In Slavic rites construction attaches great importance to the choice of the construction site of the house.
The main sites are forbidden — a place where ever before a road or before standing bath. It is believed that in these places is found evil spirits.
When siting divination performed on bread, water, wool, and also wondered about the placement of corners and the lower rim of the framework. In some parts of the foundation of sacrificed chicken or other poultry.
In the very center of the planned farmyard often planted spruce. Near the house, taken to plant a birch or rowan tree — trees as traditional female symbols among the plants.
One of the most common and important rituals — laying in the corners of the framework and / or under the first row of the framework of coins, grains, pieces of bread.
Under the threshold of the future entrance to the house, the stones were placed various charms. Similar amulets made to install and under the roof. Thus, the building is guarded from evil spirits around the perimeter of buildings, up and down, and at the entrance.
Special ceremony held during the laying of the oven and set the central beam-Matica. Matica — central, and often the only joists on which the plank ceiling in the old house. Matica obsevalas grain and hops, as in a wedding ceremony.
Completion of the construction of individual houses significant elements mentioned rich treats for carpenters. Refusal of carpenters treats considered very bad luck, usually carpenters refused treats in case of dissatisfaction size of payment (payment in kind) for the work. After a preliminary rejection by the possibility of finding an agreement, thus manifested the mechanism of market relations.
Since moving into a new house chose a happy day before the full moon, the best time was considered to midnight.
The first in a new home came very old. Very common practice — to run into the house to people pets. During the first week of life in the new house made every day to run the different animals.
Necessary to put a feast for the brownie. The hosts are moving into a new home with the fire of the old hearth bread and dough in the trough. A housewarming invite those neighbors with whom we have good relations, or just lucky villagers.
Choosing a place to build a house
Despite the fact that in many books and articles about wooden houses, many authors usually quite confidently say about a one-two customs and rituals that accompanied the various stages of the construction of wooden houses — it is not quite correspond to reality. In fact, these customs and traditions very much. And site selection and choice of home stroitelsva forests to build and time were logging and specific rituals for each stage of construction — all of it was different not only depending on the climatic conditions of the place where the house was built, but also prevailing in the particular locality place or group of settlements different ways of life, the level of skill of Home Builders and many other things. The only thing that is almost the same from place to place — those steps, the beginning or the end of which it was decided to celebrate in a special way.
The first step is sometimes a choice location of the house, and sometimes — the choice and logging for its construction. I prefer to be considered custom stages. So I’ll start to lay out the steps to the siting, but where this is the second phase — specify that the site chosen after the forest had been harvested or frame is assembled.
Very interesting to see that somewhere traditions are clear and logical, and somewhere completely obscure used divination and rituals that from the point of view of common sense does not carry any load. However, it is possible that similar divination and rituals were everywhere, just somewhere they had ceased to be passed on from generation to generation.
Spell-action begins at building a house, the choice of a future home. According to the ethnographer Vladimir Bogdanov, the Belarusians in the middle of XIX century. consecrated ground chosen for the estate as follows: all the proposed site estate Devils on earth a large square, and its cruciform shape divided into four parts. Then the head of the family went «all four sides» and brought four fields four stones that were placed in the centers of small squares. As a result, the future site of the manor appeared that the ideogram of fertility, which is known to us from the time of the Eneolithic and until the Russian wedding embroidery early XX century.
Fishermen «Paganism ancient Rus’
Once the frame was ready, set about choosing a location for the construction of K.. Favorable is the place where there was once the home (mean helping a parent). If you choose a new place, then someone had to stay and live in the old. Unsuitable for new development acknowledged the ashes of the burned Kirk (House). Selecting a location for the house engaged in «knowing» people, ie sorcerers, especially the importance of divination gave Komi-Perm. In Zyryan Komi most popular was divination by ants. Together with debris from the nest was placed in a birch-bark box and leave it in place for the night, scheduled for construction of C. It was thought that a suitable choice of location, the ants were in a box, and the situation in her new litter is added. If ants leave the box, and took with him who had in her trash, place admitted categorically unfit for building.
