What is the language spoken in medieval Sweden?

So. Oration on the death of Charles XI. 1697. 36,2 x 25,5. Uppsala University Library. Collected Palmkiold, 15 ….

«Placzewnaja recz na pogrebenie togho prez segho welemozneiszago i wysokorozdennagho knjazja i ghossudarja Karolusa odinatsetogho swidskich, gothskich i wandalskich korola, slavnagho, blaghogowennagho i milostiwagho naszego ghossudaja, nynjeze u bogha spasennagho. Kogda jegho korolewskogo weliczestwa ot duszi ostawlennoe tjelo, s podobajuszczjusae korolewskoju scestju, i serserdecznym wsich poddannych rydaniem byst pogrebenno w Stokolnje dwatset-scetwertago nowemrja ljeta ot woploszczenia bogha slowa 1697. "

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Who has not read it, read it for yourself:

"Deplorable speech at the burial of this prezh velmozhneyshago and vysokorozhdennago prince and emperor Carolus eleventh Swedish, Goth and Vandal (and other) King slavnago, blagoslovennago milostivago and our sovereign (here a misprint: instead of a letter written R J), but now is the god spasennago . When His Majesty the soul left the body with the proper royal honor, and the heart of all subjects sob byst buried in the glass (so it appears, called Stockholm XVII century, there was at that time the development of glass production), this twenty-fourth of November flight from translating God's word in 1697. "
Well, as you ancient Europe (Old World), who spoke in Russian until 1697? Given that writing in Sweden until the 17th century was the Cyrillic ….

SVENSKMOL (or Swedish or language SVEONOV) at that time, which will be discussed below, was still called SVEYSKA MOLA (joviality of speech), had his own, northern aboriginal dialect (NASA or NORRENTMOL), is very different from the language of the court nobility (the official language ), or the language of the Empire. It even, as in the other Nordic languages, to this day remain purely Russian suffixes such as-SK-, for example, RUSSISK, or SVENSK, or NORSK. And to understand the marginal people of the Empire at the time, which will be discussed here, even without an interpreter, could any of her subjects. For example, the Russian forces period of so-called Northern War landed on the island of Gotland, and talked with local in Russian. And it is — a well-known fact. Delivered at NORS phrase: «Jak tvart jesmo videmn (vidur)» translated as "I target that seems" or "I esm what I see." In short, "in box myself clear northern speaking" …

And in the Old Norse language had still remained very many words with a purely Russian roots. For example: Norwegian seek (stream, brook, rapids), it is closer to the strings tend Strom and not as they say — SHTRAUMEN.

Or here's another word — GATE (street). The fact that in the northern countries the streets of coastal cities paved with boards and beams — like wading GATEY. Hence the etymological connection. As well, the word is preserved in Danish — GATA, and in Latvian — GATVE, and in Estonian — KATU.

Norse BATTE (R) — the letter «R» unreadable — FATHER (Dad) and not FADER and FAR, as they say now. The old Norwegian mother — is the subway (in Voronezh Russia for example and now appeal to the mother — MATRA), corresponds to modern Norwegian MOR (read — MUR) … By the way, as well as Spanish or German MADRE MUTTER they originate from the ancient goddess of the wise, Mother of all Slavic gods).

Engaging in self-study of northern languages, I caught a characteristic pattern that eludes anyone who is still at the very beginning of studying the northern languages, from edition to edition of all the dictionaries are gradually withdrawn from the Russian word root foundation … and replaces the word with a Latin root basis Official … linguistics rests on the fact that, say, living in Scandinavia formed the Veneti in ancient times with the Slavs some common cultural and linguistic community, language is closer to the Latins. In part, this may be true, I do not presume to argue with the luminaries of linguistics. But the fact that in today's newspeak Norwegian (nyuno (p) wk), made up of hundreds of local dialects, carefully removed the "Russian" word — it's a fact … And if you do that for some reason can not: one argument — these words are not "Russian" root base, and … "Indo-European". Or — it is absolutely out of the ordinary — they (the word) these hundred dialects were somehow taken from the Russian … It is curious how, in this way? Through word of mouth? If you take into account the very complex geophysical location of the landscape of the country and features, so you can predpolodzhit that people inhabited it for a thousand years ago were bezspornymi innovator of media and … moved in the Russian words … well, as is done by the same TV , the Internet or the radio, finally.

