies, historical evidence of which is found in the work of Constantine Porphyrogenitus, the tenth century Byzantine emperor:
"… They (Slavs) reach the island called St. Gregory (Khortytsya). On this island, they make their sacrifice, because there is a huge oak: sacrifice live cocks, they reinforce and arrows around [oak], and others — pieces of bread, meat, and that each has, as their custom orders. " ("On the control of the Empire," chapter 10).
Pattern of "oak" obtykanny arrows tells Kovalev AI, 1911 birth. Arnamentom Padnyaprouya "Minsk.2004. Fig. 35, p. 211.
b) The device marriage bed.
Ritual obtykanie significant locus arrows remained in descriptions of medieval wedding ceremony, "Sennik where young asleep, get out of this: On all four walls of the room puts icons in all four corners of an arrow stuck, and on each of them on sable, or marten with Kalacha. " (Russian people, their customs, rituals, traditions, superstitions and poetry collected M.Zabylinym. P.160. Citing Sakharov). And further: "… for the four corners of the room to stick an arrow, and the arrows hung sable, in grand and royal marriage for forty beds, and the other one sable, and in addition to the boom tip to stick a roll …" (Ibid. S.545-546).
Here we see a clear example of dual faith: Icons — Christian shrine, boom — a pagan charm. Currently folklore Sakharov publication in the scientific world are considered unreliable, but the motive obtykaniya arrows significant objects found in many East-plots and images on the towel, as well as the wedding valances that covered the bottom of the bed, which increases the reliability of the communication IP Sakharov.
Two rows of arrows tipped alternating up and down, guarding the larger eight-pointed star ("Dawn", "Sun"), and diamonds (the "female", an earth sign, the field) with swastikas (wishes of happiness, movement, life). Wedding valance XIX century. Arkhangelsk region. From "The Wedding. From courtship to Knyazhev table "M.2001. with. 79.
In the twentieth century in the wedding ceremony to the same function performed needle talisman: "During the wedding feast, the needle stuck in the floor, to a sorcerer is not brought upon young damage" "Slavic mythology." Encyclopedic Dictionary of the RAS IP. M.2002.S.196).
c) Making the grave.
Ethnographically ritual obtykaniya grave arrows is not fixed, there is only midsummer song Kursk province, in which sister asks her brother about to kill her (incest), make her grave with arrows. I found it necessary to give here this hypothetical ritual because he is surprisingly common with the above design the wedding and the message of Constantine Porphyrogenitus. In royal weddings, we see arrows hung "soft stuff" — skins, as symbols of wealth, abundance, and the example arrangement grave of a young unmarried girls (who were buried as a bride, and the funeral were thought of some kind of "marriage" and sacrifice to the gods), we see arrows with towels hung on them:
"Put me / the fence,
Obsadi I / Strelitz
I hung / basting, … "(L.S.Lavrenteva, Yu.I.Smirnov "Culture of the Russian people." C-P. 2005. S.419.).
This unique song we find confirmation message I.P.Saharova (19th century) about the design of the wedding, which is important, because in the future such rituals in Slavic weddings ethnographers were not fixed, and without a single mention of previous storage rite for the scientific community looks suspicious. Just this text about the design of the tomb, without informing Sakharov little informative, but brought together, they increase the likelihood of a fair representation of action in this and other texts, especially on the background records of Constantine Porphyrogenitus.
Ancient East Slavic burial crosses which now comprehended by many researchers as a stripped-down version of the "house of the dead", in my opinion, more like a boom, combined with the Christian Orthodox cross:
Old gravestones in the form of a cross arm, "hung outline of." Arnamentom Padnyaprouya "Minsk.2004. Figure 78, p. 363.
The same "theme boom" appears on the South Slavic medieval tombstones:
N.N.Veletskaya from the book "Pagan symbolism of Slavic archaic rituals." M.1978. Color insert.
2. Lifting and carrying things that you can not take your hands.
"… When you wake up the next day a young marriage, then cover it with an arrow pripodymali"
(A.N.Afanasev "Poetic views on the nature of the Slavs", Volume 1, M.1995. S.233. Citing Sakharov).