In K.-P. by ants were wondering if going to build in another village. Gathered constructed from birch did three small boxes and places them on the night of the intended site for the building at some distance from each other. However, he says: «If a box of happy place, then let the ants that are applied in the nest box for trash.» Early the next day, or the third box carefully inspected. The place where there was a box with garbage recognized favorable for construction K.. If the trash was in two or all of the boxes, the preference was given to the one in which there was more garbage. Lack of garbage at least one box indicating that the chosen location for the construction of K is not suitable at all. In this case, the old boxes destroyed, made new and installed them in another place. And so on until the divination does not benefit. After selecting a location for its future owner K. arranged at Witch-Sage well made treats, gives him a copper penny wise and walked me home.
If the house is supposed to be built in the same village, in K.-P. place for it is usually chosen by the card divination. Were laid on the table, map, indicating an old house, and around it — the other, one of which meant a new home. By the drop of the card, guess defined, where he built a new home: the place of the old, in the distance (and on what) from him in which direction, etc.
After the choice of a house, again with the help of divination, determined where it should be at his front corner. For this purpose, in all four corners of the location selected for the building that hit the pins, then the landlord would get up in the middle area between them over the head, and threw up a small round loaf. Which soda bread fell closer, there is a place determined for the front corner. Since divination carried out three times, the owner had room to maneuver.
The Old Believers of the Upper Ob:
Much attention is paid incumbents Old Believers choosing a location for the house. It was considered a favorable location in the open, on an elevated, but not on the mane, or in the hollow, but not in a ravine. These signs echo the advice «Naziratelya»: «We should also be careful, not to put a house there, where there may be a strong wind, so it is best under the mountain in the valley set, not on the mountain itself, not in the valley, and no longer in the dark ravine but in this place where the house blew healthy air and clean it up so there was no trouble, but it would be better to place where the sun is all day long, because then and worms if they originated and spread unhealthy dampness, wind a smash them, and the sun’s heat and dry the kill «
Middle Urals. Boevka village. Small Gryaznukha. Chernoskutova.:
Before you start building a house, the farmer chooses the place. Initially, people tried to put the house closer to the water: river, lake. According to local legend in the late XIX — early XX century, the main man in the village was the mayor, who was elected the people (now the post match as head of the village administration). If a farmer is going to build, he asked permission elders where to put the house.
People deeply believe in folk customs. Village resident Boevka Lukoyanova EP (Born in 1928) in his youth from older people have heard that «was considered bad to put the house in a place where the road or trail. So the house is usually placed on the site of the former was already hut. In this residential structure in any case should not be there, where there has been previous home gate as they passed through all sorts of people, and some might have been an evil eye «(written 10/07/02).
First, it should be noted that all fit in a practical space can be divided into three groups: 1) those in the symbolic classification of parts of space positive, 2) negative, 3) neutral (non-binary classification).
The first group is almost exclusively inhabited, that is already developed sites (Maksimov, 1903, p. 30). It was assumed that the boundaries of the new house and its size should not be the same with the old (Miloradovich, 1902, p. 111-112).
The group places a negative value is more extensive. The house can not be built in the following places where before a road, stood a bathhouse on the disputed piece of land, where human bones were found, where the wild beasts killed a pet, where the least «pritsinaetsya statyk on pasvi», where someone some injured and bleeding, which overturned cart, broke «Kotok», shaft, etc., on the site of the house, burnt by lightning, abandoned because of disease, floods or other disasters (Golebiowski, 1830, s. 146; Krachkovskii, 1873 s. 203; Ivanov, 1889, p. 37-38; Nikiforovsky, 1897, p. 134-135; Zelenin, 1927, S. 287).