In Norwegian adjective MEKTIGE (MIGHTY) is derived from the noun MEKT, but it is nothing like ours can (root one — ICB = MGT … only in Russian — from voicing of consonants in the middle of the word, because the same vowel sounds in linguistics have no no value). No — wise scribblers of academic science would argue in favor of some mythical (right), the Indo-European language. If, as such, they would be subject to Sanskrit — it will simply not serious, because the latter — with its many dialects — in India has never been a language of communication, but caste, used exclusively priestly caste of ancient Aryans, our ancestors, and was, again, did Russian base. The most complete dictionary nyunorshk — dictionary Berkova — numbering nearly 300,000 words and entries already contains a few original staroskandinavskoy malls … Meanwhile, even some hundred years ago, or any resident of the Lofoten deaf mountain valley in the east understood by Russian …

The question posed in the title, at first sight puzzling. Seems to be — clear case. Wrote and made a speech in Swedish. And how could it be otherwise?! Indeed, in the Swedish capital solemnly bury the King of Sweden. But let's not jump to conclusions. Let's turn to official documents. We find a lot of interesting things.

In 1697 the Swedish King Charles dies XI. His solemn burial service and buried in Stockholm, Sweden. Naturally, for the funeral ceremony was written by a special funeral oration. It was read at the confluence of the Swedish court. Moreover, a court official Ceremonies. We are told the following: "The author (of speech) was a Swedish linguist and collector of books Sparvenfeld Johan Gabriel (1655-1727), three years of living in Moscow. Sparvenfeld kept his «Placzewnuju recz» in connection with the funeral of Charles XI … While Sparvenfeld was court master of ceremonies. "

Now give us the answer to the question. Amazingly, the eulogy was written and read in Russian. Now it's been, as part of Scaliger version of the story, it looks absolutely ridiculous. Otherwise, do not tell. After all, we are told that "not a Russian," in considerable extent, outside of Romanov Russia in the XVII century was not. And even more so in Sweden, with which Russia fought often. Relations with Sweden were at that time complex, sometimes hostile. Say, Sweden — alien state, far from us culture and history, very different "ancient" language, etc. "Nothing Russian", and even more so HIGH-official level. However, as it turns to be the true picture of the XVII century was different. Moreover, significant other. Shocking — but only from a modern point of view — the fact pronouncing RUSSIAN funeral oration at the official ceremony of the Swedish king's funeral in the Swedish capital, in the presence SWEDISH court today needs immediate explanation. Modern historians, of course, understand that perfectly. That is why, I think, they are trying not to draw attention to this amazing fact. It's clear that in the comments of the Swedish funeral oration, written in Russian, but in Latin letters, historians immediately offered his "explanation". It looks like this:

"The reason that it was written in Russian, probably lies in the desire to make it understandable FOR RUSSIAN succumbed to the Swedish king."

Remarkable "scientific" "explanation"! Do not know whether to laugh or cry? Whether the authors of this miracle of his readers for idiots keep, or they do not understand that they themselves appear as such …