Again, a very broad mix, from which the modern ethnography of shrugs as unreliable. However such as this ritual actions recorded in Belarus, Pinsk district wedding (again Polesie!), Albeit in a different wedding situation, "Young covers her father. She sits at the table, the father hangs a veil over Kiyoko from diamond, which bubnar beats suited to the young and in the course of the sun encircles this kiechkom a blanket near the head of a young three times and says, "covers you, dear, doleyu happy, kind and good the stay baby ". After the third time he puts the veil on the shoulders of young bands over the wreath that the young in the head. If two covers, both also in this very kiechke encircles father three times near the head of the young and puts it on her shoulders. Young sits well with a veil around the table and so, with a veil, or two, takes the young to the young themselves. And in the house his father, the young will have to remove these covers — "Hide veil" (U.I.Ragovich "songs Folklore Pales" Volume 2 "Vyaselle." Minsk. 2002. C.37. Translated from Belarusian mine). And there is more: "As a young sat down, a young father comes home" to open their children. " He takes on the tambourine or Kiyoko bow of the violin, … across the table podtsyplyaet veil that hangs on the shoulders of the young, and three times that encircles a veil over kiechke or bow around the young sun along and says, "Open your children, heifer or cow. If he has a bee, then the curtain opens the bees, he said again: "I opened you, son, bees. How about a third time will embrace young veil, then throw it to the right "(p.40). In the future, all than the "winged" the young father-in-law, he had to give a young family.
Kiyoko (mallet) in hand bubnara.
The analogy, of course, is not complete, but here and there we see the ritual spread on a thin stick with a "male" symbols: from the drum beater and bow — items "male" carrying phallic semantics, and in the absence of domestic arrows completely replacing them. But in country life has been widely distributed object directly associated with a boom, this spindle:
"A neveski-ti s zolovushkami in rozdor gone;
And … tugi-minute bows — rocker FSE,
A Cullens strelotski — vereteshechka "(A.D.Grigorev. "Arkhangelsk epic and historical songs." Volume 3. C-P. 2003. № 326 "ancient battle on the ice floe and Women and Fiction", P.121).
However, the spindle — a female attribute, and to this ritual action is not appropriate.
Example of a complete interchangeability of ritual boom and stick with which to retrieve the sounds of musical instruments and is the "male" semantics in the Indian wedding. It is believed that the full ritual purity bride can get married to the first month, but if the "time running out", and the groom's all there, then: "In the central regions of India … a girl can marry a boom or a wooden mallet" (M.Duglas " Purity and Danger "M.2000. p.215).
3. Separation spit bride.
Just referring to I.P.Saharova Afanasiev said: "… in the old days, okruchivaya bride's maiden braid it shared with an arrow, and a comb, which spit comb dipped in honey or wine" (C 233). It is clear that it was a ritual act, but it is at the moment of folklore evidence on this subject (Section girl spit on two female boom parting Scribe) no.
There is some speculation, hints: the wedding prigovorke 'Goes Khol, carries a comb, "we see a certain character, perhaps divine, analogue terrestrial groom who gave away the bride to the wedding ritual object — a comb. Khol name resonates with stable expression of "nurture and groom", and cherish usually girls and groomed — boys, young men and horses (!), In which a "special" for that there is a "withers." Compare the name "mama's boy": "paholok", "sleek".
All this brings us to the mentioned in the later "desk" research pair Lele and Polel probably twins, where "Polel", actually means "next to Cherish." Rather, Khol — an epithet young Yarily and Lola (Lala, Lola, Lila), his sister — a twin and 'chance' wife, incest, which is described in midsummer songs, one of which obsadit sister asks her brother to her grave, "Strelitz "(see above).
In the first part we talked about Yarily direct relation to marriage and arrows, here we assume his attitude to wedding crest which gently and slowly combed traditionally weeping bride, that is reassuring, "cherished and holili." So based on indirect evidence, we may well assume that the arrows, as an attribute Yarily could be used in the ritual "povivaniya young" at the time of changing her hairstyle with girl at a female. In the Belarusian version braid wedding bride unwinds young male relatives (brother, nephew, etc.), called "zakosniki." Once they raspleli maiden braid, it can not be braided under any circumstances (we could only tie, remove the tape loose hair.), And before the bride tried to weave a braid "pozakovyristey" ("Folklore in zapisah Ian Chachota I bratou Tyshkevichay. "Minsk 2005. pp. 196-199), so that it was hard to untwist, it sometimes with ribbons intertwined needles and pins. In this situation, for the section of hair, "according to a single Rusu hair" was a very sharp arrow to the article.