The meaning of the data is transparent enough, and they do not need a detailed commentary (for more details see Baiburin, 1983, p. 34-38). We only note that the most dangerous is the place where a road before. Wed: «The attention primarily to the fact that under the hut did not have to ever former road, because the hut, set where before a road, residents all povymrut» (Smith, 1889, p. 37-38; Wed: Krachkovskii, 1873, p. 203). A particular strength of the semantic representations of the road in the traditional well-known. The reason is probably the fact that the road connects your world with someone else, but at the level of ritual and mythological significance is the beginning or continuation of the dead (cf. Strakhov, 1988, p. 93). It is significant that the violation of the prohibition to build a house on the former site of the road leads to the death of its inhabitants. In traditional views of the surrounding space is perceived as fundamentally heterogeneous. From this perspective, the «neutral» parts of space does not happen.
Any place «charged» either negative or positive. Only need to be able to identify the hidden content. For this purpose, different procedures were used, worn for the most part the character of divination.
The most common is the following method: the corners of the future structure of the host pours a handful of grain. If the next morning the grain is intact, the place is well chosen. Undisturbed grain — sign unhappy place (Tereshchenko, 1848, V, p. 151; Afanasyev, 1865-1869, II, p. 110; Sumtsov, 1890, p. 88; Demidovich, 1896, p. 113; Zelenin, 1927, S . 287; typological parallleli see: Hartland, 1913, p. 109-111). Numerous variations of this type of divination some details fleshed out. In Kharkov Province. «Made under the hut location at the going down of the sun, in secret, so that no one noticed, poured the four corners of his small handful of rye (rye grain) in the following order: first poured a handful of rye, where is the angle of the holy hut Then where will the oven, then — where converge prichilkovaya and blank walls, and finally in the door corner and in the middle between a handful of rye sometimes put a little of the sticks cross. When disturbed will be only the handful of grain, in the holy corner, the hut can be placed at the one place, without fear of any ill effects, because the power of the holy corner wins any enemy force «(Smith, 1889, p. 38). In the Poltava province. «Dug four pits in the place to be plows, and in each of them put in a handful of distant grains rye, along with chunks of rye bread for three consecutive nights. If in the morning a handful of these will be intact, it is to be building a house on the site, he will be a good, complete. Razgrebennaya same rye points to future loss: families — if touched by a handful of the alleged «sex» (place overnight family), cattle — if touched Pokutny handful, a dog — in the corner by the door and a cat — on the stove «(Miloradovich, 1902, p. 110-111).
Divination of this kind is based on the principle of the proposed model of family life in a particular place. With the help of symbolic, ritual measurements introduces the basic parameters of organized space (marking angles, and thus the establishment of the center features a limited / unlimited, inside / outside, center / periphery). Are expressed and the idea of nonequivalence of different parts of the home (the value hierarchy of angles: the saint — oven — deaf — door). This establishes the required minimum semiotic characteristics of the house at the spatial symbolism. Important is the use of grains is associated with a steady circle of happiness, share, wealth and fertility. Temporal dimension (future family life and home) «compressed» in dark to the symbolic sufficiency. Start guessing usually in the evening, and the result is known in the morning, and sometimes in a few days (usually three days). Longer reduces the likelihood of a positive outcome, but increases the value of divination. «A» is obtained by comparing the initial state (the artificial order, having a share) with a finite (the preservation of these characteristics or destruction).
Image of the future home (and family life in it) could be created by other means. For example, in Podolia put «dry fleece sheep» under the pot on the proposed construction site. If the morning coat under the pot dampen — a place considered appropriate — «the house will be rich» (Dyminsky, 1864, p. 7). A similar symbolism is used in cases where the right to determine the place of used frying pan and a wooden club: a good sign if a frying pan would be dew and a circle — ants (Sumtsov, 1890, p. 88).