We must say, this interpretation raises many questions. It turns out that in the XVII century Russian citizens in Sweden was so much for them that the ruling elite had to pronounce a eulogy in memory of the King of Sweden in Russian! So perhaps this very tip of the Swedish society, to know the royal court, consisted at that time still largely descendants of Slavs who lived and ruled not so long ago in the whole of Great = "Mo (n) golskoy" Empire XIV-XVI centuries. About the Empire, which was carefully erased from the pages of edited sources, but the traces of which, however, are found everywhere — including in Sweden today — will try to put a separate post soon. This empire was called at that time still the Grand Tartary (Grand Tartarie) or Mongol-Tatars or Great Tartary, from the distorted Greek — MEGALION, which means huge, and tartar … and this vidilos exquisitely pampered Hellenic-Roman civilization of the Mediterranean all our postgiperboreyskoe The heritage to such an unspeakably vast space. As part of our reconstruction of the picture is clear and simple. Until the late XVII century in Sweden has maintained many of the traditions of the Great, read "Mo (n) golskoy" Empire. There was still a lot of people who spoke in Russian. FIRST OF RULING IN SWEDEN RUSSIAN-Orda to know. Most likely, these people were many and at the Swedish court, in direct, immediate surroundings Swedish kings XVII century. Maybe some of the Swedish era rulers themselves have continued to speak in Russian. But in the XVII century, the countries of Western Europe has swept the breakaway rebellion Reformation. The new rulers reformers began to retrain people breakaway land with Slavic language to new languages, just invented by the Reformers. In particular, quickly came up and Swedish. Clearly, demagogically declaring it "a very, very old" to be authoritative. Invented languages and other subjects, "Mongol" Empire, living at that time in Scandinavia. Invented on the basis of local dialects and old Slavonic Empire XIV-XVI centuries. Introduced a new language at school and began to teach the young and rising generation. In particular, instead of the old Cyrillic began to implement the recently introduced the Latin alphabet. Therefore, the Swedish official eulogy memory Swedish King wrote STILL IN RUSSIAN, but Roman letters. Here we are faced with a process of active repression of the Slavic languages, including from Scandinavia, newly-invented languages of the Reformation. Slavic language declared in Western and Northern Europe XVII century "language the occupiers." For completeness, we give the full name of his funeral oration on the death of the King of Sweden, and the comments of historians. Long title speech written in Russian, but the Latin alphabet. The text is easy to read.

Oration on the death of Charles XI IN RUSSIAN. 1697. 36,2 x 25,5. Uppsala University Library. Collected Palmkiold, 15.

Printed text IN RUSSIAN, but transcribed in Latin letters, preserved in the code of the Library of Uppsala University, beginning on page 833 of this code and takes eight pages. Yet another instance is stored in the Royal Library in Stockholm. Text is the deplorable speech by Karl XI in Russian. Followed by six pages of his speech — also in Russian. And it ends with a poem of praise for the dead king. ALSO IN RUSSIAN. The author's name is not mentioned, but the last line of his speech is written: «Jstinnym Gorkogo Serdsa Finikom» — the first letters of words printed in capital letters, which are the initials of the author. The author was a Swedish linguist and collector of books Johan Gabriel Sparvenfeld. "

On the front page you read:

Placzewnaja recz na pogrebenie togho prez segho welemozneiszago i wysokorozdennagho knjazja i ghossudarja Karolusa odinatsetogho swidskich, gothskich i wandalskich (i proczaja) korola, slavnagho, blaghogowennagho i milostiwagho naszego ghossudaja (!), Nynjeze u bogha spasennagho. Kogda jegho korolewskogo weliczestwa ot duszi ostawlennoe tjelo, s podobajuszczjusae korolewskoju scestju, i serserdecznym wsich poddannych rydaniem byst pogrebenno w Stokolnje (!) Dwatset-scetwertago nowemrja ljeta ot woploszczenia bogha slowa 1697

Hands up those who have not read this text? None of them? Congratulations, you have just passed the exam on the Swedish!

We now give the name of the Swedish language, written in Russian, replacing the text in its original Russian letters.

"Deplorable speech at the burial of this prezh velmozhneyshago and vysokorozhdennago prince and emperor Carolus eleventh Swedish, Goth and Vandal (and other) King slavnago, blagoslovennago milostivago and our sovereign (here a misprint: instead of a letter written R J), but now is the god spasennago . When His Majesty the soul left the body with the proper royal honor, and the heart of all subjects sob byst buried in the glass (so it appears, called Stockholm in the XVII century, probably there at the time was the development of glass production), this twenty-fourth of November of summer the Incarnation of God the Word 1697?.

Chances are, at first, people in western and northern Europe a great disadvantage when forced to writing new Russian words in Latin letters. Take, for example, record a Russian-u-Latin. It turned awkward-SZCZ-. However, forced. People wince, but wrote. Then gradually accustomed. Children do not experience difficulties, being taught by a childhood. Soon all were convinced that "it has always been, from time immemorial." That was a complete lie. So began only in the XVII century. And before that, and said in Russian, and written in Cyrillic. Do not frown. This is it — the real origin of European languages! Back in the XVI century, the whole vast area of Eurasia was just spoken Russian (and even in some recognized sources naidostoverneyshimi this actually just written). And then in Europe decided that they urgently need their national languages, and created them in two stages. First introduced the Latin alphabet to write still Russian words, and then changed the rules of reading / pronunciation — resulting in a couple of generations to get what we have today, when the same word in different European languages sometimes read very differently. But at the core, again, it was Russian.