In the photo: a comb in his hand the author, proceed to kosochesaniyu
4 Suture arrowhead from the waist to protect.
M.Zabylin citing I.P.Saharova leads "Conspiracy selfless man going to war":
"If I go forth into the open field, sat down on the green meadow
In a green meadow is powerful potions, and in them the power of the thousand.
Pluck the three blades of grass: white, chernyya, light glowing.
I will throw the red blade of grass for Okian-sea
On the island of Buyan, the sword kladenets;
Black blade of grass under Pokachi chernago crow
Togo crow that had nested in seven oaks
And in the nest is a bridle horse war with heroic;
Shut up white blade of grass in his belt fancy,
And in a patterned belt sewn, curled
Quiver with hardened boom, grandfather, Tatar.
Red blade dragged me kladenets sword,
Black blade of grass would get bridle scolded,
White blade will quiver with a stone arrow.
With the force of the sword Otobaya with strange
With the horse's bridle obratayu Yary
With the quiver, with hardened boom, smash the enemy foe.
I tried to talk selfless person, (this is) the war sim plot.
My plot is strong as a rock Alatyr("The Russian people, its customs, rituals, traditions, superstitions, and Poetry" collected M. Zabylin. M.1992. S.299).
Plot this rather confused, not svelte, the verbs used are not suitable, why a raven blade of grass "roll" of grass at all bad roll. Why in the belt sewn-curled quiver? Quivers usually worn on the back, sew it to the belt impossible. It can be seen that the plot was either a person new to the enumerated things, or read it a collector specifically distorted.
Relatively belts from other sources we know that they sewed amulets — herbs and pieces of paper with prayers, such as "Tsyazharnay zhanchyne yakastsi abyaregu y y Time zashyvali nasenne" dzikih "kanapel" (A.Katovich, Ya.Kruk "Letniya holy" kniga 1. Minsk 2009. p.87. Translation: "A pregnant woman as a talisman in the belt sewn the seeds of wild hemp"). A zone in the Middle Ages were made out of metal objects: the plaque depicting people and animals from Martynovsky and other treasures were sewn onto the belt. So trophy pike iron or stone (!), Brought his grandfather to what or battle, it could become a family talisman, and it could easily sew a belt going to war offspring.
6. Costumed character attribute
In Syatochnom rite "Driving the goat", is widespread in the East Slavic territory there are some "musketeers" who want to kill the goat, "Kozko want to beat him, they want to kill!". Of the texts that accompany the ritual, it is impossible to understand what actually, archers shoot at a goat. Figure 1926 shows that native traditions were "musketeers" were armed with bows and arrows:
Persons Yule masking. № 5-Cossack with a bow and arrow. Figure L. Lenchevskogo and T.I.Safonovskogo to ethnographic description of the rite "The Goat." 1926. (S. Kuncha, vicinity. Shepetivka, Ukraine). From the book "Slavic mythology" Encyclopedic Dictionary. M.2002. P.231.
5. Investing Boom for therapeutic purposes.
a) In the bed: "When a child suffers from an unknown disease, torn and screams in the night, the commoners put it under his head — a little boy's bow and arrows. A girl spindle, prichityvaya "schekotiha-budiha! Here's onion (or spindles), play, and do not wake the baby! "(A.N.afanasev" Poetic views on the nature of the Slavs. "Volume 3. M.1995. P.41).
b) In the drink: "In nagovornuyu water use against the evil eye, horutane with coals or put an arrow key" (A.N.Afanasev "Poetic views on the nature of the Slavs", Volume 2, M.1995. S.208).
6. Blowing lighted arrows on Shrove Tuesday and Kupala
In ethnolinguistic dictionary "Slavic Antiquities" edited N.I.Tolstogo find this message: "The Balkan Slavs most popular ritual was Shrovetide kindling fire in the form of fires, as well as the huge burning torches and arrows that is put on all sides" (tom3, S. 194).