The idea of the stay, the addition of something that was missing before (humidity, dew point, the ants with their value thriftiness) as a positive sign in a more intelligible form is present in divination, complicated numerical symbolism: «In the evening, bringing water from the well, and while no one has ever took from bucket of water, a glass measure three times in nine cups, each time starting with the first account, the glasses should be full to the edges, and poured water into the pot, which should be dry and does not involve a drop of water or any moisture, such pots metered water and densely covered put for the night at the place where he built a house, in every corner, scheduled for the post, immediately put a slice of bread and salt, if the water in the morning will be to come, it heralds happiness, if a decrease, and there is no need to build a house on his farm loss «(Dyminsky, 1864, p. 7).
Another idea that is present in one form or another in all of the divination, — the gathering space by concentrating in one place items belonging to different spheres. This idea is perhaps the leading building a house (and more broadly, the development of space-ax, 1983, p. 242), but the first time it appears in the choice of location. Wed another good example. When the «chosen by a mestso syaliby on whether its vyachnini, or chuzhantsy, the landlord collects from four different fields nonsmooth one stone, or is their a cap on his head, or» PS-pazushshu «, with his naked body, puts on a selected location quadrilateral whose side should not be more than nine steps, «zhignaits» place and laid the stone. Entering the same in the middle of the quadrangle, puts his hat on the ground and reads «patsiryu» with the addition of a request to «didam» help «Chosen syalibi.» If after three days the stones intact, «syaliba» well chosen «(Nikiforovsky, 1897, p. 134).
So, the choice is suitable for the construction of space is based on a kind of dialogue with the sphere of foreign, undeveloped. Practical considerations are not declared, since the choice is obviously the number of suitable sites in practice. However, as we have seen, it is critical given the symbolic requirements, consistent with the general considerations about the specifics of man’s relationship to the natural environment in the archaic culture: «… the reasons why different societies choose to use some natural products (and this in turn creates distinctive customs), or to give them up, not only depend on the inherent properties of the product, but also on the symbolic meaning attached to them «(Levi-Strauss, 1983, p. 89, Wed: Roeder, 1976, p. 247 ).
Rituals associated with the installation and construction of salary sacrifice
Direct construction of the house began with the installation of salary. The idea of a salary Zyryan Komi and Komi-Perm at different locations varied: Set the first one or two rims, installing crown, at which subsequently plank floor. In any case, it was considered as particularly important to establish the foundation first gear. In Zyryan Komi landlord before installing to ensure well being of the building erected placed under him in the front corner of the coin, the wing of a wild duck or grouse, and in the next corner — the hornet’s nest or a tuft of wool, a red corner — the first sliver of which is saved with the host early log cabin, under the seat threshold — a handful of flour. In the Komi-Perm at the front corner master puts a few copper coins of various grain crops and sheep wool of different colors. After that, he brought the ants and shake them on the ground next to his offering. If the ants are not immediately fled in different directions, it was thought that the house will be erected very rich and happy, and vice versa.
Under the red corner of the Komi-Perm like Zyryan Komi, puts a first rake and some copper stuff.
During the installation of the salary at Komi Zyryan landlord brought out of the woods with roots dug out a small tree and planted it in a log house, and some were placed in a log house rowan — it was believed that if she take hold, the Committees will be happy. Verhnepechorskie Komi Zyrians limited by the fact that at the time of the erection of the framework established in the center mountain ash stick. In the Komi-Perm Christmas tree, uprooted, not buried, but simply installed on the ground in the front corner of the framework. A similar ceremony was known for building and other Finno-Ugric Peoples (Udmurts Mordovians), and the eastern Slavs. In the construction of salary for house erected necessarily invited a priest, but after the commission of the act of holiness preserve buildings erected took in hand the landlord. When installing the salary he does not take part in the work itself, followed closely by the fact that under the accountant logs do not get caught in negligence carpenters and wood chips. Particularly dangerous for the future health of thought, if the chips, and even more under the salary bear bones put maliciously sorcerer. Therefore the owner of the house keeping an eye out for people who have the reputation of sorcerers, does not come close to the log structure during the construction of the salary. Upon completion of construction works salary interrupted and the landlord arranged for the participants plenty of refreshments. Inside the log haired hostess brought up Staley good sheepskin, laid on her food and drink, the participants took their seats around a festive dinner and started the meal. In this first phase of construction rituals associated with the provision of welfare homes being built «from below» to end.