Afterword

I quote here a photocopy of one of the Swedish-text books, written in a dialect, 1526 edition (as put forward by one of the opponents of the Russian version of the history of denial that the Swedish language was something not having little or no difference from the old Slavic language of the Empire) .

In fact, the language of the document looks in a modern Swedish … Anyway, I have some scraps of distinct words here very close to it … However, it should be noted that the inscription Trettonde Capitel or Trinnnadtsataya head — there is a phrase in Latin as the word … Apofila … And these borrowings from Latin, not an accident. It's not even just drawing … In the modern Swedish, but the words of Latin origin (this is a special language, whether he was in fact alive or even the language was created only as the language of worship, that is — artificially) does a lot of these here Italian and Latin words (eg, aventyr (story) … or in Norwegian — eventyr (eventyur, ventyr an article with sticky «e»), that like it or not, is the "adventure", "adventure"), so that there is even sense the hand of reformers, the Jesuits.

In this regard it is interesting is a similar story and the fate of Romanian language. Its modern grammar compiled by the Jesuits from Transylvania. Replaced 50% of the words of Slavic and Turkic origin in Latin and Italian. For example, the same word KUSTUL (CASTLE) — from the Latin Castillo or CASTILLO (also included and in other languages, the same English as CASTLE) replaced ZAMEK own … and the expression EU NU CRED (I do not believe) and it is in I NO CREO Spanish and Italian I NON CREDO (specifically written with no errors), but even now 30% of the words in the Romanian — Slavic (officially). In fact — a lot more. Mass of words strangely changed and transformed, some have not "digested". In Spanish, for example, now uses the neologism BISABUELO (grandfather) and BISABUELA (great-grandmother), both of which are formed from the Latin BIS (TWICE) plus Abuelo / a (grandfather / grandmother), these same Spanish name — TATARABUELO and TATARABUELA. And that's hohlyatski Tsibulya that in Italian CHIPPOLLO — equally will bow only different dialects (Everyone saw hope map Grand — Ta (p) tarii? Spain, Italy, Turkey, North Indian subcontinent, North China, part of North America , Scandinavia and the rest of Eastern Europe — all in it once — not so long ago — was to …) And here add, as they say, nothing. That's it, changing the language, you can rewrite history … As they say, hlopzi shyi VI budete? … Or — budjete … Just maybe Swedes call "Swedes" other Russian subjects of the Empire would have been at that time is not correct. Svei — probably so correct. So they were called. That is — their own. Cvoi guys like … We were equally bad relations with Denmark, although there have been some cross-border disputes, in particular, on demarcation of land on the border of Karelia to Sweden. (The self-same Swedes — sveony. A country — Sverige, in honor of the winning clan Swierk (r'ov)). Well SVEI — is just well coincided accord, that was attached … Well, like the gypsy purportedly related to the people of Qi, who lived on the banks of the Ganges, and shall cleave to them with the name of an occult sect ATSINGANI, then acting in Romee (in Byzantium ).

If it were not for Peter, the changeling, the Jesuit henchman collapsed empire, as entrusted to it and would have been, and Sweden is now our (and Norway combined). The whole of the Northern War and the start of something against the king-impostor. When the son of the Peter, persuaded Charles (friend of the king) is like an impostor move … I wonder why after returning from the Great Embassy, no one recognized Lzhepetr immediately got rid of the environment? Wife, even without seeing the monastery shut, children present Peter executed. KaznilAlekseya, charged in connection with the very Jesuits, that by itself, the dog Jesuit, suspected of having links with the Order of the nasty take, this daughter of Peter to the city gates in a shirt to the crowd hung; massacre archers gave … Yes, because only they could would be easy to prove who knew him from childhood, that the king — not real! It simply replaced during that embassy. Or — which seems very very unlikely — zombie. But if it were not for some external changes that have taken place with Peter on his return to the version with the zombies do little plausible. Peter was not present Russophobe. Loved all Slavic. Was shorter. And never went to sea before the open. In sailing directions did not understand, marine science, not fumbling. Loved without memory his first wife … and back — this "Dogs" … with much darker skin tone, dark somehow, without the attendant always flush with the birthmark … (!), Whom he has never had a spawn, evil and unbalanced psychopath with silly fads (like the one that sleep in the closet.) And besides — with a chronic disease such as dengue fever or malaria, which can only pick up in the hot tropics to the north of it and did not think the Embassy sent! The very Embassy instead of two alleged months delayed for almost two years … The participation of this Peter could only sympathize … He apparently was transferred to the French Bastille … where he was subsequently tortured and killed immediately after the Great Northern War … after the rejection of vast areas of the Empire: the same Sweden, Turkey, Northern Indian subcontinent and Central Asia … Something real Peter knew that he was trying to break out of power in the form of recognition under interrogation …