"In the south-western, eastern and south-eastern Bulgaria characterized by a combination of these functions (fire and flames) with the guys throwing fire arrows (chilkane, tuykane) after they skipped the big fire. Arrows were also different names: chavga, pernitsa, lugachka. In the south-western Bulgaria of archery. They believed that the farther the arrow flies, the more fertility this year "(calendar customs and traditions in foreign Europe. Spring holiday. M.1977. S.277-278).
"Central to the celebration of Midsummer (the people of the former Yugoslavia) were the customs of the fire. In the evening throughout the holiday lights lit ritual — it could be big or small bonfires, torches, wheels of fire and arrows (emphasis added).
Analyzing different people interpret these lights, Yugoslav scientists (M.Gavatstsi, S.Zachevich) believe that they have to: a) help the sun staying power after the summer solstice, and b) clear of people and animals from the harmful effects of evil spirits, such as from disease, and c) to promote the welfare of people, such as the creation of families, fertility, animals, fertile land "(calendar customs and traditions in foreign Europe. summer and autumn holidays. M.1978. p.209).
Part III. Rites and rituals related to this arrow.
In agrarian practices were made in order to preserve and increase the yield, the use of real arrows in our time is not fixed. However, "the topic of boom" sounds in them verbally, in the names of objects, actions and texts, their carers, it is possible that the use of real arrows in these rites was originally, but now lost.
1. "Arrow". Rainmaking rite with ritual plowing.
In Eastern Polesie in the Gomel region, the villages Posozhya, that is, the tribal Radimichi the drought made the ceremonial "tillage Wade (rivers, roads), that is, backwashing pathways in order to call rain. One version of "burning out of the road" in some of the villages called "Boom." No connection with arrows, but name, in this ceremony has been preserved. We can assume that crosses that charted during tillage, as signs of fire, were tagged, which should hit by lightning, "Thunderbolt", and then had to go rain. It is possible that in a distant historical period, there was a ritual similar orientation, that is, to bring rain, in which the signs were drawing arrows on the ground, later, a ritual, "plowing" (plow, plow, harrow) replaced the drawing arrows, and the name of the action remains the same.
Card field research with a brief description of the rite "Arrow". Arnamentom Padnyaprouya "Minsk.2004, Fig. 103, s.445.
2. "Driving (funeral) boom (Sula)." Rites call rain and hail protection fields.
In East Slavic folklore, there are similar to each other with reference to the lyrics boom, versions of which the meaning can be summarized as follows:
You fly (not fly) arrow
Through the village (town)
You kill (not kill), arrow
Good fellow (Black Raven)
Both dashing (Raven)
Cry no one (who is)
And then follows a list of female relatives, with an estimate of the intensity of each of crying.
Such texts distributed on the East Slavic territory in the form of ballads, lyrical songs of spring non-ceremonial activities, and only in some loci of the songs are the main song of the ceremony, the closing spring, for example, in Sozh Dnieper and settlers Moldova.
But nowhere is the meaning of the song is not associated with ceremonial activities. In all embodiments, the ceremony did not kill anyone, no one was crying, but rather are all pretty positive:
"- Boom — it's lightning Perun, which should take away from the village — told me after the show Irina Glushets, methodologist of Ethnography and Folklore of the Gomel oblast center of folk art. — During the ceremony all the women gather and go to the rye field. On the way, play around them on street corners and in the yards. Men, meanwhile could only watch. On the field, also lead dances and singing, and then bury the arrow. Bury the "boom" could be a toy, a coin, or even strings of clothes. You can make a wish. One woman guessed go to America, it came to pass … then swing in the Rye, say, not to hurt the back, another version is scientific, that women shared power with the rye "(Smirnov IY).
The song text is not aimed at the protection of the castle, and the induction of (termination) of rain, there are numerous ethnographic evidence that the rain caused women ritual lamentation for the dead, real or imaginary. Variability of text says, in my view that the original text could be executed with regard to the situation: the drought singing about killing fellow and his inconsolable mourning, and in wet conditions, on the contrary, stated that the young man did not want to kill, as to cry for it to no one. Maybe in a distant historical period mourned fellows sacrificed by the "blind" random, that is, allowed the real boom "through the village" — in any of the observers-men "fall" will of God, that and mourned.