Eastern Slavs. Actual construction begins with the definition of a ritual center. Normally, such a point recognized middle future dwelling or red (front, holy) angle. Installed here (soot, sticks) sapling. Connection with the concept of a tree of the world tree is not in doubt. This symbol gives a mythological sense not only erected buildings (establishing relations of similarity between its structure and the structure of the cosmos, which is the way the world tree), but the actual process of construction as ascending oplotneniyu, connection areas. The idea of the world tree is directly related so-called construction victim.
Permian under the front corner of a coin, a wing of the grouse or duck under the other — the hornet’s nest, or a tuft of wool, under the threshold — a handful of flour. Thus, this set allows for the assumption of encoding the three spheres of space, arranged vertically. This treatment is particularly significant for the ritual-mythological semantics of the process of erecting a building, sprouting and eventually connect three vertical areas, which is particularly important in connection with the idea of the world tree.
Sacrifice ritual usually combined with laying the first wreath. This operation is emphasized. Usually on this day the carpenters put only one crown, followed by «the accountant» («oblozheynoe» «backfill») feast, during which the carpenters sentence: «The owners of good health, and share home stand until the rot.»
If the owners are willing carpenters future home of evil, and in this case, laying the first wreath — the best time, «Striking a cross on a log with an ax and conceived keeping in mind the damage, the master says,» Gak! Nihal budits so «- and what he’s up, he will surely come to pass. But if one foresees conceived master, he must first scatter crown: then all «klyanbeny» disappear without a trace for future tenants and traded on the master.
And as he was master of the house wants to death, then hitting an ax on the log, it says: «What a number of angles (vyankov), let them budits mirtsvyatsov so much.»
In some placesGrodno provincestart working from the end, where subsequently the red corner. When cutting two logs construction carpenter certainly conjures someone, either a family member, or animals — horses, cows. Of sworn no one will live a long time — will die soon.
Builders always ask them sworn red and black cockroaches and mice. The spell can be transferred to someone else, but it is possible after its utterance, and no later than the end of the first two logs. At this time, you want to see an animal, say his nickname with an ax and hit the junction of the logs — and the house is free from the curse. «Sometimes, especially with young animals, invisible power that they brought to the place of cutting, fall under the blow of an ax, where a spell and turns» from these and similar descriptions shows that placing the first wreath given ritualistic.
Time of laying wreath favorable for approval of future well-being of residents of life, and for their «curse.» Subject victims as sacred building material is further developed. However, the ideas are actualized connection, communication, collection, projected not only on technology development, but also on the nature of family life. In this respect, some curious details bookmark home powered KA Soloviev edge of Dmitrov (Moscow Province): «In the tab where taxed first two crown, put a table on the future site of the front corner, at the table put pock, placed in the front corner money.
First crown attributed deep symbolic content. Crown (or rather, house) divides the space into the home and nedomashnee on internal and external. Should pay attention to one fact is often not considered in the work on the semiotics of space: odomashnivaya and limiting some of the space, the person thus makes the idea of organizing not only in domestic but also in the outer space.
Building a home, man forms and housing, and nezhilische. «Crown» can serve as a classic example of the «framework» as one of the most common ways to limit the space together, for example, with the circle.
Should agree with the TV Tsivyan «that person from the moment of self-consciousness, that is, separation from nature, tends to set boundaries, and how to protect yourself in a closed space.»
This aspect should also not cause confusion ideas Leroi-Gourhan, who believed domestication of space and time (their humanizing) is more important (especially at first) than, for example, the making of tools.