And about "The deplorable speech" …

Such documents as of Uppsala University Library is complete and in other closed libraries. Is in Russia. In St. Petersburg, Russia. Any student, not what the professor enough to come to your dean's office, take sravku-relationship with his chair (Scandinavian) and then go to the Public Library in St. Petersburg. Make a request with a reference to any official report, drawn some Stockholm Bar (at the time) … and you will be given at the hands (without the fan, of course) a lot of diverse waste: instances of notary statements, divorce, burial, arbitration award etc. etc. — All in Russian, and all there, from that time. So it is not only in one of Sweden's all there, as well-known comedy character would say … Oh and of course you can to the university in Poland and the Baltic states in the university search. They also spread Scandinavian influence long. Although … if not destroyed traces, then close and would not let … Estonia for 20 years does not want to speak in Russian and Poland — and even more …

After 100 years of commercials with a little, and no one will know that the official language in these countries was also Russian … Russian subjects as the Kingdom of Sweden — in Sweden — and were Swedes themselves. At that time, all those who lived in the territory of the Empire (not Muscovy), considered Russian citizens (not the Muscovites) … And a neologism as "Russian" (subjects) — for citizens — came after. Opponents RUSSIAN version of the story (or the opponents of pan-Slavic version of the story), appeal to that driven by a "burial speech," the phrase "IN RUSSIAN" immediately de-evident … In their view — I quote: "the mere presence of the name of the document specification: "… IN RUSSIAN" — an indication that it was declared in a different language — sveyskom in this case! "which, in general, no more like a logical conclusion, and the usual gypsy zabaltyvanie. Sweden then belonged to Finland, Eastern Pomerania, Livonia, which were home to the foreign-language nations: Poles, Germans, Lithuanians … and large Russian diaspora. Indeed, in the Baltic countries for centuries have always lived in Slavic, Russian, population (Lithuanians themselves and their ancestors — slavyanizirovannye Letto-Lithuanians) And according to these that the opponents RUSSIAN version of the story and it turns out that — as already stated in the article — though deplorable it was specifically written for this very Russian community … who lived far away from the place of the funeral of the deceased. Argument iron, do not say anything! Yes, there are some who, without being able to confirm this nonsense documentary, is taken to certify that the deplorable it was also written and all other languages were current among the subjects of the Kingdom. Here are some of their words:

"It is quite natural on the part of the Swedish government's dissemination and communication of a speech for propaganda purposes, to all citizens of the Kingdom of Sweden, including to the Russian! .. Most likely, these translations, but with more details: "… IN GERMAN LANGUAGE", "… in Polish", "… in the Lithuanian language," etc., were also distributed on the outskirts of the kingdom … "

Then why (and this is, strangely, not even occurred to them) made public, then it was still in RUSSIAN? Is not it strange? The official version is not even refutes and gives his explanation: that, while there was a large influx of Russian guests from the outskirts of the capital of the Kingdom of Sweden. The question is, what kind of force pulling them back … and what is so dear to them was the King of Sweden to the Russian people that they brought down the shaft at the funeral? And why, in any such propaganda, it was necessary to introduce all the subjects with the text farewell speech at the funeral? Also read out already after some amount of time (given that the transmission rate at the time was not comparable with the current capabilities) it has just lost its relevance … Nationals would have been enough to know — on any market place or area — that "the king is dead, long live the king. "

No copies of "The deplorable speech" on any other language does not exist and could not exist. A speech made public either on the "Swedish" or in Russian.

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