Aggressive behavior of female groups in the spring and summer long been noted by ethnographers. For example, going to dress up the crowd midsummer tree girls and women went on the road with threats to men:
Do not cross stitch-track
For as go over, so sorry you will,
Whip the fractional poppy
Scattering three road … "(Ukraine).
This text illustrates and female behavior during the ritual opahivaniya village in times of epidemics, during which the male species (humans and animals) really severely beaten, and even killed.
"Arrow" fell on the field.
Please note that this is not just a "chain of women", as described by the action of some observers, it is pretty aggressive rank, women are "measured pace" as well as hammers in the video Pink Floyd «The Wall".
Probably the stele or short-kopeytsy Sula allowed women in the audience — participants of the rite. In many villages, which survived until today ritual of "Driving arrows", the procession of women in the ranks of the field preceded by masks, called "elders" that frighten the audience, maybe they mark special characters that were "musketeers". Above, the first part was shown the ability of girls, women and grandmothers cope with a bow and arrow, preserved in the folklore of the Slavs. In general, participants were not only ritual singers — horovodnitsami, but the most physically strong and combative female. This confirms the fact that some of the villages, "Sulu" — women participating in the ritual, every woman should have been required to invite and entertain for a "Sula" raised mistress in his arms as high as possible. As well as dance and complex "Luka". According to the memoirs neglyubchanok, before "Luka" Plant only girls and young women. Dance of drawing itself resembled two crossed eight. The problem was that in a sufficiently rapid movement (sometimes running) had a chain of unbroken circle of four or three girls and bring "bow" in the usual dance, and it is physically difficult.
"Arnamentom Padnyaprouya" Minsk.2004. Fig. 92. S.435. Schemes dances "Luka" and "Crooked Dance", performed during the ceremony, "Driving (funeral) arrows.
Ritual actions — instillation of metal and other items under the name "Arrow" on the field, are definitely a guardian of this locus to hail. It is possible that initially buried or stuck in the ground a real boom. We have shown above that obtykanie arrows were very common ritual action, examples of which can be found both in the earliest written sources, and in contemporary folklore collections.
How the two rites are aligned with each other, is still unknown. One can only assume that the rainmaking by mourning the victims, of course, entailed not only blessed water the fields, but threatens to hails as the Proactive rite "Pahavaniya boom."
Actually themselves "funeral arrows"
Boom as a thing — beautiful, it is light, elegant. No wonder the South Slavic beauties — Forks are sustainable epithet "thin", just as the boom. But holding an arrow in his hands, it is a combination of mixed feelings of its subtlety, fragility, which is a sign of insecurity, and severity, swiftness, that is a potential danger. I think that the emergence boom "prompted" humanity to think about straightness of time it was thought before cyclic. The circular flow of time is potentially dangerous, stable, predictable, and the time in the form of straight as an arrow and quickly, rapid, dangerous, elusive, subtle, it has a beginning and an end. Arrow razomykaet circle of "eternal return."
M.Duglas in his book "Purity and Danger" rightly said that "every primitive culture — a world for themselves", agreeing with her, say wider: the culture of any nation — a world built for himself. Slavic folk culture, as reflected in folklore, had created a world full of arrows, they fly in the sky, lie in their cradles, swim in the rivers, are stuck, are buried in the ground. Arrows amuse adults and children, they provide food, provide security, settle disputes, reach goals.
And this huge boom in the world of the importance of the Slavs erupts in our modern world a world in which most of us are not like an arrow in the "did not hold hands," but did not even see arrows in reality, only the images, only the description: but every reason Slav a child knows the word "arrow", is still sounding the same in all Slavic languages.
Considered by us "Subject boom in the folklore of the Slavs", of course, can not give a complete picture of the whole culture of the Slavs, it is only one "puzzle", from which it is set.
Boom in the Russian coat of arms:
PS While writing this article I decided to digress from folklore collections and reading for leisure fiction. Metro bought the first available book, opened at random, and read:
"- Man — an arrow shot the hand of God"(A.Maksimov, "Dreams of Lilith." M.2007, C 115).
T.Blinova. December-January 2011-2012.
FOREST thank for partial editing work.