The «humanization» of the space-time is not understood as adaptability to them, and how their understanding, interpretation, giving them iconic (symbolic) properties, which in turn binds to the more undeveloped rhythm problems as the basis for a reasonable mechanism for the domestication of human space and time.
The above general considerations seem essential to understanding Humanized forms of space, the essence of which is housing.
Setting the first row, a man not only implementing a plan to shelter, but also divides the world into two «text» with a completely different meaning. Depending on where a person places himself, inside or outside, it is estimated differently around the world.
Characteristically, when laying the first wreath semanticized primarily indicated opposition:»When in cutting crown rudimentary first chip will fly into the quadrangle, then any profits will come, and not to leave the house», «… All the chips produced in cutting crown first, you need to collect in the middle of the quadrangle, to know what is happening out in the house, but that it was not known on the street that is home.»
It is easy to see that even the direction of movement (inward or outward) is considered the opposite of (in the house — is positive, out of the house — negative), the comparison: «The resin heated with in public on the street — for worse.» In addition, as in any confined space, the idea of the center is updated.
Placed in the center of the framework being built tree intended to symbolize the idea. The crowns are set for a reason, and around the object manifests center.
One can assume that this fact explains much of the term «crown» as a construction term. Correlation of the four walls of the home with the four cardinal is unmistakable. Comparisons:»Windows should certainly be on the» uskhod «and» poudzen, «ie, to the east and south.
Very rarely meets the window to the West — «Sunset», and then everywhere small. The door should be on the «uskhod» and into the yard. » In rare cases, if not guided by orienting the compass, and other conditions, such as prevailing in the area of wind direction in the winter, as it was observed in the southern Ukrainian settlers.
With the same orientation related cases conversion of spatial relationships over time, manifested in such formulas as «hut turned for the summer» or «on the side of noon.» That’s why that half of the home, which faces the east or south, was called «pure», «red», «light», «front» (as well as the wall and one of the corners), and was considered a more habitable, more «humanized «part of the home, which did not prevent in the future ascribe to it the» front «of the space and, as a consequence, the transformation, in fact, the least populated part.
In general in relation to the problem of orientation would like to emphasize thatorientation of the home — it’s not so much the home side correlation with the parties of light as the inclusion of a system corresponds to the spatial-temporal, social, religious, economic, mythological, cosmological, economic and social life; inclusion in the symbolism of color and symbolism of numbers.In connection with this it should be noted a steady habit to put an odd number of rims:»The peasant hut crowns always even, from 19 to 21″, which may be related to the universal concepts of an odd number of worlds, arranged vertically.In this case, putting up walls becomes cosmic meaning as one of the transformations of the act of creation.
Rites and rituals — Housewarming
Start building a house in the ancient Slavs was associated with a complex ritual and ceremonies, and prevents the opposition from the evil forces. The most dangerous period is moving to a new house and start living in it. It was assumed that the «evil forces» would seek to prevent future welfare Novosel. Because until the mid XIX century, in many parts of Russia remained and performed an ancient ritual oberezhny:
Taking off clothes before dawn hostess naked avoided a new house and uttered the sentence: «I will set the iron fence around the yard, so that through this fence or ferocious beast leaped or reptile not crawled or frail people not stepped foot timber and grandfather through him looked. Goi! «.
To give added force destroyed, the woman should have been head over heels three times to turn over in goal, saying: «Give to sort the fruit in a new home increased. Goi! «.
It all started with the search for a location and building materials. Based on ethnographic data of XIX century, there were many ways of divination when choosing a home. Sometimes in the area put the pot with the spider. And if it’s for the night began to spin a web, it was considered a good sign. In some places on the alleged plot in a small hole put pot of honey. And if it were collected goose — the place was considered lucky. Choosing a safe place for construction, often initially produced cow and waited while she lies on the ground. Wherever she went, it was considered a success for the future house. And in some places the future owner had to collect four stones from different fields and put them on the ground in the form of a quadrangle, in which he put his hat on the ground and read the plot. After that, you had to wait three days, and the stones were intact, the place was considered successful candidate.Belarusiansthere is a popular claim that the house is not in any way can not be built on the disputed land, because it could bring the curse of the lost the argument and then the new owner of such land can not see happiness for ever. Also note that the house was never built on the spot where they found human bones or where someone cut his hand or foot.
No less difficult was the process of choosing a tree. Considered the best trees, cut down in the last quarter of the moon. Most often, the forest cut down in March or April, as spring juice makes the wood stronger. There were many obstacles, such as the inside-weathered wood. The peasants believed that the tree twisted hell for himself and the construction of it may move to a new home. One tree, hanging on another, foreshadowed the fire, the house, built of wood creaking, catching up on the owners death or painful cough, and a tree with a black heart could cause all kinds of illness and misfortune.
Finally, when the trees are cut down suitable, it’s time to go over with moss. Incidentally, this was very important and not easy. Each day, starting Monday, the week of the owner came to the forest, tore a handful of moss and leaves it to the pure land. On Sunday, he looked, under which of the piles of moss no midges and worms, and on that day, which was thwarted by this bunch, and we should harvest moss. All of these elaborate preparations were intended to house not start different bugs.
After that started to lay the foundation for which it was impossible to use the sand and stones from the cemetery. Only this time the cause of the carpenters were taken. Their work has also been associated with various rituals. Was widely distributed custom: when laying the first wreath to hide the corner coins (for wealth), away from demons, slices of bread and cheese, and sometimes the head rooster — a kind donation of houses. After the erection of a log house cut cock and sprayed blood on the four corners, and then buried it under the door. All chips were collected from the first crown inside to what will happen on the street, they knew the house, but what is happening in the house, it would be known in the street. It was also decided to put under the four corners of the hallowed grass to protect the house from lightning. In those ancient times, people believed that lightning pursue nechistikov who like to hide in the corners, especially if there is nothing sanctified. During the construction of the house between the others laid wreaths as silver coins and herbscollected on Ivan Kupala.
After the erection of the roof began an internal arrangement of the house and the first thing in the house built oven. Hostcollect manure(Crowd), which was called in the mostly young people, and together they laid the oven. Construction in the manure was progressing quickly, with jokes and quips, after which the owner always treated all the assistants.
When the oven is fueled for the first time, it covered nine handfuls of grain, of which the walls were covered with gloss, which subsequently did not stick smoke.
And then, finally, you can begin to celebrate the housewarming. In the old days people change not only the house, but the whole space, and in this space, it was important for all: Can you see the horizon, sunrise and sunset, the road to look through, and the next was thicker than water, the neighbor was a nice, convenient, and horse and skotinkoy necessary. And as the house itself — the center of this space, the most sacred place, tested many times. What if the construction material is not got one, carpenters do not please, but they are «evil» timber planted, a man with an evil eye and evil eye was not settled whether the evil of someone’s jealousy?
Rituals enter the house began this week. Feeling safe houses, on the first night were allowed into the house cat and the cat if all was well, carrying a rooster and a hen, on the third day, a pig, a sheep in the following days, a cow and a horse. Birds and animals are very sensitive and thus show host, «good» if the place. And only on the seventh day the people settled in the house. It has long been noticed that someone in the house is the first, and the first to die. First incoming takes care of all the evil that may be present in the new location, or become a victim of the felled trees to build. And if the family were «tired of life» old men, they who were the first. If it was not old, invited a stranger, not a believer of any feature of any god, but later began to invite a German pharmacist or doctor, a German, who belonged to such orders as a game. Although, in some places were limited to running in the house of a rooster. If he crowed, it was a good sign.
Great cleaning power has bread, grains and especially trough (wooden tub for the test). First because sometimes could enter the host with the hands kneading dough for him — the hostess with the chicken, then there was the young. Check the family accompanied by rituals transfer of fire from the old housing and relocation of houses from the old podpechya (baked) in the new. Brownie enticing and inviting, «Brownie! Brownie! Come with me. » Or the owner, standing at the gate and bowing on three sides, proclaimed: «Father and Mother Brownie Brownie, Father and Mother Yard Yard with all the family, come to our new home to live with us!». Brownie with heat transferred from the furnace to the «bread shovel», with a pot of porridge, or in the boots. Then the hostess cut from a loaf of bread loaf and put the first of his «under the stove,» I welcome the houses.
Into the house on a string, rope or belt. All of these items — the symbols of time, life, life that bind families. Brought with them and the water, and mead (mead), tried to grab them from the old house into the new and share. Believes that the share is not only the man but the hut. Transfer of shares reflected in the fact that the previous place for ferrying some new «characters outdated»: domestic statues of gods, amulets, fire hearth, house and even a basket of dirty manure out of the crib. Carried undercooked porridge and cook a little longer to put right straight to the next fire.
All these rituals are committed by people who have children, pregnant women, healthy and mature, to promote the wealth of spoil, many children in the new home.
Moved into the house in the afternoon or early in the morning, that is, the strong light. The happiest day for the move was considered on September 1 — the day of Rosh Hashanah, the day of the winter light the fire (light the stove in the house after the summer). The first came in the house and the owner was carrying a pot of charcoal, which he enclosed with the walls, and then put on pripechek and kindled fire in the furnace. Then went into the house with the rest of the family household utensils. Entering into a new barn cattle owner was represented by its houses. Otherwise, it was believed that the animal does not get accustomed to a new place and die. If once the house was built bath, before the first furnace welcomed Bannik (this is considered necessary) left him a slice of rye bread, sprinkled with salt, perfumed bath herbs, bundles of dried herbs hung ceiling.
To cleanse the future dwelling usually carpeted floor sacred herbs. Torched chaga, celandine and thistles. Made «fumigation» — going around the house with juniper and sagebrush. Inside the house, doing the consecration by torch or candle, bypassing perimeter clockwise — around. Cleaned house plots, rituals and ceremonies. But the greatest strength of purification — is fun and laughter. That’s why the holidays are accompanied by feasts and songs. Ability to laugh creator gave only being reasonable — man. Cheerful laughter — a powerful way to combat the darkness. In Russia, the laughter of children under 12 years old are considered pure healing, protecting.
After housewarming comes time to meet the guests. Particular emphasis was placed on the very first guest, it is desirable that this was a man economic in charge, decent, kind, and beautiful. Knowing this custom, this will take care of neighbors and friends. Then begins the feast. Entering the house, guests put money on the oven, the bread and salt — on the table, corn — on the bench. Women portrayed the hostess fleece, blankets, tablecloths, flour, cereals, eggs and bacon. In some places it is customary to give something sweet — honey, sugar, or anything from baking. Some guests bring live chickens, ducks, rabbits, coming, ran into the house.
When all the guests gathered, started feast. Put on the table the bread and salt in solonitsah. Cakes presaged good relations with its neighbors, «Do not buy a yard, buy a neighbor.» Staged chicken dishes — a symbol of many children, and profits. After the feast, each guest host gave something near the «conic» — stove. Feast led the funniest and most clever of the guests. In between singing and dancing. If the owners were newlyweds, from time to time any of the guests came up to the bed and checked her for strength, accompanying all Privolny jokes. Not without hilarious comments and tips from men for a young man.
As was customary in Russia at all times, it was decided to treat the guests as possible. Owners do not want anyone was unhappy and wanted to harm the family. Also, consider that you can not be greedy for Housewarming, or the house will not be income. Diverged guests late owners wishing health and happiness in a new home.
But finally habitable and sanctified hut was considered only after the marriage, birth or death, after experiencing with the house of an important event in the life of the family.